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CBSE Class 12th Chemistry Notes: Amines (Part


- I)
Nov 2, 2016 17:00 IST GURMEET KAUR
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This article provides you the revision notes on Class 12 Chemistry: Chapter- Amines, to give you a
quick glance of the chapter. These quick notes are prepared strictly according to the latest CBSE
NCERT Exemplar Solutions for CBSE Class
syllabus for Class 12th Chemistry. 12 Physics Chapter 5: Magnetism and
Matter (MCQ II)
o Amines
Structure CBSE Class 12 English Elective (C)
Classi cation Question Paper 2017: Delhi

Nomenclature CBSE Class 12 English (Core) Question


Preparation Paper 2017: Delhi
Physical properties
CBSE Class 12 Computer Science
Basic character Question Paper 2017: All India

The key notes of the chapter are as follows: CBSE Class 12 Business Studies Question
Paper 2017: Delhi
Amines

Amines are the organic compounds derived from ammonia (NH3) by replacing its one or more
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hydrogen atoms by alkyl or aryl group.

For example:

CH3NH2 C2H5NH2 C6H5NH2

Methyl Amine Ethyl Amine Aniline

Structure of Amines

Nitrogen atom of amines carries an unshared pair of electrons and is sp3 hybridised with
pyramidal shape. Due to the presence of unshared pair of electrons, the angle CNE, (where E is
C or H) is less than 109.5.
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In aromatic amines, the CN bond is slightly stronger due to the partial double bond character
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which arises as a result of delocalisation of lone pair of N with the benzene ring.

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Classi cation of Amines

On the basis of number of hydrogen atoms replaced in NH3 molecule, amines are categorized Gender Male Female

into three types:


DOB Day Month Year
1 amine: One hydrogen atom of NH3 is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group.
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2 amine: Two hydrogen atoms of NH3 are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.

For example:

CH3NHCH3

Dimethyl Amine

3 amine: All three hydrogen atoms of NH3 are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.

For example:

*T&C

Nomenclature of Amines

Common naming system:

Aliphatic amines are named by pre xing an alkyl group to a mine, i.e., alkylamine.

For example:

Secondary and tertiary amines, having two or more similar groups are named by adding pre x
di or tri before the name of alkyl group. Sponsored Links

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Aromatic amines are named as derivatives of the parent member, aniline (C6H5NH2).
Aromatic amines are named as derivatives of the parent member, aniline (C6H5NH2). Hotstar

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IUPAC naming system:

Aliphatic or aromatic amines are named by replacing e in the end of the parent hydrocarbon
by amine.

For example:

CH3NH2 C6H5NH2

Methanamine Benzenamine

Amines containing more than one amino groups at di erent positions in the parent chain, are
named by specifying numbers to the carbon atoms bearing NH2 groups along with attaching a

suitable pre x such as di, tri, etc. to the amine. The ending e of the hydrocarbon is retained.

For example:

H2N CH2 CH2 NH2

Ethane-1, 2-diamine

Preparation of Amines

1. By reduction of nitro (RNO2) compounds:

2. By reduction of nitriles (RCN):

3.By reduction of amides (RCONH2):

4. By ammonolysis of alkyl halides:

5. Hofmann bromamide reaction:

RCONH2 + Br2 + 4NaOH RNH2 + 2NaBr + Na2CO3 + 2 H2O

This method gives amine with one carbon less than the parent amide.

6. Gabriel phthalimide synthesis:


Physical Properties of Amines

The lower aliphatic amines are gases with shy smell.

Primary amines wit three or more carbon atoms are liquid and higher members are all solids.

Lower amines are soluble in water as they can form hydrogen bonds with water, however the
solubility decreases with increase in hydrophobic alkyl group.

Amines have a higher boiling point than the hydrocarbon of comparable molecular mass. This
is due to their ability to associate via intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

Boiling points order of various isomeric amines is:

1o > 2o > 3o

Basic strength of amines

Amines act as Lewis bases due to the presence of lone pair of electrons on the nitrogen atom.
Basic character of amines can be better expressed in terms of their Kb and pKb values.

All aliphatic amines are strong bases than NH3 while aromatic amines are weaker bases than NH3

due to the electron withdrawing nature of the aryl group.

o Factors a ects the basicity of aliphatic amines are:


Inductive e ect
Solvation e ect
Steric hinderance

Considering all the above factors the basic strength of methyl substituted amines and ethyl
substituted amines in aqueous medium follows the order:

(CH3)2NH > CH3NH2 > (CH3)3N > NH3

(C2H5)2NH > (C2H5)3N > C2H5NH2 > NH3