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Fluid Mechanics

Text books

Course Philosophy

One of the best ways to learn something is through practice and repetition
Therefore, homework assignments are extremely important in this class.
Homework sets will be challenging, comprehensive and carefully designed.
If you study and understand the homework, you should not have to struggle with
the exams.

Homework Policy

One or two homework assignments per topic (3 to 5 problems).


Homework is due on Friday at the beginning of class.
Homework turned in late will not be evaluated.
Exceptions will be made under extreme circumstances.
Solutions will be made available within a week after the due date.

Problem Solving Techniques


Fluid flow analysis is packed with problems to be solved.
Here are the recommended steps for problem solution:
1. Read the problem and restate it with your summary of the results desired.
2. From tables or charts, gather the needed property data: density, viscosity, etc.
3. Make sure you understand what is asked. Students are apt to answer the wrong
questionfor example, pressure instead of pressure gradient, lift force instead
of drag force, or mass flow instead of volume flow. Read the problem carefully.
4. Make a detailed, labeled sketch of the system or control volume needed.
5. Think carefully and list your assumptions. You must decide if the flow is steady
or unsteady, compressible or incompressible, viscous or inviscid, and whether
a control volume or partial differential equations are needed.
6. Find an algebraic solution if possible. Then, if a numerical value is needed, use
the SI unit systems.
7. Report your solution, labeled, with the proper units and the proper number of

significant figures (usually two or three) that the data uncertainty allows.
Fluid Mechanics

Fluid mechanics is the study of fluids either in motion (fluid dynamics) or at rest (fluid
statics).
Both gases and liquids are classified as fluids, and the number of fluid engineering
applications is enormous: breathing, blood flow, swimming, pumps, fans, turbines,
airplanes, ships, rivers, windmills, pipes, missiles, icebergs, engines, filters, jets,
and sprinklers, to name a few.

Density or Mass Density or Specific Mass


Mass Density is defined as the ratio of mass of the fluid to the volume of fluid.
Mathematically, it is represented as
= mass of the fluid (m) /Volume of the fluid (V)
Units: kg/m3
Weight Density or Specific Weight
Specific weight is defined as the ratio of weight of the fluid to the volume of the fluid.
Mathematically, it is represented as
= Weight of the fluid (W) /Volume of the fluid (V)
Units: N/m3
Specific Volume
Specific Volume is the reciprocal of mass density.
Specific Gravity or Relative Density
The specific gravity, or relative density, is defined as the ratio of the density of a substance
to the density of some standard substance at a specified temperature (the standard
substance is water at 4C, for which H2O = 1000 kg/m3 ).
That is,
SG = / H2O
When specific gravity is known, density is determined from = SG H2O .

Viscocity
Daily Life Example
When two solid bodies in contact move relative to each other, a friction force develops
at the contact surface in the direction opposite to motion. To move a table on the floor,
for example, we have to apply a force to the table in the horizontal direction large
enough to overcome the friction force. The magnitude of the force needed to move the
table depends on the friction coefficient between the table and the floor. The situation is
similar when a fluid moves relative to a solid or when two fluids move relative to each
other. We move with relative ease in air, but not so in water. Moving in oil would be even
more difficult, as can be observed by the slower downward motion of a glass ball
dropped in a tube filled with oil. It appears that there is a property that represents the
internal resistance of a fluid to motion or the fluidity, and that property is the viscosity
The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in the flow direction is called the drag force
and the magnitude of this force depends, in part, on viscosity.

Viscocity or Dynamic Viscocity or Absolute Viscocity


Kinematic Viscocity
Newtonian Fluids
Non newtonian Fluids
Surface Tension
Capillarity

Self Assessment on Understanding Things

Use the following scale for your responses.


1. Poor understanding, or never heard of the concept.
2. Weak understanding, probably couldnt apply it properly.
3. OK understanding, could apply it with considerable effort.
4. Good undertanding, could apply it with little or no trouble.
5. Excellent understanding, almost second nature

Topic or Concept Understanding


Specific gravity 1 2 3 4 5
Dynamic and Kinematic viscocity 1 2 3 4 5
Surface tension 1 2 3 4 5
Capillarity 1 2 3 4 5
Vapour pressure 1 2 3 4 5
Atmospheric and gauge pressure 1 2 3 4 5
Manometry 1 2 3 4 5
Pascal's law 1 2 3 4 5

For a Newtonian fluid


Shear stress is proportional to Shear stress is proportional to rate
A. B.
shear strain of shear strain
1.
Rate of shear stress is Rate of shear stress is proportional
C. D.
proportional to shear strain to rate of shear strain
E. All the above F. None of the above
The increase in temperature
Increases the viscosity of a liquid Decreases the viscosity of a liquid
A. and decreases the viscosity of a B. and increases the viscosity of a gas
2. gas
Increases the viscosity of both a Decreases the viscosity of both a
C. D.
liquid and a gas liquid and a gas
E. All the above F. None of the above
If a uniform solid body weighs 50 N in air and 30 N in water, its specific gravity is
A. 1.5 B. 1.67 C
3.
C. 2.5 D. 3.0
E. 5.0 F. None of the above
An oil has a kinematic viscosity of 1.25E4 m2/s and a specific gravity of 0.80. What is its
dynamic (absolute) viscosity in kg/(m s)?
4. A. 0.08 B. 0.10 B
C. 0.125 D. 1.0
E. 1.25 F. None of the above
5. Consider a soap bubble of diameter 3 mm. If the surface tension coefficient is 0.072 N/m
and external pressure is 0 Pa gage, what is the bubbles internal gage pressure?
A. -24 Pa B. 48 Pa D
C. 96 Pa D. 192 Pa
E. -192 Pa F. None of the above
6. Two parallel plates, one moving at 4 m/s and the other fixed, are separated by a 5-mm-
thick layer of oil of specific gravity 0.80 and kinematic viscosity 1.25E4 m2/s. What is
the average shear stress in the oil in Pa?
A. 80 B. 100 A
C. 125 D. 160
E. 200 F. None of the above
7.
A. B.
C. D.
E. F.
8.
A. B.
C. D.
E. F.
9.
A. B.
C. D.
E. F.
10.
A. B.
C. D.
E. F.
11.
A. B.
C. D.
E. F.

A. B.
C. D.
E. F.
Activities @ home
Activity # 1: Measurement of the surface tension of a film

Construct a wire U by taking an ordinary wire and bending it 90 twice. Lay a straight
wire on top of the U so that it makes a right angle with the two legs of the U. Dip the
assembly into a liquid containing a mixture of water and a small amount of detergent, of
the type used for washing dishes. (The surface tension of this liquid can be strengthened
by adding a little glycerine to the solution.) An approximately rectangular soap film is thus
formed. You will have to exert a force to hold the straight wire in place. How is this force
related to the surface tension?

In this example, since the liquid film has two surfaces exposed to air, it is helpful to think
of the problem as consisting of two separate liquid-gas films that lie next to one another.
If the wire has a length L in contact with the film, the force needed to hold the films in
equilibrium will then be
F = 2L.
where C T times L is the force on one film, and the 2 takes into account the second film.
Generally, this 2 multiplier will occur in a liquid film separating a gas from a gas (e.g.,
as in a soap bubble blown by a child), where there are actually two films present. A film
separating a gas from a liquid (e.g., a bubble in a carbonated beverage) is a single film,
and would not have the 2 multiplier.