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TecnoMETAL

Since 1986 software


for design and verification
of steel structures

Steel&Graphics s.r.l.
Centro Direzionale Serenissima
Via C Nova Zampieri, 4/E 37057 S. Giovanni Lupatoto Verona
(ITALY)
Tel: +39.045.877.85.77 - Mobile: +39.3480338274
mail: francesca.toffali@steel-graphics.com
web:http://www.steel-graphics.com
skype: francesca.toffali-Steel&Graphics
TecnoMETAL Connections

User guide
Table of contents
TecnoMETAL Connections ..................................................................................................................... 4
Calculation setup ................................................................................................................................. 5
Verification environment ...................................................................................................................... 8
Connections list ................................................................................................................................. 9
General data dialog ......................................................................................................................... 15
View 2D dialog ................................................................................................................................ 16
Check data dialog ........................................................................................................................... 17
Menu ................................................................................................................................................ 18
Connections ....................................................................................................................................... 19
EC3 .................................................................................................................................................. 20
001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections .................................................................... 21
002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections ................................................... 25
003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections .............................................................. 28
006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections ...................................................... 31
010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections ......................................................... 34
014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections ...................................................... 37
301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections ............................... 40
401 - End plate to beam flange between circular hollow and H sections ..................................... 46
501 - Column H base plate .......................................................................................................... 47
502 - Column U base plate .......................................................................................................... 50
503 - Column L base plate ........................................................................................................... 51
504 - Column square pipe base plate .......................................................................................... 52
505 - Column round pipe base plate ............................................................................................ 53
601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections .......................................................... 54
602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections .......................................................... 57
Angles connections summary ....................................................................................................... 58
Welded plate connections summary ............................................................................................. 59
AISC ................................................................................................................................................ 61
001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections .................................................................... 62
002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections ................................................... 67
003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections .............................................................. 71
006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections ...................................................... 74
010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections ......................................................... 77
014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections ...................................................... 80
301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections ............................... 83
401 - End plate to beam flange between circular hollow and H sections ..................................... 89
501 - Column H base plate .......................................................................................................... 90
502 - Column U base plate .......................................................................................................... 94
503 - Column L base plate ........................................................................................................... 95
504 - Column square pipe base plate .......................................................................................... 96
505 - Column round pipe base plate ............................................................................................ 97
601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections .......................................................... 98
602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections ........................................................ 101
Angles connections summary ..................................................................................................... 102
Welded plate connections summary ........................................................................................... 103
ABNT NBR .................................................................................................................................... 105
001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections .................................................................. 106
002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections ................................................. 111
003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections ............................................................ 114
006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections .................................................... 117
010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections ....................................................... 120
014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections .................................................... 122
301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections ............................. 125
401 - End plate to beam flange between circular hollow and H sections .................................... 130
501 - Column H base plate ........................................................................................................ 131
502 - Column U base plate ........................................................................................................ 134
503 - Column L base plate ......................................................................................................... 135
504 - Column square pipe base plate ........................................................................................ 136
505 - Column round pipe base plate .......................................................................................... 137
601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections ........................................................ 138
602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections ........................................................ 141
Angles connections summary ..................................................................................................... 142
Welded plate connections summary ........................................................................................... 143
Symbology ....................................................................................................................................... 144
Symbols in the calculation report EC3 .......................................................................................... 145
Symbols in the calculation report AISC ........................................................................................ 148
Symbols in the calculation report ABNT NBR ............................................................................... 150
TecnoMETAL Connections
TecnoMETAL Connections is an application independent from CAD software for fast and immediate
calculation of individual steel connection. Allows the user to calculate and verify the various elements of
the structures referring to the code EC3, AISC-ASD, AISC-LRFD and ABNT NBR.
The verification environment TecnoMETAL Connections allows a versatile and interactive design of
steel connections from the database of TecnoMETAL or create new ones and then updating the same
database. The connections data dialog is shared with other modules and allows you to enter in detail the
characteristics of geometry and materials. To facilitate the design of the connection you have database of
profiles, connections (connections, joint covers and base plates) and materials (steel, welds and bolts).
The program uses and manages databases of building elements, including profiles, materials, bolts, nuts,
connections etc... The databases are available for various nationalities, as the product has a worldwide
distribution. The databases can be placed on the server to become shared datas for all the designers
in the company.
Required actions are handled within the same interface to create the connection and can be inserted
manually or automatically by importing CSV text file containing combinations of load properly organized
in table.
Any modification of the connection is updated along with the design verification. Drawing consists of 2D
projections of the executive and also contains information on bolting and welding. All graphical displays
can be exported in vector format such as DWG or DXF and raster formats such as BMP, GIF, PNG.
The immediate results of the calculation/verification are displayed both on screen and through the
calculation report printable and customizable. You can always get a quick optimization of the union
(change node type, material plates, class bolts and welds etc ...).
The calculation report is in HTML format, so it is a flexible format easily customizable.
Calculation setup

Work configuration for calculation


This dialog can be opened from both the "General configuration for calculation" either from the "Work
configuration for calculation." In the first case, you create a default configuration that is loaded to the new
works in the second you define the data of the active work.

In this dialog you choose the code to be adopted, between:


ABNT NBR
AISC ASD
AISC LRFD
EC3 - Eurocode 3
With "Unit of measurement:" you select the work units of the verification environment.
You can configure the legislation with the "Setup" button:
Material safety factors used in the verification according to EC3 are:
resistance of cross-sections
resistance of members to instability assessed by member checks
resistance of cross-sections in tension to fracture
resistance of bolts
resistance of welds
resistance of concrete

Material safety factors used in the verification according to ABNT NBR are:
resistance of cross-sections
resistance of cross-sections in tension to fracture
resistance of concrete
resistance of welds
resistance of welds
If is active TecnoMETAL Structural Analysis module, then the setup that appears is full of other information
such as the conditions and the loading, for this setup, see the manual of TecnoMETAL Structural Analysis
module.
For the AISC code you can select the version of year 2005 or 2010:
Verification environment
The verification environment is opened after the creation of the work. After selecting the work using the
right mouse button runs the module TecnoMETAL Connections.

1. Application title bar


2. Menu Bar
3. Toolbar
4. General data dialog of selected connection
5. View 2D dialog of selected connection
6. Check data dialog of selected connection
7. Connections list
8. Status bar
Connections list
On the left side of the dialog shows the list of unions that have been designed and/or verified.
Using the right mouse button, you can:
create a new connection;
change an already inserted union;
delete a union.
During the creation of the union you also must insert the values of the stresses in the form of load
combinations.

Create and Edit a union


From the list of connections by double-clicking with the left mouse button on the name you can access
the following screen for the modification.
The command shows the initial screen where you can select the shape of the profile A (1) or, alternatively,
if you have to run a base plate (2) or a joint between two profiles (3).
Selecting one of the profiles (1), is displayed to the right choice for the profile B, and further to the right
as the two profiles are combined.
The color of the selected icon means:
"Red" that the verification is available, "Green" that the design is available, "Grey" that will be added in
future versions.
With a double click on the type of union you confirm the selection.
The dialog for the verification of the connection is the same used in TecnoMETAL 4D to draw the
connections.
In this dialog you need to set up profiles Sha.A and Sha.B choosing them from the database, so even
for materials and bolts.
The geometry of the connection can be retrieved from the Database with the button to the right of
the box "Type".
The "Save" button is used to add data to the database from the displayed connection, the button "Delete"
is used to erase the displayed connection.
With the "List..." button, you can view a list of connections in the database.
In the images of reference for the data entry, the values written in "Red" means that the value can be
multiple (ex: 3*200,100,200).
The node is fully drawn in the other dialogs and here you go about populating the list of stresses with the
command "Add Line" or remove from the list with "Delete Line".
At the center of the dialog "Combinations" is located the schematic image showing the orientation of the
union and the direction of the applied forces. The forces drawn here indicate the positive direction. At any
time you can add and remove stress. The stresses N, Tx, Ty, Mx, My are the forces used for verification,
Mxf is the moment in the main direction of the opposite beam to Shape A.
With "Opposite shape" you go to select the beam opposite to the beam solicited, requested information
from the EC3.
The verification is done with the "Verification" button. The union verification automatically opens an HTML
document with a check status and error.
The "Description" field, shown below, can be used to identify the union and will be used as the title in
the calculation report.
The stresses can be imported from a text file of type "*.csv" using "Import file" button. The text file must
contain the stresses organized in a table, each row represents a combination of load and the number of
columns must be equal to 6. The column header is established in the "Index columns".
For example, with the following text file:
Comb;Mx;My;Tx;Ty;N
first;1000;2000;100;200;10
second;1100;2100;110;210;11
third;1200;2200;120;220;12
fourth;1300;2300;130;230;13
You get stress:
General data dialog
With the selection of a connection, you can view its general data. The summary information includes the
code for the calculation and units, the name from the database with its schematic symbol of the union,
and the profiles, in the "Description" field the name of the connection. The "Description" field is editable
in the dialog of the Combinations, below the list of load combinations.
View 2D dialog
With the selection of a connection, you can view a 2D drawing. The draw has the actual size of the
connection and inside you can find the items that are verified. Draw can be exported with the command
in various formats, including "*.dxf", "*.dwg", "*.jpg", "*.png" ...

