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12/4/2017 theonlythingunchangedisChange:AssesswholeSEMmodelchisquareandfitindex

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THEONLYTHINGUNCHANGEDIS
CHANGE

BE I N G
T H U R S D AY, A P R I L 1 9 , 2 0 0 7

book,idea,dialogue,shadow,healing,
AssesswholeSEMmodelchisquareandfitindex
transcendence
V I EW MY CO MP LET E P R O FI LE GlobalmodelfittestsproducedbyAMOS,theseteststatisticsare
stillcomputedundertheassumptionofjointmultivariate
normality.Inotherwords,thesevalueswillremainunchanged
Bookshelf whetheryouusebootstrappingornot.
Osho:lifeanddeath achisquareprobabilityvaluegreaterthan.05indicates
data acceptablemodelfit
foragoodmodelfit,wewantthechisquaretobeinsignificant
data,1
PenaltyofmodelcomplexityForagivensetofdataand
variables,thegoodnessoffitofamorecomplex,highly
parameterizedmodeltendstobegreaterthanforsimplermodels
Thehighestpurposeofyourlifeistobe
becauseofthelossofdegreesoffreedomofthecomplexmodel.
yourselftothebestofyourabilityand
Thus,agoodmodelfitindicatedbyfitmeasuresmayresultfrom
liveeachmomentasfullyaspossible.
1)acorrectlyspecifiedmodelthatadequatelyrepresentsthe
sampledataor2)ahighlyoverparamerizedmodelthataccounts
T R A NQ U I L forthefitofthemdoelinthesample,regardlessofwhetherthere
isamatchbetweenthespecifiedmodelandthepopulation
covariancematrix.
chisquaretestfunctionsasastatisticalmethodforevaluating
models,thefitindexesismoredescriptivethatnstatistical.Fit
indexesdescribeandevaluatehteresidualsthatresultfrom
fittingamodeltothedata.
HoyleandPanter(1995)recommendsomeindexesofoverall
NO T T H I S MO MENT modelfit,unadjustedchisqure,SatorraBenterscaledchisqure,
April2007(57) GFI,TLI(NNFI),IFI,CFI,RNI

Chisquaretest

S EAR CH
Thenullhypothesisisthepostulatedmodelholdsinthe
Search population,i.e.,theimplied(sample)covariancematrix=
populationcovriancematrix.TheresearcherhopesNOTtoreject
thenullhypothesis,incontrasttotraditionalstatistical
T W O : A NO T H ER procedures.Incontrasttotraditionalsignificancetesting,the
Idomythingandyoudoyour researcherusuallyprefersanonsignificantchisquare(sucha
thing. findingindicatesthatthepredictedmodeliscongruentwiththe
Iamnotinthisworldtoliveupto observeddata.).Inpractice,onlythecentralchisquare
yourexpectations, distributionisusedtotestthenullhypothesis.
Andyouarenotinthisworldto Thenullhypothesisundertestisthatthemodelfitsthedata,so
liveuptomine. youhopetofindasmall,nonsignificantchisquarevaluefor
Youareyou,andIamI, thistest.
andifbychancewefindeach

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12/4/2017 theonlythingunchangedisChange:AssesswholeSEMmodelchisquareandfitindex

