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1 AUTHOR:
Elwy Elkholy
Minoufiya University
30 PUBLICATIONS 106 CITATIONS
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World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering Vol:9, No:11, 2015
an experimental rapid prototype system for drives are presented. In this paper, a boost DCDC converter using a power
Simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed system MOSFT as switching device is used [23][25]. A hybrid
gives quick, robust torque and speed responses at constant switching hysteresis current control with incremental conductance
frequencies.
technique for MPPT is proposed. The torque and flux
KeywordsPhotovoltaic (PV) array, direct torque control controller design for the overall DTC for induction motor has
(DTC), constant switching frequency, induction motor, maximum been investigated. The realization of excellent dynamic torque
power point tracking (MPPT). and flux response is presented.
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International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering Vol:9, No:11, 2015
6789
( ) = (3) 45 = i!" $% + &% + 23 (12)
6
( ) =
(4) , = ,45 ,23 (13)
3
b* 1 1 iPV r1 L1 D
iDC
T n (6)
I sat . (Tak ) = I sat . (Trk ) * ak * e ak
T Trk
Trk + + 
ic
VPV S C0 EDC
International Science Index, Energy and Power Engineering Vol:9, No:11, 2015 waset.org/Publication/10002931
q (7)
b = Eg *
N *K

where: Rs : series resistance; Ipv: module current; Vpv: module @A = B% (15)
voltage.
where; K1 : constant of proportionally which depends on the
III. BOOST CONVERTER characteristic of the PV array.
The topology of boost converter is shown in Fig. 2. For this
converter the output voltage is always higher than the input
PV voltage. Power flow is controlled by means of the on/off
duty cycle of the switching transistor. This converter topology
can be used in conjunction with lower PV voltages. No extra
blocking diode is necessary when the boost topology is used
[25][27].
The boost converter is described by three modes of
operation, on or off. When the switch S is on (Pattern I), the
energy from the PV is stored in the inductor L1. When the
switch S is off (Pattern II), the energy is delivered to the
capacitor C. The Pattern (I), of the boost converter can be
expressed by the following equations (S is on and D is off) Fig. 3 Proposed MPPT algorithm
[25];
Fixed step size will be used which works well under
V!" = i!" $% + &% '()*
'+
(9) constant irradiance but it has worse behaviors under partial
cloudy days [7]. Therefore, the irradiance must be measured to
, = . '/01
'+
(10) perturb the operation voltage. In this paper, a hybrid hysteresis
current control (HCC) and incremental conductance technique
, = ,23 (11) (ICT) based maximum power point tracker is designed and
implemented to get the benefit from the fast response of the
The pattern (II) of the boost converter can be expressed by current based tracker, as shown in Fig. 3. The controller loop
the following equations (S is off and D is on) [25]; regulates the PV voltage of the converter and minimizes the
error between reference current and the measured current by
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International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering Vol:9, No:11, 2015
adjusting the duty cycle. At changing conditions, a variable of V. DTC PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
reference value is used, and the reference current is expressed Fig. 4 shows a schematic diagram of a closed loop direct
as: torque control system. The torque command (T*) is delivered
from the PIspeed controller and fed to the torque comparator
@A.@C = @A..D6 F (16) and compared with the torque developed from the motor.
Also, the stator flux command (s*) is compared with the
where; dI: output of incremental conductance control.
actual stator flux (s). By using three variables (torque error,
flux error, and the angle of stator flux position (n), the
operating point can be obtained [20], [21].
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%
A. Inverter Model = (J ) (21)
L
The three phase inverter is used with PV system and can be
described as follows. To represent the switching state of the The stator currents can be expressed in a stationary dq
inverter, a switching function Sa for phasea is defined as frame as [20]:
follow: Sa=1 when upper transistor of phase a is on and Sa=0
L PM P
6 = K ( N)
when lower transistor of phasea is off. Similar definitions can
G L L
(22)
be made for phase's b, and c. The phase voltages can be
expressed in terms of switching states and the DC link voltage
%
as [20]: = (J ) (23)
L
:01
= (2I IJ I )
B. Flux Estimation
G
(17)
The simplest and most direct method for determining the
:01
J = (2IJ I I )
stator flux dq vector requires only the terminal voltage,
G
(18)
current, and the stator resistance of the motor. In the stationary
:01 dq reference frame, the stator flux vector and its angle are
= (2I IJ I ) (19)
G given by [20],
The stator voltage can be expressed in a stationary dq 6 = R(6 S 6 )FT (24)
frame as [20]:
= RU S VFT (25)
L 5M 5N
6 = K ( ) (20)
G L L ['\
= tan?% Z ^ (26)
[]\
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International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering Vol:9, No:11, 2015
where; Vs and Is are the instantaneous space stator voltage and Fig. 5 shows the response of the system with no load. The
current vector, and Rs is the stator resistance. transient and steady state flux vector in Fig. 5 (a) shows nearly
a circular path indicating a good flux regulation. The
C. Torque Estimation
electromagnetic torque shown in Fig. 5 (b) is close to the
The developed torque of the machine can be obtained by commanded value, while the time taken for the torque reach
[20]; its commanded value is about 0.3 Sec., ensuring good
G dynamic torque response. Fig. 5 (c) shows the stator currents
6 = _(6 , ,6 ) (27)