If the first time you install the program TecnoMETAL, the export command does not operate, you must
manually run the program C:\Steel\TecnoMETAL\VerModule\vdconv.exe and then close it.
Check data dialog
After verifying the connection you can view its calculation report in the "Check Data" dialog.
The report has inside a image of actual connection, a summary data and verification data.
Menu
Utility -> Connections Report
This command creates an HTML file with the calculation report of all the nodes that have been checked.
The choice of what connections print is made through a check mark in the third column of the next image.
Each connection is recognized in the calculation report by its Description, which coincides with the
"Description" field, or if there is no description through its index.
Connections
The checks carried out in accordance with:
EC3: document UNI EN 1993-1-8:2005 Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 1-8:
Design of joints. For parts in concrete reference is made to the document UNI EN 1992-1-1:2005
Progettazione delle strutture di calcestruzzo - Parte 1-1: Regole generali e regole per gli edifici. The
symbols used is the one used in the EC3, it still added an attachment to list the symbols used in the
calculation report Symbols in the calculation report EC3;
AISC: document ANSI/AISC 360-05: Specification for Structural Steel Buildings of 9 March 2005
and ANSI/AISC 360-10: Specification for Structural Steel Buildings of 22 June 2010 for the load and
resistance factor (hereinafter LRFD) and allowable stress (hereinafter ASD) design methods;
ABNT NBR: document ABNT NBR 8800:2008 Projeto de estruturas de ao e de estruturas
mistas de ao e concreto de edifcios of 25 August 2008 and document ABNT NBR 14762:2010
Dimensionamento de estruturas de ao constitudas por perfis formados a frio on the limit state
verifications.
001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections

The strength verification of connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Compression Web Beam B
Traction Web Beam B
Bending Flange Beam B
Bending Flange
Compression Beam A
Traction Beam A
Bolts
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Flange
Traction Bolt - Plate
Welds
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)
In the verification of the welds is also considered the bending moment about the y-y axis (My).
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
Mx and N are transmitted through tensile bolts
Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

Shear Web Beam B Verification


The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners and then considering
whether there are diagonal stiffeners or web plates.
The shear area is then modified considering the stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.
While is determined with:
Where:
resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection
Compression Web Beam B Verification
If the web of the beam B is subjected to compression then you need verification. The verification considers
the possible presence of transversal stiffeners, diagonal or web plates.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.2.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bending Flange Beam B Verification
Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.
To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction
point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the
outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point
(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.
In the example below there are three rows of tensile bolts.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, Eurocode asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange
using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.
The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture
mode, which can be:
Mode 1: thick flange
Mode 2: bolts and flange
Mode 3: bolts
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.4.
While see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bending Flange Verification
This verification runs if the connection is bolted.
The valuations on tensile rows of bolts, the characteristics of the column, the presence or not of stiffeners
affect this verification.
Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, EC3 code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange
using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.
The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture
mode, which can be:
Mode 1: thick flange
Mode 2: bolts and flange
Mode 3: bolts
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.5.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Compression Beam A Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.7.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Traction Beam A Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.8.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according
to the criterion:

The verification is satisfied if also:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequalities.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate
ultimate stress of the plate
bolt diameter
thickness of the plate
safety factor
Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the
beam.
Traction Bolt - Plate Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and
between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut
thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut
ultimate stress of the plate
safety factor
Traction force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N e Mx forces of the
beam.
Welds Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:
design shear strength of the weld
throat thickness of weld
Stress force is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group (inferior flange, web, upper
flange, inferior knee joint, upper knee joint). Stresses N, Tx, Ty, Mx and My are shared in welds according
to linear elastic theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections

The strength verification of angles connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Compression Web Beam B
Bolts on Beam B
Bolts on Beam A
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Beam A
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam A
Traction Bolt - Plate
Upper and Lower Weld of the Angular
Vertical Weld of Angular
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
In the verification of the welds the stresses divided as follows:
Tx and Ty are transmitted from the vertical welds of angles
Tx and N are transmitted from horizontal welds of angles
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
N, Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts
The support is not considered as a structural element.
Shear Web Beam B Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.
While is determined with:
Compression Web Beam B Verification
If the web of the beam B is subjected to compression then you need verification.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.2.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam
A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The verification is satisfied if also:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequalities.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate
ultimate stress of the plate
bolt diameter
thickness of the plate
safety factor
Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces for the
bolts on beam B and by N and Ty forces for bolts on beam A.
Traction Bolt - Plate Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and
between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut
thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut
ultimate stress of the plate
safety factor
Traction force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N force of the beam.
Welds Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:
design shear strength of the weld
throat thickness of weld
Stress force is evaluated according to the position of the weld and the stresses that are divided in
the welds are N, Tx, Ty.
003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections

The strength verification with welded plate concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Compression Web Beam B
Bolts on Beam A
Bearing Beam A
Bearing on Plate
Weld on Beam B
Weld on Beam A
Bending and Axial load on Plate
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a welded plate connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment according to x-x axis (Mx) if the plate is welded to Beam A and to Beam B
In the verification of the welds, the stresses are divided as follows:
Tx, Ty, N and Mx are transmitted through the welds of the plate
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
N and Ty are transmitted through the bolts

Shear Web Beam B Verification


The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1..
While is determined with:

Compression Web Beam B Verification


If the web of the beam B is subjected to compression then you need verification.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.2.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength with tangential strength
(due to axial action and to shear) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The verification is satisfied if also:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequalities.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
The normal strength is null because is related to Tx stress which is not transmitted by bolts to the
connection.
Bearing Beam A and on Plate Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate
ultimate stress of the plate
bolt diameter
thickness of the plate
safety factor
Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N and Ty forces of the
beam.
Welds Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:
design shear strength of the weld
throat thickness of weld
Stress force is evaluated according to the distribution of the welds group according to the linear elastic
theory (elastic material and preservation of flat section).
Bending and Axial load on Plate Verification
In the Plate verification, the stresses that can be transmitted are axial stress N and also bending Mx if
the connection is completely welded.
The verification is satisfied if:
Where:
axial required strength
axial available strength
flexural required strength about x axis
flexural available strength about x axis
Available strengths are evaluated according to gross and net section.
006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections

The strength verification of connection with angles concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Bolts on Beam B
Bolts on Beam A
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Beam A
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam A
Traction Bolt - Plate
Upper and Lower Weld of the Angular
Vertical Weld of Angular
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
In the verification of the welds the stresses divided as follows:
Tx and Ty are transmitted from the vertical welds of angles
Tx and N are transmitted from horizontal welds of angles
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
N, Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts
The support is not considered as a structural element.
Shear Web Beam B Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.
While is determined with:

Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam
A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The verification is satisfied if also:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequalities.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate
ultimate stress of the plate
bolt diameter
thickness of the plate
safety factor
Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces for the
bolts on beam B and by N and Ty forces for bolts on beam A.
Traction Bolt - Plate Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and
between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut
thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut
ultimate stress of the plate
safety factor
Traction force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N force of the beam.
Welds Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:
Where:
design shear strength of the weld
throat thickness of weld
Stress force is evaluated according to the position of the weld and the stresses that are divided in
the welds are N, Tx, Ty.
010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections

The strength verification of angles connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Bolts on Beam B
Bolts on Beam A
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Beam A
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam A
Bolt - Plate Traction
Upper and Lower Weld of the Angular
Vertical Weld of Angular
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
In the verification of the welds the stresses divided as follows:
Tx and Ty are transmitted from the vertical welds of angles
Tx and N are transmitted from horizontal welds of angles
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
N, Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

Shear Web Beam B Verification


The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.
While is determined with:

Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam
A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The verification is satisfied if also:


The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequalities.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate
ultimate stress of the plate
bolt diameter
thickness of the plate
safety factor
Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces for the
bolts on beam B and by N and Ty forces for bolts on beam A.
Traction Bolt - Plate Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and
between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut
thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut
ultimate stress of the plate
safety factor
Traction force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N force of the beam.
Welds Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:
design shear strength of the weld
throat thickness of weld
Stress force is evaluated according to the position of the weld and the stresses that are divided in
the welds are N, Tx, Ty.
014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections

The strength verification of angles connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Compression Web Beam B
Bolts on Beam B
Bolts on Beam A
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Beam A
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam A
Traction Bolt - Plate
Upper and Lower Weld of the Angular
Vertical Weld of Angular
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
In the verification of the welds the stresses divided as follows:
Tx and Ty are transmitted from the vertical welds of angles
Tx and N are transmitted from horizontal welds of angles
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
N, Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

Shear Web Beam B Verification


The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.
While is determined with:

Compression Web Beam B Verification


If the web of the beam B is subjected to compression then you need verification.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.2.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam
A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The verification is satisfied if also:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequalities.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate
ultimate stress of the plate
bolt diameter
thickness of the plate
safety factor
Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces for the
bolts on beam B and by N and Ty forces for bolts on beam A.
Traction Bolt - Plate Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and
between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut
thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut
ultimate stress of the plate
safety factor
Traction force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by N force of the beam.
Welds Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:
design shear strength of the weld
throat thickness of weld
Stress force is evaluated according to the position of the welding and the stresses that are divided
in the welds are N, Tx, Ty.
301 - End plate to beam flange between
rectangular hollow and H sections

The strength verification of connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Compression Web Beam B
Traction Web Beam B
Bending Flange Beam B
Bending Flange
Compression Beam A
Traction Beam A
Bolts
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Flange
Traction Bolt - Plate
Welds
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)
In the verification of the welds, of bolts and of end flange is also considered the bending moment about
the y-y axis (My).
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
Mx, My and N are transmitted through tensile bolts
Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