other,it'sbeautiful. Chisqureandpvaluethehighertheprobabilitylevel(pvalue)
Ifnot,itcan'tbehelped. associatedwithchisquare,thebetterthefit.Amosreportsthe
GestaltprayerbyFritzPerls valueofchisqureasCMIN.Asignificantchisquareindicates
lackofsatisfactorymodelfit.Forexample,basedonalevelof
.o5,ifthehypothizedSEMmodeloutputshowsp=.000,then
O NE: S ELF
suggestingthehypothesizedmodelshouldberejected,i.e.,the
IamMe.Inalltheworld,thereisnoone hypothesizedmodelisnotadequate.Ifmodelchisquare<.05,
elseexactlylikeme.Everythingthat theresearcher'smodelisrejected.Thesmallerthechisquare,
comesoutofmeisauthenticallymine, thebetterthemodelfit.Ifprobabilityleveloftheanalysisoutput
becauseIalonechoseitIown is0.05orless,thedepartureofthedatafromthemodelis
everythingaboutme:mybody,my significantlyatthe.05level.Thechisquaretestoffersonlya
feelings,mymouth,myvoice,allmy dichotomousdecisionstrategyimpliedbyastatisticaldecision
actions,whethertheybetoothersor
ruleandcan'tbeusedtoquantifythedegreeoffitalonga
myself.Iownmyfantasies,mydreams,
continuumwithsomeprespecifiedboundary.
myhopes,myfears.Iownmytriumphs
ChisquareStatistics.Theadequacyoffitofamodelisamessy
andsuccesses,allmyfailuresand
issueinstructuralequationmodelingatthistime.One
mistakes.BecauseIownallofme,Ican
possibilityistousethechisquarestatistic.Thechisquareisa
becomeintimatelyacquaintedwithme.
functionofthedifferencesbetweentheobservedcovariancesand
Bysodoing,Icanlovemeandbe
friendlywithallmyparts.Iknowthere thecovariancesimpliedbythemodel.
areaspectsaboutmyselfthatpuzzleme, Thedecisionrulewhichmightbeappliedis:Ifthechisquare
andotheraspectsthatIdonotknow statisticisNOTsignificant,thenthemodelfitsthedata
butaslongasIamfriendlyandloving adequately.ButifthechisquarestatisticISsignificant,thenthe
tomyself,Icancourageouslyand modeldoesnotfitthedataadequately.SoEFAer,CFAer,and
hopefullylookforsolutionstothe SEMershopefornonsignificancewhenmeasuringgoodnessof
puzzlesandwaystofindoutmoreabout fitusingthechisquarestatistic.
me.HoweverIlookandsound,whatever Unfortunately,manypeoplefeelthatthechisquarestatisticisa
Isayanddo,andwhateverIthinkand poormeasureofoverallgoodnessoffit.Themainproblemwith
feelatagivenmomentintimeis itisthatwithlargesamples,eventhesmallestdeviationofthe
authenticallyme.Iflatersomepartsof datafromthemodelbeingtestedwillyieldasignificantchi
howIlooked,sounded,thought,andfelt squarevalue.Thus,itsnotuncommontoALWAYSgeta
turnouttobeunfitting,Icandiscard significantchisquare.
thatwhichisunfitting,keeptherest,and
supposetheproposemodelhaschisquare12.1checkingthe
inventsomethingnewforthatwhichI
statistictable,supposethatwiththeappropriatedegreesof
discarded.Icansee,hear,feel,think,say,
freedomthechisquarerequiredtorejectthenullhypothesisat
anddo.Ihavethetoolstosurvive,tobe
the0.01levelis11.3412.1islargerthan11.34meansrejectthe
closetoothers,tobeproductive,andto
nullhypothesis(H0:theimpliedcorrelationsandtheobserved
makesenseandorderoutoftheworldof
correlationsarefromthesamepopulationandthatany
peopleandthingsoutsideofme.Iown
me,andtherefore,Icanengineerme.I differencesareduetosamplingerror).thusthemdoeldoes
amme,andIamOkay. notfitthedataifchisquarevalueexceedstheappropriate
selfesteembyVirginiaSatir figureinthestatisticaltablesthenthemodelfailstofitthedata
Iftheproposedmodel'schisquarevalueis2.9,thismeansthat
theproposedmodelcan'tberejected,itdoesn'tmeanthatthe
proposedmodelisright,rathertheproposedmdoelhasnotbeen
shownthatitiswrong
Theanalysisresultoffitindexesarethesameforunstandardized
estimatesandstandardizedestimates.
Reportsofchisqureshouldbeaccompaniedbydegreesof
freedom,samplesize,andpvalue.Example,2(48,N=500)=
303.80,p<.001,TLI=.86,CFI=.90or2(15,
N=2232)=10.91,p=.77(somepeoplerecommendthisbecause
thisprovidesmoreaccurateinformationaboutthepvalue)