L in phase a, b and c which are nearly sinusoidal. The motor
speed response is shown in Fig. 5 (d). It is clear that the speed
VI. DIRECT FLUX AND TORQUE CONTROLLER DESIGN reaches to steady state after 0.3 sec.
In DTC system under study, constant flux can be obtained
by comparing the primary flux with the command flux. The 1
0.4
0.2
T= 1 if T d < T* (a)
T= 0 if T d = T* 20
15
T= 1 if Td >T*
otor torque(N.m)
10
angle .
5
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
time (s)
10
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International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering Vol:9, No:11, 2015
80 80
70 70
60
60
Motor speed(rad/s)
50
Motor speed (rad/s)
50
40
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 time (s)
time (s)
(d)
(d)
Fig. 6 Performance of IM under load 4 N.m. (a) dq stator flux (b)
Fig. 5 Performance of IM under no load (a) dq stator flux,(b)
Developed motor torque (c) Three phase stator motor current
Developed motor torque (c) Three phase stator motor current
(d) Motor speed
(d) Motor speed
1
Fig. 6 shows the response of the system with a torque
command of 4 N.m. The transient and steady state flux vector
International Science Index, Energy and Power Engineering Vol:9, No:11, 2015 waset.org/Publication/10002931
0.8
in Fig. 6 (a) shows nearly a circular path indicating a good
0.6 flux regulation. The electromagnetic torque shown in Fig. 6
(b) is close to the commanded value, while the time taken for
0.4
the torque reach its commanded value is about 0.4 Sec.,
Qaxis stator flux (wb)
0.2 ensuring good dynamic torque response. Fig. 6 (c) shows the
0 stator currents in phase a, b and c which are nearly sinusoidal.
The motor speed response is shown in Fig. 6 (d).
0.2
Fig. 7 shows the response of the system for a step change in
0.4 torque from 3 N.m. to 7 N.m. keeping the flux command
0.6
constant. Fig. 7 (a) shows the steady state stator flux, which
demonstrates an excellent dynamic flux control under changed
0.8 command torque. Fig. 7 (b) shows the developed torque which
1 is enclosed to a commanded value of 3 N.m. region or 7 N.m.
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Daxis stator flux (wb)
region. The three phase stator currents are shown in Fig. 7 (c).
It is clear that, these stator currents are changed at the instant
(a) of changing the command torque and fast retrieve their steady
30
state values. Fig. 7(d) shows the speed response of the system.
25
1
20 0.8
otor torque(N.m)
15 0.6
0.4
M
10
qaxis stator flux (wb)
0.2
5
0
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
time (s) 0.2
(b) 0.4
0.6
20
0.8
15
1
Motor stator current (a,b,c)(amp)
10
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
5 daxis stator flux (wb)
0
(a)
5
10
15
20
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
time (s)
(c)
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30 1
25 0.8
20 0.6
Motor torque(N.m)
15 0.4
5 0
0
0.2
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
time (s)
0.4
(b)
0.6
20
0.8
15
1
Motor stator currents (a,b,c) (amp)
(a)
0
30
5
10 25
15 20
Motor torque(N.m)
20 15
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
time (s)
10
(c)
5
80
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
70
time (s)
60
(b)
Motor sped(rad/s)
50
40 20
30 15
p)
20 10
otor stator current (a,b,c)(am
10 5
0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
time (s)
5
(d)
M
10
15
Fig. 7 Performance of IM under load torque step change (3:7 N.m.)
20
(a) dq stator flux (b) Developed motor torque (c) Three phase stator 0 0.5 1 1.5
time (s)
2 2.5 3
50
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International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering Vol:9, No:11, 2015
9 (a) shows that the waveform of stator flux in d and q axis is (c)
nearly circular which ensure constant flux operation. The
torque waveform shown in Fig. 9 (b) has a dc value and the
ripple due to the PWM harmonics in the inverter output. Figs.
9 (c)(f) show the measured stator currents in phasea, phase
b, phasec, and compacted three phase  a, b, c which are
obtained at no load operation. Fig. 9 (g) shows the motor
speed response.