Shear Web Beam B Verification


The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners because they are
not present in this connection.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.1.
While is determined with:

Where:
resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection
Compression Web Beam B
If the web of the beam B is subjected to compression then you need verification. The verification considers
the possible presence of transversal stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.2.
While is determined by:

Traction Web Beam B Verification


In this verification you have to consider the presence or not of the stiffeners in addition to the characteristics
of the column. If the connection is welded, the only stiffeners that affect the verification are the web plates;
if the connection is bolted, the stiffeners that affect the verification are all those present.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.3.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bending Flange Beam B Verification
This verification can be done only with bolted connection and the bolts must be inside of the beam B flange.
Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.
To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction
point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the
outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point
(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.
In the example below there are three rows of tensile bolts.
Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, Eurocode asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange
using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.
The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture
mode, which can be:
Mode 1: thick flange
Mode 2: bolts and flange
Mode 3: bolts
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.4.
While see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bending Flange Verification
This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape onto the end flange,
condition that occurs with large bending moments.
In this situation the verification is satisfied if:

Where:
solicitant stress on steel section consisting of end flange and any reinforcements (the
section is identified by the neutral axis translated in the following image)
yield stress
In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:

Compression Beam A Verification


The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 6.2.6.7.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according
to the criterion:

The verification is satisfied if also:


The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequalities.
The shear stress is distributed equally between all bolts present, while the axial and bending stresses are
distributed through an elastic distribution. This distribution considers the contact surface between flange
and beam B, that works only in compression, and bolts.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate
ultimate stress of the plate
bolt diameter
thickness of the plate
safety factor
Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the
beam.
Traction Bolt - Plate Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:

Where:
lower value between the mean value of the measured distance between the points and
between the flat surfaces of the bolt head or of the nut
thickness of the plate under the bolt head or the nut
ultimate stress of the plate
safety factor
Traction force is the maximum that is obtained from "Bolts Verification"
Welds Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:
design shear strength of the weld
throat thickness of weld
Stress force is evaluated according to the weld position. The stresses that are divided onto the welds
are N, Tx, Ty, Mx, My.
401 - End plate to beam flange between
circular hollow and H sections

The strength verification of connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Compression Web Beam B
Traction Web Beam B
Bending Flange Beam B
Bending Flange
Compression Beam A
Bolts
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Flange
Traction Bolt - Plate
Welds
For verification see paragraph 301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections.
501 - Column H base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:


Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods
Evaluation Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
In the verifications of anchor rods, the stresses are divided as follows:
N, Tx, Ty, Mx, My are distributed over all the anchor rods.

Concrete Compression Verification


The verification is made by comparing the required stress and the available stress:
if the verification is satisfied
The tension in the concrete and in the steel is obtained by analyzing a reinforced concrete section; in
this section the concrete works only by compression and the steel both by compression that by traction.
Resistant stress is evaluated with:

Where:
is the foundation joint material coefficient, depending on characteristic strength of the
grout between the plinth and base plate
concentration factor linked to the geometry of the plinth
design cylinder compressive strength
Plate Bending
This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape on the base plate,
condition that occurs with large bending moments.
In this situation the test is satisfied if:

Where:
required stress on steel section consisting of base plate and any reinforcements (the
section is identified by the neutral axis translated the following image)
yield stress
In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:

Anchor Rods and their length


Anchor rods verification is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the rod section according
to the criterion:

The verification is satisfied if also:


The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequalities.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the thread rod.
Once the anchor rods is verified, the anchor length is calculated; it is determined by the balance between
the maximum traction force and the strength of adhesion on the anchor rods:

Where:
nominal rod diameter
rod stress
bond stress (see EC2)
Shear Heel Verifications
The shear heel is considered dipped in concrete and its projected area ( ) in x-x and y-y direction
allows you to calculate the shear strength in the corresponding direction.
If you have the shear heel, all the shear stress is transferred from the anchor rods to the heel; the
verification is satisfied if:

Where:
required strength
available strength obtained according to
concrete area
design compressive strength of concrete
Welds Verifications
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
Resistant force is evaluated with the simplified method according to 4.5.3.3, as follows:

Where:
design shear strength of the weld
throat thickness of weld
Stress force is evaluated according to the weld position. The stresses that are divided onto the welds
are N, Tx, Ty, Mx, My.
502 - Column U base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods
Evaluation Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
503 - Column L base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods
Evaluation Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
504 - Column square pipe base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods
Evaluation Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
505 - Column round pipe base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods
Evaluation Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections

The verification of connection concerns:


Connection Plates Axially Loaded
Connection Plate Shear Loaded
Beam A Axially Loaded
Beam A Shear Loaded
Beam B Axially Loaded
Beam B Shear Loaded
Web Bolts
Flange Bolts
Web Bearing on the Beam
Web Bearing on the Plates
Flange Bearing on the Beam
Flange Bearing on the Plates
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)
The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates
that web plates then the stresses are so divided:
Tx, Mx and My are transferred through the plates on the flanges
Ty is transferred through the plates on the web
N is transferred in part by plates on the flange and in part by the plates on the web

Connection Plates, Beam A and Beam B Axially Loaded Verifications


The verification considers the contribution of axial and bending strengths.
If the joint is in traction, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:

If the joint is compressed, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:

Where:
gross area
yield stress
net area
ultimate stress
The bending strength (with subscript x and y) for holed elements is determined according to:

The first term of comparison is the plastic strength, the third term is flexural strength of the net section,
the second and the fourth term were added to put an upper limit on the plastic strength.
Where:
plastic module
elastic module
plastic module of the net section from holes
elastic module of the net section from holes
The comparison for the verification is as follow:

Connection Plates, Beam A and Beam B Shear Loaded Verifications


The shear strength for holed elements is determined according to:

Where:
gross area
yield stress
net area
ultimate stress
The comparison for the verification is as follow:

Where:

Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according
to the criterion:

The verification is satisfied if also:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequalities.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see Eurocode 3 3.6.1 and see below:
Where:
in relation to the size of the bolt and the distances from the edge of the plate
ultimate stress of the plate
bolt diameter
thickness of the plate
safety factor
602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections

The verification of connection concerns:


Connection Plates Axially Loaded
Connection Plate Shear Loaded
Beam A Axially Loaded
Beam A Shear Loaded
Beam B Axially Loaded
Beam B Shear Loaded
Web Bolts
Flange Bolts
Web Bearing on the Beam
Web Bearing on the Plates
Flange Bearing on the Beam
Flange Bearing on the Plates
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)
The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates
that web plates then the stresses are so divided:
Tx, Mx and My are transferred through the plates on the flanges
Ty is transferred through the plates on the web
N and My are transferred in part by plates on the flange and in part by the plates on the web
For verification see 601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections.
Angles connections summary
In the strength verification of the connection with angles are visualized these verifications, their symbols are:
BT Shear Web Beam B
BC Compression Web Beam B
BB Bolts on Beam B
AB Bolts on Beam A
BR Bearing Beam B
AR Bearing Beam A
LBR Bearing Angle to Beam B
LAR Bearing Angle to Beam A
PT Bolt - Plate Traction
SSI Upper and Lower Weld of the Angular
SV Vertical Weld of Angular
Connection Description BT BC BB AB BR AR LBR LAR PT SSI
002 Beam H connected to flange of Beam H
006 Beam H connected to web of Beam H
010 Beam H rotated to web of Beam H
014 Beam H rotated to flange of Beam H
018 Beam H outer to Beam U
022 Beam H inner to Beam U
026 Beam H rotated inner to Beam U
030 Beam H rotated outer to Beam U
102 Beam U connected to flange of Beam H
106 Beam U connected to web of Beam H
110 Beam U rotated to web of Beam H
114 Beam U rotated to flange of Beam H
118 Beam U outer to Beam U
122 Beam U inner to Beam U
126 Beam U rotated inner to Beam U
130 Beam U rotated outer to Beam U
Welded plate connections summary
These are the verifications that are visualized in the strength verification of the angles connection. The
symbols used for verification are:
BT Shear Web Beam B
BC Compression Web Beam B
AB Bolts Beam A
AR Bearing Beam A
PR Bearing Beam B
SPB Welds Plate Beam B
SPA Welds Plate Beam A
PA Bending and Axial load on Plate
Connection Description BT BC AB AR PR SPB SPA PA
003 Beam H connected to flange of Beam H
007 Beam H connected to web of Beam H
011 Beam H rotated to web of Beam H
015 Beam H rotated to flange of Beam H
019 Beam H outer to Beam U
023 Beam H inner to Beam U
027 Beam H rotated inner to Beam U
031 Beam H rotated outer to Beam U
033 Beam H to Rectangular Pipe
035 Beam H rotated to Rectangular Pipe
037 Beam H to Round Pipe
039 Beam H rotated to Round Pipe
103 Beam U connected to flange of Beam H
107 Beam U connected to web of Beam H
111 Beam U rotated to web of Beam H
115 Beam U rotated to flange of Beam H
119 Beam U outer to Beam U
123 Beam U inner to Beam U
127 Beam U rotated inner to Beam U
131 Beam U rotated outer to Beam U
133 Beam U to Rectangular Pipe
135 Beam U rotated to Rectangular Pipe
137 Beam U to Round Pipe
139 Beam U rotated to Round Pipe
001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections