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The2associatedwiththemodel#issignificant,2(df,
N=2232)=#,p=0.000,whichsuggeststhatthemodelisnot
consistentwiththeobserveddata.
Nonsignificant2(15,N=2232)=10.91,p=.77,suggestingthat
theproposedmodelisconsistentwiththeobserveddata
Ifpvalueissmallerthan.05,werejecttheproposedmodel
Ifpvalueishigherthan.05,weaccepttheproposedmodel
The2associatedwiththemodelissignificant,2(df,
N=2232)=###,p=0.000,whichsuggeststhatthemodelisnot
consistentwiththeobserveddata.
Nonsignificant2(15,N=2232)=10.91,p=.77,suggestingthat
theproposedmodelisconsistentwiththeobserveddata.
chisquarestatisticisusedmoreasadescriptiveindexoffit,
ratherthanasastatisticaltest.Smaller2valueindicatesbetter
fittingmodelsandaninsignificant2isdesirable.
Chisquareishighlysensitivetodeparturesfrommultivariate
normality.
2issensitivetosamplesize.Withlargesamplesize,thechi
squarevalueswillbeinflated(statisticallysignificant),thus
mighterroneouslyimplyingapoordatatomodelfit
(Schumacker&Lomax,2004).
Withsmallsamplesizes,theremaynotbeenoughpowerto
detectthedifferencesbetweeenseveralcompetingmodelsusing
thechisquarestatisticformodelselectionorevaluation.At
largersamplesizes,powerissohighthatevenmodelswithonly
trivalmisspecificationsarelikelytoberejected.Assamplesize
increases,evenveryminormisspecificationscanleadtopoor
modelfit.Conversely,withsmallsamples,modelswilltendtobe
acceptedeveninthefaceofconsiderablemisspecification.In
large,complexproblems(i.e.,problemsinwhichtherearemany
variablesanddegreesoffreedom),theobservedchisquarewill
nearlyalwaysbestatisticallysignificant,evenwhenthereisa
reasonablygoodfittothedata.Chisquaretestisstrongly
influencedbysamplesize.Apoorfitbasedonasmallsample
sizemayresultinanonsignificantchisquare,whereasagood
fitbasedonalargesamplesizewillresultinasignificantchi
square.Thus,mostapplicationsofconfirmatoryfactoranalysis
requireasubjectiveevaluationofwhetherornotastatistically
significantchisquareissmallenoughtoconstituteanadequate
fit.
Relativechisquare,alsocallednormalchisquare,isthechi
squarefitindexdividedbydegreesoffreedom,inanattemptto
makeitlessdependentonsamplesize.AMOSlistsrelativechi
squareasCMIN/DF(chisqure/degreeoffreedomratio).
Wheaton(1987)advocatedCMIN/DFnotbeused.Intherange
of2to1or3to1indicateacceptablefitbetweenthehypothetical
modelandthesampledata(Carmnines&McIver,1981).Different
researchershaverecommendedusingratioaslowas2oras
highas5toindicateareasonablefit(Marsh&Hocevar,1985).A
chisqure/dfratiolargerthan2indicatesaninadequtefit
(Byrne,1989).chisquare/dfratiovalueslowerthan2arewidely
consideredtorepresentaminimallyplausiblemodel

