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htm

Prof: Brian Weatherson

brian at weatherson dot net (preferred method of contact)

TA: to be determined

Office hours for each to be determined

I have two aims for the course. By the end of the course you should be able to:

Ò Carry out proofs in a powerful formal system; and

Ò Be familiar with many of the logical concepts you will need for completing

any non-logic subject in a philosophy graduate course.

These two aims are in some tension. If I just cared about the first, I would

spend all our time working with (more or less) uninterpreted formal systems,

and seeing who could master the most complicated proofs. (For a little sample

of what I would try and have you do, try exercise 13.51 in LPL without using

any of the Con rules.) If I just cared about the second, I would focus on things

like the informal reasoning discussed in chapter 5 of LPL, and then leave the

book for a more extended discussion of concepts like necessity and provability.

Since I care about both these things, I will try and balance these aims as much

as possible.

The primary textbook for the course, as you probably know by now, is:

Jon Barwise and John Etchemendy, Language, Proof and Logic. CSLI

Press, 2002.

This book will be (and has been) referred to as LPL in these notes, and in most

notes I distribute. The first eleven or so weeks of the course will be heavily

based around this book, though I may distribute some supplemental notes on

various topics when they become salient.

In the notes, as well as listing the reading for each class, I note the

exercises from the book I expect you to do (and turn in!) before each Monday

class. These should be considered more important than the reading. Logic is not

1 of 8 7/1/2008 11:01 PM

Syllabus for PHIL231: Introduction to Deductive Logic http://brian.weatherson.org/231Syllabus.htm

like other parts of philosophy; you cannot passively learn it. (More precisely,

you will get even less out of a logic course if you try to passively learn it than

you would get out of courses in metaphysics, or ethics, or other areas – not that

passive learning is particularly encouraged in those areas either.)

As you will have noticed already, the textbook is a text/software

package. One implication of this is that many of the exercises can be (and

should be) submitted electronically. One problem is that people who bought

second hand textbooks may not be able to submit work electronically. Since

the bookshop was advised not to sell second-hand books, hopefully this won’t

be a serious problem. If it is a serious problem, let me know and we’ll try and

work out a new arrangement.

At the end of the course we will do a small section on extending what

we’ve learned to deal with counterfactual and modal claims. These concepts

are very important throughout philosophy and may be the most useful things

you’ll learn in this course. For this section we will use David Velleman’s

web-based textbook Blogic, available at

http://www-personal.umich.edu/~velleman/Logic/

We’ll be looking mainly at chapter 4, but since Velleman uses slightly different

notation to LPL, we’ll have to spend a little time getting up to speed on his

notation.

Grading System

Regular submitted work: 60%

Midterm test: 10%

Final test: 30%

For each week’s classes I list reading and exercises. The reading should be done

before the relevant week, or at the latest during the week we are discussing the

material in class. The work is due by 8 a.m. the following Monday (if to be

done electronically) or the following Monday’s class (if to be done on paper).

You can (and where possible should) do the work while doing the reading, but

in some cases it will be difficult, and you will want to wait until hearing my

2 of 8 7/1/2008 11:01 PM

Syllabus for PHIL231: Introduction to Deductive Logic http://brian.weatherson.org/231Syllabus.htm

pearls of wisdom before doing the work. But there will often be too much work

to be done on the weekend, and you will need to do some of the exercises after

Monday’s and Wednesday’s classes in order to keep the workload manageable.

In the work section of the syllabus I list a series of numbers; these are exercises

from LPL.

NB: Many of the terms in the syllabus will probably be rather unfamiliar to

you if you haven’t taken a logic course before. Some will be unfamiliar even if

you have. This is a common problem in technical courses - see any advanced

mathematics syllabus for similar examples. But that doesn’t mean that it isn’t a

problem. If you want any of the terms explained in more detail, let me know.