The strength verification of connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Yielding Web Beam B
Buckling Web Beam B
Crippling Web Beam B
Bending Flange Beam B
Bending Flange
Bolts
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Flange
Welds
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)
In the verification of the welds is also considered the bending moment about the y-y axis (My).
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
Mx and N are transmitted through tensile bolts
Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

Shear Web Beam B Verification


The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners and then considering
whether there are diagonal stiffeners or web plates.
The shear area is then modified considering the stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.6.
While is determined with:

Where:
resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection
Yielding Web Beam B Verification
The yield verification is done whether the Web Beam B is subjected to compression or is subjected to
traction. The verification considers the possible presence of Web stiffening like diagonal stiffeners or web
plates.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.2.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification"
Buckling Web Beam B Verification
The buckling verification must be regarded with single or double concentrated forces if these are applied
on both sides of the column. In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column
that the presence or absence of the stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of Web
stiffening like diagonal stiffeners or web plates.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.5.
While is determined with:

Crippling Web Beam B Verification


The crippling verification must be regarded with single concentrated forces (only compression) or double
forces. In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column that the presence or
absence of the stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of Web stiffening like diagonal
stiffeners or web plates.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.3.
While for see the previous verification "Bucklng Web Beam B Verification".
Bending Flange Beam B Verification
The verification procedure follows the design guide AISC Design Guide 16 - Flush And Extend Multiple-
Row Moment End-Plate Connections, 2002 that describes a method based on the following principles:
the yield line determines the resistant plastic moment of the plate, once you know the geometry of
the plate, the geometry of the shape and the yield strength of the material;
the tensile strength of the bolt considers the prying force, once you know the geometry of the plate,
the geometry and the material of bolts;
the appropriate type of connections based on considerations of stiffness or moment-rotation.
Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.
To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction
point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the
outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point
(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.
Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, AISC code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange
using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.
The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture
mode, which can be:
thick flange rupture
bolts rupture without prying force
thin flange rupture
flange rupture
bolts rupture with prying force
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied


The variable is the resistant bending strength of the end plate, for its calculation refer to AISC Design
Guide 16. The value of considers the flange and/or bolts strength depending on the type of rupture.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bending Flange Verification
This verification runs if the connection is bolted.
The valuations on tensile rows of bolts, the characteristics of the column, the presence or not of stiffeners
affect this verification.
Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, AISC code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange
using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.
The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture
mode, which can be:
thick flange rupture
bolts rupture without prying force
thin flange rupture
flange rupture
bolts rupture with prying force
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied


The variable is the resistant bending strength of the end plate, for its calculation refer to AISC Design
Guide 16. The value of considers the flange and/or bolts strength depending on the type of rupture.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according
to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:
net distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of connected material
thickness of connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
LRFD ASD

Design bearing strength: Allowable bearing strength:


where: where:

Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the
beam.
Welds Verification
The welds that are verified are those between the beam and the end plate or, in the absence of the end
plate, between the A beam and the B beam.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
Strength force is chosen as the minimum between the welding strength force and the strength forces
of connected materials.
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
nominal resistant stress for the welds
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
The strength of material connected to the welding is:

Where:
yield stress of connected part
welding contact area
LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:
where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group (inferior flange, web, upper
flange, inferior knee joint, upper knee joint). Stresses N, Tx, Ty, Mx and My are shared in welds according
to linear elastic theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections

The strength verification of angles connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Buckling Web Beam B
Bolts on Beam B
Bolts on Beam A on Web
Bolts on Beam A on Flange
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Beam A on Web
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web
Bearing Beam A on Flange
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Flange
Welds on Beam B
Welds on Web of Beam A
Welds on Flange of Beam A
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx) only if you have both top and bottom
angles
The support is not considered as a structural element, unless it is made by the upper and lower angles.
Shear Web Beam B Verification
The shear verification of the beam B is carried out in the absence of stiffeners and the shear area is
then determined according to the profile.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.6.
While is determined with:
Where:
resistant arm, depending on section and equal to the height of the beam A
Buckling Web Beam B Verification
The conditions of such verification are: single concentrated force, or double if applied on both sides of
the column, and the absence of stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.5.
While is determined with:

Bolts on Beam B Verification


The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according
to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
The bending moment Mx is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles; in this case the tensile
stress on the bolts of these angles shall also consider the prying action, see "Steel Construction Manual",
9-10. The prying action on these bolts depends on the size of the angles and of their position.
Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to the axial action just in
case there is only the left or right angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw
section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bolts on Beam A on Flange Verification
The strength verification of the bolt is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles. It is
conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential strength (due to shears)
that act on the screw section according to the criterion:
The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:
net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of the connected material
thickness of the connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
LRFD ASD

Design bearing strength: Allowable bearing strength:

where:
where:
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
Welds Verification
The welds are checked with three groups of welds:
contact plane between angles and Beam B
contact plane between angles and web Beam A
contact plane between angles and flange Beam A
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
nominal resistant stress for welds
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:
yield stress of the connected part
contact area of the weld
LRFD ASD
Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:
where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections

The strength verification with welded plate concerns:


Buckling Web Beam B
Bolts
Bearing Beam A
Bearing on Plate
Weld on Beam B
Weld on Beam A
Bending and Axial load on Plate
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a welded plate connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment according to x-x axis (Mx) if the plate is welded to Beam A and to Beam B
In the verification of the welds, the stresses are divided as follows:
Tx, Ty, N and Mx are transmitted through the welds of the plate
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
N and Ty are transmitted through the bolts

Buckling Web Beam B Verification


The conditions of such verification are: single concentrated force, or double if applied on both sides of
the column, and the absence of stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.5.
While is determined with:

Where:
plate width
Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential
strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
The normal stress is null as related to stress Tx which is not transmitted by bolts.
Bearing Beam A and on Plate Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:
net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of the connected material
thickness of the connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
LRFD ASD

Design bearing strength: Allowable bearing strength:

where:
where:
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
Welds Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
nominal resistant stress for welds
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:
yield stress of the connected part
contact area of the weld
LRFD ASD
Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:
where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
Bending and Axial load on Plate Verification
The stresses that can be transmitted in the plate verification are the axial stress N and the bending Mx,
if the connection is completely welded.
The verification is satisfied if:

Where:
axial required strength
axial available strength
flexural required strength about x axis
flexural available strength about x axis
Available strengths are evaluated according to gross and net section.
006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections

The strength verification of angles connection concerns:


Bolts on Beam B
Bolts on Beam A on Web
Bolts on Beam A on Flange
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Beam A on Web
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web
Bearing Beam A in Flange
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Flange
Welds on Beam B
Welds on Web of Beam A
Welds on Flange of Beam A
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx) only if you have both top and bottom
angles
The support is not considered as a structural element, unless it is made by the upper and lower angles.
Bolts on Beam B Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according
to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
The bending moment Mx is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles; in this case the tensile
stress on the bolts of these angles shall also consider the prying action, see "Steel Construction Manual",
9-10. The prying action on these bolts depends on the size of the angles and of their position.
Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial action if there is
only the right or the left angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section
according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bolts on Beam A on Flange Verification
The strength verification of the bolt is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles. It is
conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential strength (due to shears)
that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:
net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of the connected material
thickness of the connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
LRFD ASD

Design bearing strength: Allowable bearing strength:

where:
where:
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
Welds Verification
The welds are checked with three groups of welds:
contact plane between angles and Beam B
contact plane between angles and web Beam A
contact plane between angles and flange Beam A
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
nominal resistant stress for welds
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:
yield stress of the connected part
contact area of the weld
LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:
where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections

The strength verification of angles connection concerns:


Bolts on Beam B
Bolts on Beam A on Web
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Beam A on Web
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web
Welds on Beam B
Welds on Web of Beam A
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bolts Verifications on Beam B


The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam A)
with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial action if there is
only the right or the left angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section
according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:
net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of the connected material
thickness of the connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
LRFD ASD

Design bearing strength: Allowable bearing strength:

where:
where:
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
Welds Verification
The welds are checked with two groups of welds:
contact plane between angles and Beam B
contact plane between angles and web Beam A
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
nominal resistant stress for welds
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:
yield stress of the connected part
contact area of the weld
LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:
where:
Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections

The strength verification of angles connection concerns:


Buckling Web Beam B
Bolts on Beam B
Bolts on Beam A on Web
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Beam A on Web
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web
Welds on Beam B
Welds on Web of Beam A
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Buckling Web Beam B Verification


The buckling verification must be considered with single concentrated force or double if they are applied
on both sides of the column. The verification is carried out in the absence of stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.5.
While is determined with:

Bolts on Beam B Verification


The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam A)
with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:
net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of the connected material
thickness of the connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
LRFD ASD

Design bearing strength: Allowable bearing strength:

where:
where:
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
Welds Verification
The welds are checked with two groups of welds:
contact plane between angles and Beam B
contact plane between angles and web Beam A
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
nominal resistant stress for welds
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:
yield stress of the connected part
contact area of the weld
LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:
where:
Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
301 - End plate to beam flange between
rectangular hollow and H sections

The strength verification of connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Yielding Web Beam B
Buckling Web Beam B
Crippling Web Beam B
Bending Flange Beam B
Bending Flange
Bolts
Bearing Beam B
Bearing on Flange
Welds
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)
In the verification of the welds, of bolts and of end flange is also considered the bending moment about
the y-y axis (My).
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
Mx, My and N are transmitted through tensile bolts
Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

Shear Web Beam B Verification


The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners because they are
not present in this connection.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.6.
While is determined with:

Where:
resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection
Yielding Web Beam B Verification
The yield verification is made whether the web of the beam B is subject to compression or is subject to
traction. The verification considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.2.
While to calculate see previous verification "Shear web beam B verification".
Buckling Web Beam B Verification
The buckling verification must be considered with single concentrated force or double if they are applied
on both sides of the column. The verification is carried out in the absence of stiffeners. The verification
considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.5
While is determined with:

Crippling Web Beam B Verification


The crippling verification must be considered with single concentrated force (only compression) or double.
In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column that the presence or not of the
stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J10.3.
While to calculate see previous verification "Buckling web beam B verification".
Bending Flange Beam B Verification
This verification can be done only with bolted union and bolts must to be inside of the flange of beam B.
The verification procedure follows the design guide "AISC Design Guide 16-Flush And Extend Multiple-
Row End-Plate Moment Connections, 2002" which describes a method based on the following principles:
the yield line determines the resistant plastic moment of the plate, once you know the geometry of
the plate, the geometry of the shape and the yield strength of the material;
the tensile strength of the bolt considers the prying force, once you know the geometry of the plate,
the geometry and the material of bolts;
the appropriate type of connections based on considerations of stiffness or moment-rotation.
Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.
To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction
point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the
outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point
(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.
In the following example there are two rows of tensile bolts.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, AISC code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange
using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.
The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture
mode, which can be:
thick flange rupture
bolts rupture without prying force
thin flange rupture
flange rupture
bolts rupture with prying force
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied


The variable is the bending resistant stress of the end flange and for its calculation see "AISC Design
Guide 16". The value of considers the flange strength and/or of bolts depending on the type of rupture.
While to calculate see previous verification Shear Web Beam B.
Bending Flange Verification
This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape onto the end flange,
condition that occurs with large bending moments.
In this situation the verification is satisfied if:

Where:
required moment obtained from tensile force on the anchor rods depending on their
distance from the neutral axis shifted
available moment on steel section consisting of end flange and any reinforcements (the
section is identified by the neutral axis shifted in the following image)
In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:

Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial and bending actions
exercised by the beam) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the section of the rod
according to the criterion:
The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The shear stress is distributed equally between all bolts present, while the axial and bending stresses are
distributed through an elastic distribution. This distribution considers the contact surface between flange
and beam B, that works only in compression, and bolts.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:
net distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of connected material
thickness of connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
LRFD ASD

Design bearing strength: Allowable bearing strength:

where:
where:
Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the
beam.
Welds Verification
The welds that are verified are those between the beam and the end plate or if there is not the end plate,
those between the beam A and the beam B.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials.
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
nominal resistant stress for welds
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:
yield stress of the connected part
contact area of the weld
LRFD ASD
Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:
where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
401 - End plate to beam flange between
circular hollow and H sections

The strength verification of connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Yielding Web Beam B
Buckling Web Beam B
Crippling Web Beam B
Bending Flange Beam B
Bending Flange
Bolts
Bearing Beam B
Bearing on Flange
Welds
For verification see paragraph 301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections.
501 - Column H base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:


Anchor Rods
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a base plate connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)

Anchor Rods Verification


Anchor rods verification is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the rod section according
to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the thread rod.
Concrete Compression Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required stress and the available stress:
if the verification is satisfied
The tension in the concrete and in the steel is obtained by analyzing a reinforced concrete section; in
this section the concrete works only by compression and the steel both by compression that by traction.
Resistant stress is evaluated with:
LRFD ASD
Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:
where:
if 2005 version, 0.65 otherwise
if 2005 version, 2.31 otherwise
Where:
characteristic cube compressive strength (Rck)
Plate Bending Verification
This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape on the base plate,
condition that occurs with large bending moments.
In this situation the test is satisfied if:

Where:
required strength obtained from tensile force on the anchor rods depending on their
distance from the neutral translated axis
available strength on steel section consisting of end flange and any reinforcements (the
section is identified by the neutral translated axis in the following image)
In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:
Anchor Rods and their length
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The tensile strength of the anchor rod is evaluated by choosing the least of the following resistances:
anchor in tension (D.5.1 - Steel strength of anchor in tension)
concrete breakout (D.5.2 - Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension)
pullout of anchor (D.5.3 - Pullout strength of anchor in tension)
concrete on contact face of the head reinforcement (D.5.4 - Concrete side-face blowout strength of
a headed anchor in tension)

To calculate refer to appendix D of the "ACI Committee, Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete (ACI 318M-08) and Commentary, 2008".
The solicitant force is chosen as the maximum among those obtained by verifying the anchor rods.
Shear Heel
The shear heel is considered dipped in concrete and its projected area ( ) in x-x and y-y direction
allows you to calculate the shear strength in the corresponding direction.
If you have the shear heel, all the shear stress is transferred from the anchor rods to the heel; the
verification is satisfied if:

Where:
required strength
available strength obtained according to
concrete area
To calculate see AISC 360 J8.
Welds Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
Resistant force is chosen as the minimum force between that of weld and the others of connected
materials.
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
nominal resistant stress for welds
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:
yield stress of the connected part
contact area of the weld
LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:


where:
where:

Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of the weld group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
502 - Column U base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Anchor Rods
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
503 - Column L base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Anchor Rods
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
504 - Column square pipe base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Anchor Rods
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
505 - Column round pipe base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Anchor Rods
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections

The verification of connection concerns:


Connection Plates Axially Loaded
Connection Plate Shear Loaded
Beam A Axially Loaded
Beam A Shear Loaded
Beam B Axially Loaded
Beam B Shear Loaded
Web Bolts
Flange Bolts
Web Bearing on the Beam
Web Bearing on the Plates
Flange Bearing on the Beam
Flange Bearing on the Plates
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)
The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates
that web plates then the stresses are so divided:
Tx, Mx and My are transferred through the plates on the flanges
Ty is transferred through the plates on the web
N is transferred in part by plates on the wing and in part by the plates on the web

Connection Plates, Beam A and Beam B Axially Loaded Verifications


The verification considers the contribution of axial and bending strengths.
If the joint is in traction, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:
LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:
where:

If the joint is compressed, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:
LRFD ASD
Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:
where:

Where:
gross area
yield stress
net area
ultimate stress
The bending strength (with subscript x and y) for holed elements is determined according to:
LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:

where:
where:

The first term of comparison is the plastic strength of the gross section, the second is flexural strength
of the net section.
Where:

plastic module
elastic module
plastic module of the net section
elastic module of the net section
If the element is subjected only to axial stress, this is verified if:

If the element is subjected to axial stress and bending moment in the principal axis, this is verified if:

If the element is subjected to axial stress and bending moment in two axes and , this is verified if:

If the element is subjected to axial stress and bending moment in two axes and , this is verified if:

Connection Plates, Beam A and Beam B Shear Loaded Verifications


The shear strength for holed elements is determined according to:
LRFD ASD

Design strength: Allowable strength:


where:
where:

Where:
gross area
yield stress
net area
ultimate stress
The comparison for the verification is as follows:

Where:

Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength with tangential strength that
act on the section of the rod according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see AISC 360 J3.10 and see below:

Where:
net distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of connected material
thickness of connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
LRFD ASD

Design bearing strength: Allowable bearing strength:

where:
where:
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections

The verification of connection concerns:


Connection Plates Axially Loaded
Connection Plate Shear Loaded
Beam A Axially Loaded
Beam A Shear Loaded
Beam B Axially Loaded
Beam B Shear Loaded
Web Bolts
Flange Bolts
Web Bearing on the Beam
Web Bearing on the Plates
Flange Bearing on the Beam
Flange Bearing on the Plates
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)
The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates
that web plates then the stresses are so divided:
Tx, Mx and My are transferred through the plates on the flanges
Ty is transferred through the plates on the web
N and My are transferred in part by plates on the flange and in part by the plates on the web
For verification see 601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections.
Angles connections summary
In the strength verification of the connection with angles are visualized these verifications, the numbe
verifications are:
1. Shear Web Beam B
2. Buckling Web Beam B
3. Bolts on Beam B
4. Bolts on Beam A on web
5. Bolts on Beam A on Flange
6. Bearing Beam B
7. Bearing Angle to Beam B
8. Bearing Beam A on Web
9. Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web
10. Bearing Beam A on flange
11. Bearing Angle to Beam A on Flange
12. Welds on Beam B
13. Welds on Web of Beam A
14. Welds on Flange of Beam A
Connection Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
002 Beam B connected to Flanged Beam H
006 Beam H connected to web of Beam H
010 Beam H rotated to web of Beam H
014 Beam H rotated to flange of Beam H
018 Beam H outer to Beam U
022 Beam H inner to Beam U
026 Beam H rotated inner to Beam U
030 Beam H rotated outer to Beam U
102 Beam U connected to flange of Beam H
106 Beam U connected to web of Beam H
110 Beam U rotated to web of Beam H
114 Beam U rotated to flange of Beam H
118 Beam U outer to Beam U
122 Beam U inner to Beam U
126 Beam U rotated inner to Beam U
130 Beam U rotated outer to Beam U
Welded plate connections summary
These are the verifications that are visualized in the strength verification of the angles connection, the
verification's numbers are
1. Bending Web Beam B
2. Bolts
3. Bearing Beam A
4. Bearing on Plate
5. Plate Welded on Beam B
6. Plate Welded on Beam A
7. Bending and Axial load on Plate
Connection Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
003 Beam H connected to flange of Beam H
007 Beam H connected to web of Beam H
011 Beam H rotated on Web Beam B (*)
015 Beam H rotated to flange of Beam H
019 Beam H outer to Beam U
023 Beam H inner to Beam U
027 Beam H rotated inner to Beam U (*)
031 Beam H rotated outer to Beam U
033 Beam H to Rectangular Pipe
035 Beam H rotated to Rectangular Pipe
037 Beam H to Round Pipe
039 Beam H rotated to Round Pipe
103 Beam U connected to flange of Beam H
107 Beam U connected to web of Beam H
111 Beam U rotated to web of Beam H (*)
115 Beam U rotated to flange of Beam H
119 Beam U outer to Beam U
123 Beam U inner to Beam U
127 Beam U rotated inner to Beam U (*)
131 Beam U rotated outer to Beam U
133 Beam U to Rectangular Pipe
135 Beam U rotated to Rectangular Pipe
137 Beam U to Round Pipe
139 Beam U rotated to Round Pipe
(*) in these connections some type of plate are not verifiable.
001 - End plate to beam flange between H sections