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(Byrne,1991,TheMaslachBurnoutInventory:validating
factorialstructureandinvarianceacrossintermediates,
secondary,anduniversityeducators.MultivariateBehavioral
Research,26(4),583605)
thesmallertheChisquare,thebetterthefitofthemodel.Ithas
beensuggestedthataChisquaretwoorthreetimesaslargeas
thedegreesoffreedomisacceptable(Carmines
&McIver,1981),butthefitisconsideredbetterthecloserthe
Chisquarevalue
istothedegreesoffreedomforamodel(Thacker,Fields&
Tetrick,1989).In
thepresentsample,itwassuggestedthataratioof5to1wasa
usefulrule
ofthumb(Jacksonetal.,1993,p.755).cfTimothyR.Hinkin
(1995)
AReviewofScaleDevelopmentPracticesintheStudyof
Organizations.
JournalofManagement,Vol.21,No.5.967988
However,Chisquaretestmaybemisleading.1)Themore
complexthemodel,themorelikelyagoodfit(i.e.,thecloserthe
researcher'smodelistobeingjustidentified,themorelikely
goodfitwillbefound).2)Thelargerthesamplesize,themore
likelytherejectionofthemodelandthemorelikelyaTypeII
error(rejectingsomethingtrue).Inverylargesamples,eventiny
differencesbetweentheobservedmodelandtheperfectfitmodel
maybefoundsignificant.3)Thechisquarefitindexisalsovery
sensitivetoviolationsoftheassumptionofmultivariate
normality.Whenthisassumptionisknowntobeviolated,the
researchermaypreferSatorraBentlerscaledchisquare,which
adjustsmodelchisquarefornonnormality.
Unfortunately,manypeoplefeelthatthechisquarestatisticisa
poormeasureofoverallgoodnessoffit.Themainproblemwith
itisthatwithlargesamples,eventhesmallestdeviationofthe
datafromthemodelbeingtestedwillyieldasignificantchi
squarevalue.Thus,itsnotuncommontoALWAYSgeta
significantchisquare.
OtherMeasures.Forthisreason,researchershaveresortedto
examiningacollectionofgoodnessoffitstatistics.Byrne
discussestheRMRandthestandardizedRMR,SRMR.Thisis
simplythesquarerootofthedifferencesbetweenactual
variancesandcovariancesandvariancesandcovariances
generatedassumingthemodelistruethereconstructed
variancesandcovariances.ThesmallertheRMRand
standardizedRMR,thebetter.

AMOSoutput

YoushouldalwaysexaminetheNotesforModelsectionofthe
AMOSoutputaftereachAMOSanalysisfinishesbecauseAMOS
willdisplaymosterrorsandwarningsinthissectionofthe
output.Intheoutputshownabove,AMOSreportsthatthe
minimumwasachievedwithnoerrorsorwarnings.Thechi
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squaretestofabsolutemodelfitisreported,alongwithits
degreesoffreedomandprobabilityvalue.Theabsenceoferrors
orwarningsinthissectionoftheoutputmeansthatitissafefor
youtoproceedtothenextoutputsectionofinterest,theFit
Measuresoutput.

Defaultmodel,containsthefitstatisticsforthemodelyou
specifiedinyourAMOSGraphicsdiagram.

SaturatedmodelandIndependencemodel,refertotwobaseline
orcomparisonmodelsautomaticallyfittedbyAMOSaspartof
everyanalysis.
TheSaturatedmodelcontainsasmanyparameterestimates
asthereareavailabledegreesoffreedomorinputsintothe
analysis.TheSaturatedmodelisthustheleastrestrictedmodel
possiblethatcanbefitbyAMOS.

Bycontrast,theIndependencemodelisoneofthemost
restrictivemodelsthatcanbefit:itcontainsestimatesofthe
variancesoftheobservedvariablesonly.Inotherwords,the
Independencemodelassumesallrelationshipsbetweenthe
observedvariablesarezero.
forfinalreportCheckDefaultmodelCMIN(chisquare=
76.1018),p(value),DF(degreeoffreedom)

Ifp=.000,theprobabilityvalueofthechisquaretestissmaller
thanthe.05levelusedbyconvention,youwouldrejectthenull
hypothesisthatthemodelfitsthedata.Thisconclusionisnot
goodnewsfortheresearcherwhohopestofitthismodeltothe
datasetusedintheexample.

Becausethechisquaretestofabsolutemodelfitissensitiveto
samplesizeandnonnormalityintheunderlyingdistributionof
theinputvariables,investigatorsoftenturntovariousdescriptive
fitstatisticstoassesstheoverallfitamodeltothedata.Inthis
framework,amodelmayberejectedonanabsolutebasis,yeta
researchermaystillclaimthatagivenmodeloutperformssome
otherbaselinemodelbyasubstantialamount.Putanotherway,
theargumentresearchersmakeinthiscontextisthattheir
chosenmodelissubstantiallylessfalsethanabaselinemodel,
typicallytheindependencemodel.Amodelthatisparsimonious,
andyetperformswellincomparisontoothermodelsmaybeof
substantiveinterest.