3 of 8 7/1/2008 11:01 PM

Syllabus for PHIL231: Introduction to Deductive Logic http://brian.weatherson.org/231Syllabus.htm

Week One: August 27

Aims and nature of course

The textbook and the software

Syntax of atomic sentences in FOL

Reading: Introduction, Sections 1.1-1.3 of LPL

Work (due August 30): 1.1-1.6

Syntax of functional notation, arithmetic and set theory

Alternative notations

Tarski’s World program

Validity and soundness

Fitch-style proofs, and the program Fitch

Proofs using identity

Demonstrating non-consequence

Reading: Chapters 1 and 2 of LPL

Work (due September 6): 1.9-11, 2.1, 2.15-2.21

Three Boolean connectives (and, or, not)

Role of parenthesis in removing ambiguity

Important equivalences between Boolean sentences

Use of truth tables in determining: truth conditions, tautologies, equivalence,

validity, invalidity

Reading: Chapter 3 and Sections 4.1-4.5 of LPL

Work (due September 13): 3.1-3.3, 3.5-3.18, 3.20-3.22, 4.1-4.9, 4.12-4.19, 4.24

4 of 8 7/1/2008 11:01 PM

Syllabus for PHIL231: Introduction to Deductive Logic http://brian.weatherson.org/231Syllabus.htm

Some important informal patterns of reasoning: argument by cases, indirect

proof

Arguments with inconsistent premises

Formal proofs using Boolean connectives

Rules for conjunction

Rules for disjunction

Rules for negation

The nature of subproofs

Reading: Chapters 5 and 6 of LPL

Work (due September 20): 5.1, 5.3, 5.6, 5.8, 5.9, 5.20, 5.26, 6.1-6.9, 6.12,

6.18-6.20

Elimination rules for the material conditional

Introduction rules for the material conditional

Important equivalences of statements containing conditionals

Important types of proof

Reading: Chapter 7 and section 8.1 of LPL

Work (due September 27): 7.1-7.8, 7.10-7.19, 7.25-7.28, 8.1-8.3, 8.8, 8.16

Soundness and completeness

Review

Class Test – in class on October 1 – 45 minute test on all the material in Unit

One.

Reading: Chapter 8 of LPL

Work (due October 4): 8.18-8.25, 8.41-8.43

5 of 8 7/1/2008 11:01 PM

Syllabus for PHIL231: Introduction to Deductive Logic http://brian.weatherson.org/231Syllabus.htm

Week Seven: October 4-8

Introducing the two central quantifiers: $ and"

Syntax for the quantifiers

Semantics for the quantifiers

Translating complex English sentences into quantified sentences

Quantifiers and Gricean implicature

Multiple quantifiers in a single sentence

Reading: Sections 9.1-9.7 and 11.1-2 of LPL

Work (due October 13): 9.16, 9.19, 11.13-11.15, 11.45

(Note the short week due to Fall Break)

Propositional Logic and Predicate Logic

First-Order validity

Some important equivalences in first-order logic

Informal introduction to the quantifier rules

Reading: Sections 10.1-10.4 of LPL

Work (due October 18): 10.1, 10.8, 10.9, 10.22-10.29

Rules of proof for the universal quantifier

Rules of proof for the existential quantifier

Proof strategies for quantified logic

Reading: Chapter 13 of LPL

Work (due October 25): 13.23-13.31, 13.49-13.52

(Note the short week due to my being away at a conference)

6 of 8 7/1/2008 11:01 PM

Syllabus for PHIL231: Introduction to Deductive Logic http://brian.weatherson.org/231Syllabus.htm

Properties of relations

Semantics for quantified logic

Models for first-order logic

Reading: Sections 15.1-5 and 18.1-2 of LPL

Work (due November 1): 15.4-6, 15.11-13, 15.22, 15.29-35

(Note the short week due to my being away at a conference)

Soundness proof for rules of FOL

Reading: Sections 18.1-3 of LPL

Work (due November 8): 18.7-9, 18.14-17

Numerical quantification

Russell’s theory of definite descriptions

Conservativity, Monotonicity and Persistence

Review of Predicate Logic

Reading: Chapter 14 of LPL

Work (due November 15): 14.1-5, 14.8-9, 14.13, 14.26, 14.28, 14.51, 14.56

7 of 8 7/1/2008 11:01 PM

Syllabus for PHIL231: Introduction to Deductive Logic http://brian.weatherson.org/231Syllabus.htm

Week Thirteen: November 15-19

Survey of Velleman’s notation

The differences between counterfactual and regular conditionals

Possible worlds diagrams

Subjunctive Conditionals

Reading: Sections 4.0-4.2 of BLogic

Work (to be assigned)

Complex Counterfactuals

Reading: Sections 4.3-4.6 of BLogic, and notes to be distributed

(Note that there’s no class on Wednesday December 1 due to my being away at

a conference)

Logical Relations

Representing other modal operators using possible worlds

Reading: Section 4.7 of BLogic and notes to be distributed

8 of 8 7/1/2008 11:01 PM

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