(d)
(a)
(b)
(e)
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(a)
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(f)
(b)
(g)
Fig. 9 Experimental waveforms for DTC fed from PV system at no
load (a) Stator flux in dq axis (b) Developed torque (c) Stator current
in phasea (d) Stator current in phaseb (e) Stator current in phasec
(f) Three phase stator current in phase a, b, and c (g) Motor speed
(c)
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(g)
Fig. 10 Experimental waveforms for DTC fed from PV system at
electrical load 3 N.m. (a) Stator flux in dq axis (b) Developed motor
torque (c) Stator current in phasea (d) Stator current in phaseb (e)
Stator current in phasec (f) Stator current in phasea, b, and c (g)
Motor speed
IX. CONCLUSION
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APPENDIX
The induction motor is a threephase squirrel cage and has
the following data:
TABLE I
A THREE PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR DATA
Rated power 1.1 kW
No. of pole pairs 2
(e)
Stator resistance 7.4826 Ohm
Rotor resistance 3.6840 Ohm
Mutual inductance 0.4114 Henry
Stator leakage inductance 0.0221 Henry
Rotor leakage inductance 0.0221 Henry
Motor speed 1500 rpm
TABLE II
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A PV MODULE
Maximum power (Pmax) 180 W
Voltage at Maximum power (Vmax) 35.7 V
Current at Maximum power (Imax) 5A
Open circuit voltage (Vo.c ) 44.1 V
Short circuit current (Isc) 5.5 A
Rated temperature (T) 298 Kelvin
Number of cells 72 in series
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International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 9(11) 2015 1161 scholar.waset.org/1999.5/10002931
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering Vol:9, No:11, 2015
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Control Approach," Journal of Solar Energy, Vol. 83, No. 8, pp.1370 E. E. ElKholy, was born in Menoufiya, Egypt in 1963.
1378, 2009. He received his B.Sc., and M.sc. degree in Electrical
[11] F. Boico, and B. Lehman, "MultipleInput Maximum Power Point Engineering from Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya
Tracking Algorithm For Solar Panels With Reduced Sensing Circuitry University in 1986, and 1992 respectively. From
For Portable Applications," Journal of Solar Energy, Vol. 86, No. 1, pp. January 1993 to January 1996 he was Ph.D. student at
463475, 2012. the I.N.P.L., Nancy University, France, under an
[12] S. Jain,and V. Agarwal,"A New Algorithm for Rapid Tracking of academic channel exchange program. He received his
Approximate Maximum Power Point in Photovoltaic Systems," IEEE Ph.D. degree in 1996. He was a visiting research fellow
Power Electronic Letters, Vol. 2, No.1, pp. 1619, March 2004. to I.N.P.L., Nancy University, France during summer
[13] W. Xiao, W. G. Dunford, P. R. Palmer, and A. Capel, "Regulation of 1997. He was a visiting professor to Electrical Machines
Photovoltaic Voltage," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. and Drives Dept., Wuppertal University, Germany during August 2001 to
54, No.3, pp.13651374, June 2007. January 2002. He joined the Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of
[14] T. Esram, J. W. Kimball, P. T. Krein, P. L. Chapman and P. Midya, Engineering, Menoufiya University as a demonstrator in 1986. Then, he
"Dynamic Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Array Using became an assistant lecturer in 1992 and was appointed as an assistant
Ripple Correlation Control," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, professor in 1996. In July 2002, he was appointed as an associating professor.
Vol.21, No.5, pp.12821291, September 2006. In July 2006, he was appointed as a professor. His main professional interests
[15] E. E. ElKholy, S. S. Shokralla, A. H. Morsi, and Said A. ElAbsawy, include AC and DC drives, Renewable Energy, direct torque and field
"Improved Performance of Rolling Mill Drives Using Hybrid FuzzyPI oriented control techniques, DSP control and Power Electronics. He has
Controller," ELECTROMTION Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 213224, published several technical papers in these areas.
October/December 2004.
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Kady, "Improved Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Drives
With Rapid Prototyping System," International Journal of Energy
Conversion & Management, No. 47, pp. 19992010, 2006.
[18] E. E. ElKholy, M. AbdelKarim, S. A. Mahmoud, and C. Iung, "Speed
SensorLess Indirect Field Oriented Control of Induction Motor Without
Using Stator and Rotor Resistance," Proceeding of the European Power
Electronics Conference (EPE) on Electric Drive Design and
Applications, Lausanne, pp. 615620, October 1994.
[19] U. Baader, M. Depenbrock, and G. Gierse, "Direct Self Control (DSC)
of InverterFed Induction Machine A Basis for Speed Control without
Speed Measurement," IEEE Transaction Industry Applications, Vol. 28,
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[20] E. E. ElKholy, S. A. Mahmoud, R. Kennel, A. ElRefaei, and F. El
Kady, "Torque Ripple Minimization for Induction Motor Drives With
Direct Torque Control," Electrical Power Components and Systems
Journal, Vol. 33, No. 8, pp. 845859, August 2005.
[21] E. E. ElKholy, A. ELSabbe, A. ElHefnawy, and Hamdy M. Mharous,
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"Design And Analysis of Torque Angle Controller For Induction Motor
International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 9(11) 2015 1162 scholar.waset.org/1999.5/10002931