Commonlyreportedfitstatisticsarethechisquare(shown
above),itsdegreesoffreedom(DF),itsprobabilityvalue(P),the
TuckerLewisIndex(TLI),andtheRootMeanSquareErrorof
Approximation(RMSEA)anditslowerandupperconfidence
intervalboundaries.ThereisalsoaStandardizedRootMean
Residual(StandardizedRMR)availablethroughtheTools,
Macromenu,butitisimportanttonotethatthisfitindexisonly

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availableforcompletedatasets(itwillnotbeprintedfor
databasescontainingincompletedata)

Thechisquaretestisanabsolutetestofmodelfit:Ifthe
probabilityvalue(P)isbelow.05,themodelisrejected.The
othermeasuresoffitaredescriptive.HuandBentler(1999)
recommendRMSEAvaluesbelow.06andTuckerLewisIndex
valuesof.95orhigher.SincetheRMSEAforthismodelis.11
andtheTuckerLewisIndexvalueis.92,themodeldoesnotfit
wellaccordingtothedescriptivemeasuresoffit.

Itisrarethatamodelfitswellatfirst.Sometimesmodel
modificationisrequiredtoobtainabetterfittingmodel.AMOS
allowsfortheuseofmodificationindicestogeneratethe
expectedreductionintheoverallmodelfitchisquareforeach
possiblepaththatcanbeaddedtothemodel.Torequest
modificationindexoutput,selecttheModificationIndicescheck
boxintheOutputtabintheAnalysisPropertieswindow.howto
dothis,
checkhttps://stat.utexas.edu/images/SSC/Site/AMOS_Tutorial
.pdf

Absolutefitindexesdirectlyassesshowwellapriorimodel
reproducesthesampledata

Toaddressthelimitationsofchisquretest,goodnessoffit
indexesasadjunctstothechisqurestatisticareusedtoassess
modelfit
Modelwithmanyvariablesandsmallsamplesmaybemore
inclinedtoexperiencedegradationinabsolutefitindexesthan
modelswithmanyvariablesandlargesamplesize.
RMR(rootmeansquareresidual),thesmallertheRMR,the
betterthemodel.AnRMRofzeroindicatesaperfectfit.The
closertheRMRto0foramodelbeingtested,thebetterthemodel
fit.RMRsmallerthan0.05indicatesgoodfit.
SRMR(standardizedRMR,rootmeansquareresidual)SRMR
<=.05meansgoodfit,ThesmallertheSRMR,thebetterthe
modelfit.SRMR=0indicatesperfectfit.Avaluelessthan.08is
consideredgoodfit.SRMRtendstobelowersimplyduetolarger
samplesizeormoreparametersinthemodel.TogetSRMRin
AMOS,selectAnalyze,CalculateEstimatesasusual.ThenSelect
Plugins,StandardizedRMR:thisbringsupablankStandardized
RMRdialog.ThenreselectAnalyze,CalculateEstimates,and
theStandardizedRMRdialogwilldisplaySRMR.
GFIshouldbyequaltoorgreaterthan.90toindicategoodfit.
GFIislessthanorequalto1.Avalueof1indicatesaperfectfit.
GFItendstobelargerassamplesizeincreases.GFI>0.95
indicatesgoodfit.GFIindexisroughlyanalogoustothemultiple
Rsquareinmultipleregressioninthatitrepresentstheoverall
amountofthecovariationamongtheobservedvariablesthatcan
beaccountedforbythehypothesizedmodel.
AGFI(adjustedGFI),AGFIadjuststheGFIfordegreeof
freedom,resultinginlowervaluesformodelswithmore
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parameters.AGFIshouldalsobeatleast.90,closeto1indicates
goodfit.AGFImayunderestimatefitforsmallsamplesizes.
AGFI'susehasbeendeclininganditisnolongerconsidereda
preferredmeasureofgoodnessoffit.AGFI>0.9indicatesgood
fit.
CI(centralityindex)CIshouldbe.90orhighertoacceptthe
model.
CAK
CK(singlesamplecrossvalidationindex)
MCI(centralityindex
CN

Incrementalfixindex(comparativefiindex)measurethe
proportionateimprovementinfitbycomparingatarget
modelwithamorerestricted,nestedbaselinemodel.Anull
modelinwhichalltheobservedvariabelsareuncorrelatedis
themosttypicallyusedbaselinemodel
BaselineComparisonscomparingthegivenmodelwithanalternative
model