The strength verification of connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Yielding Web Beam B
Buckling web Beam B
Crippling Web Beam B
Bending Flange Beam B
Bending Flange
Bolts
Bearing Beam B
Bearing on Flange
Welds
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)
In the verification of the welds is also considered the bending moment about the y-y axis (My).
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
Mx and N are transmitted through tensile bolts
Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

Shear Web Beam B Verification


The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners and then considering
whether there are diagonal stiffeners or web plates.
The shear area is then modified considering the stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.7.
While is determined with:

Where:
resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection
Yielding Web Beam B Verification
The yield verification is done whether the Web Beam B is subjected to compression or is subjected to
traction. The verification considers the possible presence of Web stiffening like diagonal stiffeners or web
plates or flange stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.3.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification"
Buckling Web Beam B Verification
The buckling verification must be regarded with single or double concentrated forces if these are applied
on both sides of the column. In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column
that the presence or absence of the stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of Web
stiffening like diagonal stiffeners or web plates or flange stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.6.
While is determined with:

Crippling Web Beam B Verification


The crippling verification must be regarded with single concentrated forces (only compression) or double
forces. In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column that the presence or
absence of the stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of Web stiffening like diagonal
stiffeners or web plates or flange stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.4.
While for see the previous verification "Buckling Web Beam B Verification".
Bending Flange Beam B Verification
The verification procedure follows the design guide AISC Design Guide 16 - Flush And Extend Multiple-
Row Moment End-Plate Connections, 2002 that describes a method based on the following principles:
the yield line determines the resistant plastic moment of the plate, once you know the geometry of
the plate, the geometry of the shape and the yield strength of the material;
the tensile strength of the bolt considers the prying force, once you know the geometry of the plate,
the geometry and the material of bolts;
the appropriate type of connections based on considerations of stiffness or moment-rotation.
Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.
To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction
point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the
outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point
(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.
In the drawing above, there are three rows of tensile bolts.
Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, this code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange
using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.
The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture
mode, which can be:
thick flange rupture
bolts rupture without prying force
thin flange rupture
flange rupture
bolts rupture with prying force
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied


The variable is the resistant bending strength of the end plate, for its calculation refer to AISC Design
Guide 16. The value of considers the flange and/or bolts strength depending on the type of rupture.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bending Flange Verification
This verification runs if the connection is bolted.
The valuations on tensile rows of bolts, the characteristics of the column, the presence or not of stiffeners
affect this verification.
Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, this code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange
using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.
The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture
mode, which can be:
thick flange rupture
bolts rupture without prying force
thin flange rupture
flange rupture
bolts rupture with prying force
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied


The variable is the resistant bending strength of the end plate, for its calculation refer to AISC Design
Guide 16. The value of considers the Shear flange and/or bolts strength depending on the type of
rupture.
While for see the previous verification "Shear Web Beam B Verification".
Bolts verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according
to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on
whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].
See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below:

Where:
net distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of connected material
thickness of connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the
beam.
Welds Verification
The welds that are verified are those between the beam and the end plate or, in the absence of the end
plate, between the A beam and the B beam.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
Strength force is chosen as the minimum between the welding strength force and the strength forces
of connected materials and it changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed)
and depending on the type of weld (penetration or fillet).
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
safety factor of welds strength
The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the
weld.
Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group (inferior flange, web, upper
flange, inferior knee joint, upper knee joint). Stresses N, Tx, Ty, Mx and My are shared in welds according
to linear elastic theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
002 - Angles connection to column flange between H sections

The strength verification of angles connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Buckling web Beam B
Bolts on Web B
Bolts on Beam A on Web
Bolts on Beam A on Flange
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Beam A on Web
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web
Bearing Beam A on Flange
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Flange
Welds on Beam B
Welds on Web of Beam A
Welds on Flange of Beam A
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx) only if you have both top and bottom
angles
The support is not considered as a structural element, unless it is made by the upper and lower angles.
Shear Web Beam B Verification
The shear verification of the beam B is carried out in the absence of stiffeners and the shear area is
then determined according to the profile.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.7.
While is determined with:
Where:
resistant arm, depending on section and equal to the height of the beam A
Buckling Web Beam B Verification
The conditions of such verification are: single concentrated force, or double if applied on both sides of
the column, and the absence of stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.6.
While is determined with:

Bolts on Beam B Verification


The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according
to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
The bending moment Mx is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles; in this case the tensile
stress on the bolts of these angles shall also consider the prying action, see "Steel Construction Manual",
9-10. The prying action on these bolts depends on the size of the angles and of their position.
Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to the axial action just in
case there is only the left or right angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw
section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bolts on Beam A on Flange Verification
The strength verification of the bolt is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles. It is
conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential strength (due to shears)
that act on the screw section according to the criterion:
The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on
whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].
See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below:

Where:
net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of the connected material
thickness of the connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
Welds Verification
The welds are checked with three groups of welds:
contact plane between angles and Beam B
contact plane between angles and web Beam A
contact plane between angles and flange Beam A
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it
changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of
weld (penetration or fillet).
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
safety factor of welds strength
The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the
weld.
Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
003 - Welded plate to beam flange between H sections

The strength verification with welded plate concerns:


Buckling Web Beam B
Bolts
Bearing Beam A
Bearing on Plate
Weld on Beam B
Weld on Beam A
Bending and Axial load on Plate
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a welded plate connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the axis x-x (Mx) if the plate is welded both to beam A and to beam B
In the verification of the welds the stresses are divided as follows:
Tx, Ty, N and Mx are transmitted from the welds of the plate
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
N and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

Buckling Web Beam B Verification


The conditions of buckling verification are: single concentrated force, or double if applied on both sides
of the column, and the absence of stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.6.
While is determined with:

Where:
plate width
Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential
strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
The normal stress is null as related to stress Tx which is not transmitted by bolts.
Bearing Beam A and on Plate Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on
whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].
See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:
net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of the connected material
thickness of the connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
Welds Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it
changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of
weld (penetration or fillet).
The strength of the weld is:

The strength of the material connected to the weld is:

Where:
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
safety factor of welds strength
The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the
weld.
Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
Bending and Axial load on Plate Verification
The stresses that can be transmitted in the plate verification are the axial stress N and the bending Mx,
if the connection is completely welded.
The verification is satisfied if:

Where:
axial required strength
axial available strength
flexural required strength about x axis
flexural available strength about x axis
Available strengths are evaluated according to gross and net section.
006 - Angles connection to column web between H sections

The strength verification of angles connection concerns:


Bolts on Beam B
Bolts on Beam A on Web
Bolts on Beam A on Flange
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Beam A on Web
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web
Bearing Beam A in Flange
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Flange
Welds on Beam B
Welds on Web of Beam A
Welds on Flange of Beam A
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx) only if you have both top and bottom
angles
The support is not considered as a structural element, unless it is made by the upper and lower angles.
Bolts on Beam B Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according
to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
The bending moment Mx is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles; in this case the tensile
stress on the bolts of these angles shall also consider the prying action, see "Steel Construction Manual",
9-10. The prying action on these bolts depends on the size of the angles and of their position.
Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial action if there is
only the right or the left angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section
according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bolts on Beam A on Flange Verification
The strength verification of the bolt is considered only if there are both top and bottom angles. It is
conducted by combining the normal strength (always null) with tangential strength (due to shears)
that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on
whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].
See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:
net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of the connected material
thickness of the connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
Welds Verification
The welds are checked with three groups of welds:
contact plane between angles and Beam B
contact plane between angles and web Beam A
contact plane between angles and flange Beam A
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it
changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of
weld (penetration or fillet).
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
safety factor of welds strength
The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the
weld.
Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
010 - Angles connection to beam web between H sections

The strength verification of angles connection concerns:


Bolts on Beam B
Bolts on Beam A on Web
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Beam A on Web
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web
Welds on Beam B
Welds on Web of Beam A
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Bolts on Beam B Verification


The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according
to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial action if there is
only the right or the left angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section
according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on
whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].
See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:
net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of the connected material
thickness of the connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
Welds Verification
The welds are checked with two groups of welds:
contact plane between angles and Beam B
contact plane between angles and web Beam A
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it
changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of
weld (penetration or fillet).
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
safety factor of welds strength
The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the
weld.
Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
014 - Angles connection to beam flange between H sections

The strength verification of angles connection concerns:


Buckling Web Beam B
Bolts on Beam B
Bolts on Beam A on Web
Bearing Beam B
Bearing Angle to Beam B
Bearing Beam A on Web
Bearing Angle to Beam A on Web
Welds on Beam B
Welds on Web of Beam A
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a angled connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)

Buckling Web Beam B Verification


The buckling verification must be considered with single concentrated force or double if they are applied
on both sides of the column. The verification is carried out in the absence of stiffeners.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.6.
While is determined with:

Bolts on Beam B Verification


The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial load from beam
A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bolts on Beam A on Web Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial action if there is
only the right or the left angle) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section
according to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on
whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].
See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:
net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of the connected material
thickness of the connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
Welds Verification
The welds are checked with two groups of welds:
contact plane between angles and Beam B
contact plane between angles and web Beam A
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it
changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of
weld (penetration or fillet).
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
safety factor of welds strength
The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the
weld.
Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
301 - End plate to beam flange between
rectangular hollow and H sections

The strength verification of connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Yielding Web Beam B
Buckling Web Beam B
Crippling Web Beam B
Bending Flange Beam B
Bending Flange
Bolts
Bearing Beam B
Bearing on Flange
Welds
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a flanged connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the axis of maximum inertia x-x (Mx)
In the verification of the welds, of bolts and of end flange is also considered the bending moment about
the y-y axis (My).
In the verifications of bolts, the stresses are divided as follows:
Mx, My and N are transmitted through tensile bolts
Tx and Ty are transmitted from all bolts

Shear Web Beam B Verification


The Beam B shear verification is carried out at first without considering the stiffeners because they are
not present in this connection.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.7.
While is determined with:

Where:
resisting arm, depending on section, knees and type of connection
Yielding Web Beam B Verification
The yield verification is made whether the web of the beam B is subject to compression or is subject to
traction. The verification considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.3.
While to calculate see previous verification "Shear web beam B verification".
Buckling Web Beam B Verification
The buckling verification must be considered with single concentrated force or double if they are applied
on both sides of the column. The verification is carried out in the absence of stiffeners. The verification
considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.6.
While is determined with:

Crippling Web Beam B Verification


The warping verification must be considered with single concentrated force (only compression) or double.
In this verification have influence both the characteristics of the column that the presence or not of the
stiffeners. The verification considers the possible presence of flange reinforcements
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 5.7.4.
While to calculate see previous verification "Buckling web beam B verification".
Bending Flange Beam B Verification
This verification can be done only with bolted union and bolts must to be inside of the flange of beam B.
The verification procedure follows the design guide "AISC Design Guide 16-Flush And Extend Multiple-
Row End-Plate Moment Connections, 2002" which describes a method based on the following principles:
the yield line determines the resistant plastic moment of the plate, once you know the geometry of
the plate, the geometry of the shape and the yield strength of the material;
the tensile strength of the bolt considers the prying force, once you know the geometry of the plate,
the geometry and the material of bolts;
the appropriate type of connections based on considerations of stiffness or moment-rotation.
Within this verification are made valuations on the number of rows of tensile bolts.
To locate the rows of tensile bolts you must find firstly the traction and compression points; the traction
point is in the last row of bolts that is within the shape or the knee joint; the compression point is the
outermost point of the shape or of the knee joint. All the rows of bolts between the intermediate point
(between traction and compression) and the traction point, shall be considered to be tensile.
In the following example there are two rows of tensile bolts.

Once you locate the rows of tensile bolts, AISC code asks you to evaluate the type of rupture of the flange
using the minimum length of fracture (plasticization) among those possible.
The information of the strength of flange and the information about the bolts allow you to locate the rupture
mode, which can be:
thick flange rupture
bolts rupture without prying force
thin flange rupture
flange rupture
bolts rupture with prying force
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:

if the verification is satisfied


The variable is the bending resistant stress of the end flange and for its calculation see "AISC Design
Guide 16". The value of considers the flange strength and/or of bolts depending on the type of rupture.
While to calculate see previous verification Shear Web Beam B.
Bending Flange Verification
This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape onto the end flange,
condition that occurs with large bending moments.
In this situation the verification is satisfied if:

Where:
required moment obtained from tensile force on the anchor rods depending on their
distance from the neutral axis shifted
available moment on steel section consisting of end flange and any reinforcements (the
section is identified by the neutral axis shifted in the following image)
In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:

Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to axial and bending
actions exercised by the beam) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the section of the
rod according to the criterion:
The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The shear stress is distributed equally between all bolts present, while the axial and bending stresses are
distributed through an elastic distribution. This distribution considers the contact surface between flange
and beam B, that works only in compression, and bolts.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Flange and Beam B Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on
whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].
See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:
net distance, in the direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of connected material
thickness of connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
Shear force is divided equally between all bolts, the contribution is given by Tx and Ty forces of the
beam.
Welds Verification
The welds that are verified are those between the beam and the end plate or if there is not the end plate,
those between the beam A and the beam B.
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it
changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of
weld (penetration or fillet).
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
safety factor of welds strength
The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the
weld.
Stress force is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group (inferior flange, web, upper flange,
inferior knee joint, upper knee joint). Stresses N, Tx, Ty, Mx and My are shared in welds according to
linear elastic theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
401 - End plate to beam flange between
circular hollow and H sections

The strength verification of connection concerns:


Shear Web Beam B
Yielding Web Beam B
Buckling Web Beam B
Crippling Web Beam B
Bending Flange Beam B
Bending Flange
Bolts
Bearing Beam B
Bearing on Flange
Welds
For verification see paragraph 301 - End plate to beam flange between rectangular hollow and H sections.
501 - Column H base plate

The strength verification of base plate concerns:


Anchor Rods
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through a base plate connection are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)

Anchor Rods Verification


Anchor rods verification is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the rod section according
to the criterion:

The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the thread rod.
Concrete Compression Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required stress and the available stress:
if the verification is satisfied
The tension in the concrete and in the steel is obtained by analyzing a reinforced concrete section; in
this section the concrete works only by compression and the steel both by compression that by traction.
Resistant stress is evaluated with:

Where:
characteristic cube compressive strength (Rck)
Plate Bending Verification
This verification is carried out if the neutral axis intersects the projection of the shape on the base plate,
condition that occurs with large bending moments.
In this situation the test is satisfied if:

Where:
required strength obtained from tensile force on the anchor rods depending on their
distance from the neutral translated axis
available strength on steel section consisting of end flange and any reinforcements (the
section is identified by the neutral translated axis in the following image)
In the following drawing it is represented the resistant section:

Anchor Rods and their length


The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The tensile strength of the anchor rod is evaluated by choosing the least of the following resistances:
anchor in tension (D.5.1 - Steel strength of anchor in tension)
concrete breakout (D.5.2 - Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension)
pullout of anchor (D.5.3 - Pullout strength of anchor in tension)
concrete on contact face of the head reinforcement (D.5.4 - Concrete side-face blowout strength of
a headed anchor in tension)

To calculate refer to appendix D of the "ACI Committee, Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete (ACI 318M-08) and Commentary, 2008".
The solicitant force is chosen as the maximum among those obtained by verifying the anchor rods.
Shear Heel
The shear heel is considered dipped in concrete and its projected area ( ) in x-x and y-y direction
allows you to calculate the shear strength in the corresponding direction.
If you have the shear heel, all the shear stress is transferred from the anchor rods to the heel; the
verification is satisfied if:

Where:
required strength
available strength
concrete area
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.6.5.
Welds Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
The resistant force is the minimum between that of the weld and those of connected materials and it
changes depending on welded shape (hot rolled section or cold-formed) and depending on the type of
weld (penetration or fillet).
The strength of the weld is:

Where:
electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
throat thickness of weld
safety factor of welds strength
The strength of the connected material depending on the type of the welded shape or on the type of the
weld.
Required strength is evaluated according to the distribution of welds group according to linear elastic
theory (elastic material and cross-sections remain plane).
502 - Column U base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Anchor Rods
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
503 - Column L base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Anchor Rods
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
504 - Column square pipe base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Anchor Rods
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
505 - Column round pipe base plate

For verification see paragraph 501 - Column H base plate.


The strength verification of base plate concerns:
Anchor Rods
Concrete Compression
Plate Bending
Anchor Rods Length
Shear Heel in X direction
Shear Heel in Y direction
Welds
601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections

The verification of connection concerns:


Connection Plates Axially Loaded
Connection Plate Shear Loaded
Beam A Axially Loaded
Beam A Shear Loaded
Beam B Axially Loaded
Beam B Shear Loaded
Web Bolts
Flange Bolts
Web Bearing on the Beam
Web Bearing on the Plates
Flange Bearing on the Beam
Flange Bearing on the Plates
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)
The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates
that web plates then the stresses are so divided:
Tx, Mx and My are transferred through the plates on the flanges
Ty is transferred through the plates on the web
N is transferred in part by plates on the wing and in part by the plates on the web

Connection Plates, Beam A and Beam B Axially Loaded Verifications


The verification considers the contribution of axial and bending strengths.
If the joint is in traction, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:

If the joint is compressed, the axial strength for holed elements is determined according to:

Where:
gross area
yield stress
net area
ultimate stress
The bending strength (with subscript x and y) for holed elements is determined according to:

The first term of comparison is the plastic strength of the gross section, the second is flexural strength
of the net section.
Where:
plastic module
elastic module
plastic module of the net section
elastic module of the net section
If the element is subjected only to axial stress, this is verified if:

If the element is subjected to axial stress and bending moment in the principal axis, this is verified if:

If the element is subjected to axial stress and bending moment in two axes and , this is verified if:

If the element is subjected to axial stress and bending moment in two axes and , this is verified if:

Connection Plates, Beam A and Beam B Shear Loaded Verifications


The shear strength for holed elements is determined according to:

Where:
gross area
yield stress
net area
ultimate stress
The comparison for the verification is as follow:

Where:
Bolts Verification
The verification of bolt is conducted by combining the normal strength (due to bending moment and
axial load from beam A) with tangential strength (due to shears) that act on the screw section according
to the criterion:
The calculation report of the connection shows the required strength and compared with their
respective available strength and . The voice represents numerically the left part of the above
inequality.
The strengths are calculated considering the actual section of the bolt thread.
Bearing Verification
The verification is made by comparing the required and the available strength:
if the verification is satisfied
To calculate see ABNT NBR 8800 6.3.3.3 or ABNT NBR 14762 10.3.4 and 10.3.5 depending on
whether the connected shape is a hot rolled section or a cold-formed with a thickness less than 4.75 [mm].
See the case of laminate shape with standard hole below.