CFI(comparativefixindex),closeto1indicatesaverygoodfit,>
0.9orcloseto0.95indicatesgoodfit,byconvention,CFIshould
beequaltoorgreaterthan.90toacceptthemodel.CFIis
independentofsamplesize.CFIismoreappropriatethanNFIin
finitesamples.NFIbehaveserraticallyacrossMLandGLS,
wheresasCFIbehavedconsistenlyacrossthetwoestimation
methods.CFIisrecommendedforroutineuse.Gerbingand
Anderson(1993)recommendedRNIandCFI,DELTA2(IFI).
Whenthesamplesizeissmall,boththeCFIandTLIdecreaseas
weincreasethenumberofvairablesinthemodels.
RNI,RNIisrecommendedforroutineuse.RNIisgenerally
preferredoverTLI.RNI>0.95indicatesgoodfit.
BBI(BentlerBonettindex),shouldbegreaterthan.9toconsider
fitgood.
IFI(incrementalfitindex,alsoknownasDELTA2),IFIshould
beequaltoorgreaterthan.90toacceptthemodel.IFIvalue
closeto1indicatesgoodfit.IFIcanbegreaterthan1.0under
certaincircumstances.IFIisnotrecommendedforroutineuse.
NFI(normedfitindex,alsoknownastheBentlerBonettnormed
fitindex,DELTA1),1=perfectfit.NFIvaluesabove.95aregood,
between.90and.95acceptable,andbelow.90indicatesaneed
torespecifythemodel.NFIgreaterthanorequalto0.9indicates
acceptablemodelfit.NFIlessthan0.9canusuallybeimproved
substantially.Someauthorshaveusedthemoreliberalcutoffof
.80.NFImayunderestimatefitforsmallsamples.NFIdoesnot
reflectparsimony:themoreparametersinthemodel,thelarger
theNFIcoefficient,whichiswhyNNFI(TLI)belowisnow
preferred(NNFIincorporatesacorrectionformodelcomplexity,
whereastheNFIdoesnot).NFIdependsonsamplesize,values
oftheNFIwillbehigherforlargersamplesizes.NFIbehaves
erraticallyacrossestimationmethodsunderconditionsofsmall
samplesize.NFIisnotagoodindicatorforevaluatingmodelfit
whenthesamplesizeissmall.
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NFIsuggestedrelativelypoorermodelfitasmissingdata
increased,withthebiasgenerallymorepronouncedwhendata
wereMARthanwhentheywereMCAR.WhereasNFIisstill
widelyused,itistypicallynotamongtherecommendedindices
inrecentreviews.Marshetal.,(1988)recommendedagainst
usingNFIandinfavorofTLI,becauseNFI,notTLI,issensitive
tosamplesize.Whenthesamplesizeissmall,boththeCFIand
TLIdecreaseasweincreasethenumberofvariablesinthe
model.
NNFI(nonnormedfitindex,alsocalledtheBentlerBonettnon
normedfitindex,theTuckerLewisindex,TLI,RHO2),NNFIis
similartoNFI,butpenalizesformodelcomplexity.NNFIisnot
guaranteedtovaryfrom0to1.Itisoneofthefitindexesless
affectedbysamplesize.NNFIcloseto1indicatesagoodfit.TLI
greaterthanorequalto0.9indicatesacceptablemodelfit.By
convention,NNFIvaluesbelow.90indicateaneedtorespecify
themodel.TLIlessthan0.9canusuallybeimproved
substantially.Someauthorshaveusedthemoreliberalcutoffof
.80sinceTLItendstorunlowerthanGFI.However,more
recently,HuandBentler(1999)havesuggestedNNFI>=.95as
thecutoffforagoodmodelfit.TLIisnotassociatedwithsample
size.NNFIisrecommendedforroutineuse.NNFIisamore
usefulindexthanNFI.HuandBentler(1998,1999)supportthe
continueduseofTLIbecauseTLIisrelativelyinsensitiveto
samplesizeTLIissensitivetomodelmissipecificationsis
relativelyinsensitivetoviolationsofassumptionsofmultivariate
normalityisrelativelyinsensitivetoestimationmethod
(maximumlikelihoodvsalternaitvemethods).RNIisgenerally
preferredoverTLI.
NTLI,NTLIisrecommendedforroutineuse.
RFI(relativefitindex,RHO1)isnotguaranteedtovaryfrom0to
1.RFIcloseto1indicatesagoodfit.NeithertheNFInortheRFI
arerecommendedforroutineuse.

ParsimonyAdjustedMeasuresmeasurespenalizeforlackof
parsimony.

PRATIO(parsimonyratio)
RMSEA(rootmeansquareerrorofapproximation),thereisgood
modelfitifRMSEAlessthanorequalto.05.Thereisadequate
fitifRMSEAislessthanorequalto.08.Morerecently,Huand
Bentler(1999)havesuggestedRMSEA<=.06asthecutofffora
goodmodelfit.RMSEAisapopularmeasureoffit.Lessthan.05
indicatesgoodfit,=0.0indicatesexactfit,from.08to.10
indicatesmediocrefit,greaterthan.10indicatespoorfit.
RMSEAisjudgedbyavalueof.05orlessasanindicationofa
goodfit.Avalueof.08orlessisindicativeofareasonable
errorofapproximationsuchthatamodelshouldnotbeusedifit
hasanRMSEAgreaterthan.1.HuandBentler(1995)suggested
valuesbelow.06indicategoodfit.TheRMSEAvaluesare
classifiedintofourcategories:closefit(.00.05),fairfit
(.05.08),mediocrefit(.08.10),andpoorfit(over.10).
RMSEAsmallerthan0.05indicatesgoodfit.RMSEAtendsto
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improveasweaddvariablestothemodel,expeciallywithlarger
samplesize.OnelimitationofRMSEAisthatitignoresthe
complexityofthemodel.Thelackoffitofthehypothesized
modeltothepopulationisknownastheerrorofapproximation.
TheRMSEAisastandardizedmeasureoferrorof
approximation.RMSEAvalueof.05orlessindicatesaclose
approximation,valuesofupto.08suggestsareasonablefitof
themodelinthepopulation.
PCLOSEteststhenullhypothesisthatRMSEAisnogreaterthan
.05.IfPCLOSEislessthan.05,werejectthenullhypothesis
andconcludethatthecomputedRMSEAisgreaterthan.05,
indicatinglackofaclosefit.
PGFI(parsimonygoodnessoffitindex)
PNFI(parsimonynormedfitindex),Thereisnocommonly
agreeduponcutoffvalueforanacceptablemodel.
PCFI(parsimonycomparativefitindex),Thereisnocommonly
agreeduponcutoffvalueforanacceptablemodel.

Absolutefitindexesdirectlyassesshowwellapriorimodel
reproducesthesampledata
Informationcriteriosnindex,goodnessoffitmeasuresbasedon
informationtheory(donothavecutoffslike.90or.95.Rathertheyare
usedincomparingmodels,withthelowervaluerepresentingthebetter
fit.)

CAK
CK
MCI(McDonald'scentralityindex)
CN(Hoelter'sctriticalN)
AIC(AkaikeInformationCriterion,singlesamplecross
validationindex),thelowertheAICmeasure,thebetterthefit.
AIC0,AMOSSpecificationSearchtoolbydefaultrescalesAICso
whencomparingmodels,thelowestAICcoefficientis0.Forthe
remainingmodels,AIC0<=2,nocredibleevidencethemodel
shouldberuledout24,weakevidencethemodelshouldbe
ruledout47,definiteevidence710strongevidence>10,
verystrongevidencethemodelshouldberuledout.
CAIC(ConsistentAIC),thelowertheCAICmeasure,thebetter
thefit.
BCC(BrowneCudeckcriterion,alsocalledtheCudeck&Browne
singlesamplecrossvalidationindex)Itshouldbecloseto.9to
considerfitgood.BCCpenalizesformodelcomplexity(lackof
parsimony)morethanAIC.
ECVI(Expectedcrossvalidationindex,singlesamplecross
validationindex),initsusualvariantisequivalenttoBCC,andis
usefulforcomparingnonnestedmodels,lowerECVIisbetterfit.
EVICcanbeusedtocomparenonnestedmodelsandallowsthe
determinationofwhichmodelwillcrossvalidatebestinanohter
sampleofthesamesizeandsimliarlyselected.Choosethemodel
thathasthelowestECVI.
MECVI,avariantonBCC,exceptforascalefactor,MECVIis
identicaltoBCC

http://zencaroline.blogspot.in/2007/04/globalmodelfit.html 9/14
12/4/2017 theonlythingunchangedisChange:AssesswholeSEMmodelchisquareandfitindex