Where:
net distance, in direction of the force, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent
hole or the edge of the connected material
thickness of the connected material
bolt diameter
ultimate tensile stress of connected material
The shear force is the maximum shear stress between those of the bolts.
602_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between U sections

The verification of connection concerns:


Connection Plates Axially Loaded
Connection Plate Shear Loaded
Beam A Axially Loaded
Beam A Shear Loaded
Beam B Axially Loaded
Beam B Shear Loaded
Web Bolts
Flange Bolts
Web Bearing on the Beam
Web Bearing on the Plates
Flange Bearing on the Beam
Flange Bearing on the Plates
The stresses that can be transmitted from beam A through the joint are:
Axial Load (N)
Shear according to x-x and y-y axes (Tx, Ty)
Bending moment around the x-x and y-y axes (Mx, My)
The connection is verified in presence of flange plates and/or web plates. If there are both flange plates
that web plates then the stresses are so divided:
Tx and Mx are transferred through the plates on the flanges
Ty is transferred through the plates on the web
N and My are transferred in part by plates on the flange and in part by the plates on the web
For verification see 601_1 - Flange-plated moment splice between H sections.
Angles connections summary
See paragraph Angles connections summary in "AISC" connections verification.
Welded plate connections summary
See paragraph Welded plate connections summary in "AISC" connections verification.
Symbols in the calculation report EC3
The symbols used in calculation report are mostly the same as those used in the Eurocode.
Gross section area
Net area of section subjected to shear
Area of rods used in base plates
Lateral area of shear heel
Shear area of Beam B
Width of base plate
Beam A Beam that applies the load to the connection
Beam B Usually column, beam that receives the load
Effective width of Beam B web in compression
Effective width of weld
Effective width of Beam A web in tension
Effective width of Beam B web in tension
Design punching shear resistance of the bolt head and the nut
Height of base plate
Load combination used for verification
Bond stress (see EC2)
Design bearing resistance of bolt
Design compressive cylindrical strength of concrete
Design resistance of the Beam A flange and web in compression
Characteristic compressive cylindrical strength of concrete
Design tensile strength of concrete
Characteristic tensile strength of concrete
Average tensile strength of concrete
Design resistance of the Beam B web in compression
Number of rows that are in traction
Resistant stress of concrete
Design tension resistance of a T-stub flange:
Mode 1: Complete yielding of the flange
Mode 2: Bolt failure with yielding of the flange
Mode 3: Bolt failure
Design strength of bolt in tension
Required strength of bolt in tension
Design tension resistance of the Beam A web
Design resistance of an unstiffened Beam B web subject to transverse tension
Design shear strength of bolt
Required shear strength of bolt
Design shear strength of a weld
Design strength of weld
Required strength of weld
Steel yield stress
Concentration factor tied to the geometry of the plinth
Anchorage length of anchor rods
Plastic resistant moment of Beam A
Bending moment to verify the base plate
Design resistant bending moment about x-x axis
Design resistant bending moment about y-y axis
Design axial resistant strength
Type of rupture
Characteristic compressive cubic strength of concrete
Available ratio
Required ratio
Thickness of base plate
Elastic modulus about x-x axis of net section
Elastic modulus about y-y axis of net section
Plastic modulus about x-x axis of net section
Plastic modulus about y-y axis of net section
Required shear strength given by Beam A axial-bending stress
Plastic shear resistance of a column web panel
Elastic modulus of base plate
Plastic modulus of Beam A
Multiplier to determine the effective length
This factor considers the long-term effects on the tensile strength and the adverse effects
resulting from the way in which the load is applied
The configuration parameter of the connection
Foundation joint material coefficient, depending on characteristic strength of the grout between
the plinth and base plate
Reduction factor due to long welds
Correlation factor; see the definition in EN 1993-1-8:2005 4.5.3.2 (6)
This factor is connected to the quality of adhesion condition and to the position of the bar
This factor is connected to the quality of adhesion condition and it refers to the diameter of the bar
Web slenderness of Beam B
Diameter of the rods used in base plates
Reduction factor for instability of the web of Beam B
Stress in base plate
Stress in concrete
Reduction factor for shear interaction
Symbols in the calculation report AISC
The symbols used in calculation report are mostly the same as those used in the AISC code.
Throat thickness of weld
Net area of section subjected to shear
Area of steel part connected to the weld
Gross section area
Lateral area of shear heel
Shear area of Beam B
Resistant arm
Load combination used for verification
Nominal diameter of the bolt
Nominal resistant stress of base material connected to the weld
Compression resistant stress in concrete
Compressive cylindrical stress of concrete
Electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
Required stress to compression on the concrete
Tensile ultimate stress
Nominal resistant stress for welds
Yield stress
Anchorage length
Net distance, in the force direction, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent hole or
the edge of the connected material
Available bending strength of the end flange/base plate
Available bending moment about x-x axis
Available bending moment about y-y axis
Required bending strength of base plate
Torque strength
Required bending moment strength in X direction
Required bending moment strength in Y direction
Axial strength
Available tensile force of anchor
Design tensile force applied to anchor
Available axial strength
Available strength to heel bearing in the concrete
Nominal resistant strength to tensile for a bolt
Reduction factor due to the prying force
Maximum prying action to inner bolts (inside)
Maximum prying action to external bolts (outside)
Available welds strength
Available strength to local bending flange
Available bearing strength
Characteristic compressive cubic strength of concrete
Available tensile bolt strength
Available shear bolt strength
Local buckling available strength of web of Beam B
Crippling available strength of web of Beam B
Shear panel available strength of web of Beam B
Yielding available strength of web of Beam B
Nominal bearing strength
Required strength for welds / shear heel
Required tensile bolt strength
Required shear bolt strength
Available ratio
Elastic modulus of base plate
Required ratio
Elastic modulus about x-x axis of net section
Elastic modulus about y-y axis of net section
Thickness of base plate / connected plate
Minimum Bolt Pretension
Beam A Beam that applies the load to the connection
Beam B Usually column, beam that receives the load
Required shear strength given by Beam A axial-bending stress
Shear strength in X direction
Shear strength in Y direction
Plastic modulus about x-x axis of net section
Plastic modulus about y-y axis of net section
Yield line length
Resistance factor (LRFD)
Resistance factor for base material of the welds (Base Material) (LRFD)
Resistance factor for the welds (Weld) (LRFD)
Safety factor (ASD)
Safety factor for base material of the welds (Base Material) (ASD)
Safety factor for the welds (Weld) (ASD)
Symbols in the calculation report ABNT NBR
The symbols used in calculation report are mostly the same as those used in the ABNT NBR code.
Throat thickness of weld
Lateral area of shear heel
Net area of section subjected to shear
Gross section area
Shear area of Beam B
Resistant arm
Load combination used for verification
Nominal diameter of the bolt
Characteristic compressive cylindrical strength of concrete
Available bearing strength
Electrode classification number (electrode E60 means FEXX=60 [ksi])
Available strength
Required strength
Available tensile bolt strength
Nominal tensile bolt strength
Required tensile bolt strength
Available shear bolt strength
Required shear bolt strength
Available welds strength
Tensile ultimate stress
Yield stress
Anchorage length
net distance, in the force direction, between the edge of the hole and an adjacent hole or
the edge of the connected material
Available bending strength of the end flange
Available bending strength of the base plate
Required bending strength of the base plate {ex }
Torque strength
Required bending moment strength in X direction
Available bending moment strength in X direction
Required bending moment strength in Y direction
Available bending moment strength in Y direction
Axial strength
Available axial force
Design tensile force applied to anchor
Reduction factor due to the prying force
Maximum prying action to inner bolts (inside)
Maximum prying action to external bolts (outside)
Available strength to local bending flange
Characteristic compressive cubic strength of concrete
Available ratio
Required ratio
Thickness of base plate / connected plate
Minimum Bolt Pretension
Beam A Beam that applies the load to the connection
Beam B Usually column, beam that receives the load
Shear strength in X direction
Shear strength in Y direction
Elastic modulus of base plate
Elastic modulus about x-x axis of net section
Elastic modulus about y-y axis of net section
Plastic modulus about x-x axis of net section
Plastic modulus about y-y axis of net section
Yield line length
Safety factor for yielding
Safety factor for rupture
Safety factor for concrete
Safety factor for welds
Safety factor for welds