BIC(BayesianInformationCriterion,alsoknownasAkaike's
BayesianInformationCriterion(ABIC)andtheSchwarz
BayesianCriterion(SBC).comparedtoAIC,BCC,orCAIC,BIC
morestronglyfavorsparsimoniousmodelswithfewer
parameters.BICisrecommendedwhensamplesizeislargeor
thenumberofparametersinthemodelissmall.Recently,
however,thelimitationsofBIChavebeenhighlighted.
BIC0,theAMOSSpecificationSearchtoolbydefaultrescalesBIC
sowhencomparingmodels,thelowestBICcoefficientis0.For
theremainingmodels,theRaftery(1995)interpretationis:BIC0
<=2,weakevidencethemodelshouldberuledout24,positive
evidencethemovelshouldberuledout610,strongevidence>
10,verystrongevidencethemodelshouldberuledout.
BICp.BICcanberescaledsoAkaikeweights/Bayesfactorssum
to1.0.InAMOSSpecificationSearch,thisisdoneinacheckbox
underOptions,CurrentResultstab.BICpvaluesrepresent
estimatedposteriorprobabilitiesifthemodelshaveequalprior
probabilities.ThusifBICp=.60foramodel,itisthecorrect
modelwithaprobabilityof60%.ThesumofBICpvaluesforall
modelswillsumto100%,meaning100%probabilitythecorrect
modelisoneofthem,atrivialresultbutonewhichpointsoutthe
underlyingassumptionthatproperspecificationofthemodelis
oneofthedefaultmodelsintheset.Putanotherway,"correct
model"inthiscontextmeans"mostcorrectofthealternatives."
BICL.BICcanberescaledsoAkaikeweights/Bayesfactorshave
amaximumof1.0.InAMOSSpecificationSearch,thisisdone
inacheckboxunderOptions,CurrentResultstab.BICLvaluesof
.05orgreaterinmagnitudemaybeconsideredthemostprobable
modelsin"Occam'swindow,"amodelfilteringcriterion
advancedbyMadiganandRaftery(1994).
QuantileorQPlots
IES(Interactioneffectsize),IESisameasureofthemagnitudeof
aninteractioneffect(theeffectofaddinganinteractiontermto
themodel).InOLSregressionthiswouldbetheincremental
changeinRsquaredfromaddingtheinteractiontermtothe
equation.InSEM,IESisananalogouscriterionbasedonchi
squaregoodnessoffit.Recallthatthesmallerthechisquare,the
betterthemodelfit.IESisthepercentchisquareisreduced
(towardbetterfit)byaddingtheinteractionvariabletothe
model.

residualasameasureofoverallfit

residualisthedifferencebetweenthesamplematrix(S)and
populationmatrix().Standardizedresidualsareresidualsthat
havebeenstandardizedtohaveameanofzeroandastandard
deviationofone,makingthemeasiertointerpret.Standardized
residualslargerthanabsolutevalue2.0areconsideredtobe
suggestiveofalackoffit.

http://www2.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/pa765/structur.htm#extra
ct

http://zencaroline.blogspot.in/2007/04/globalmodelfit.html 10/14
12/4/2017 theonlythingunchangedisChange:AssesswholeSEMmodelchisquareandfitindex

AlthoughAMOSprovidesaconsiderablybroaderrangeoffit
indexes,itdoesnotpermitaccesstotheinformationmatrixor
residualswithincompletedata.

P O S T ED B Y B EI NG AT 8: 01 P M

21CO MMENTS:

clivesaid...

Thanksforagreatsite.Asanewish(andlazy)userofSEMI've
beenlookingforagesforaclearandconciseoverviewofmodel
fitindices.

5 :5 6A M

ImamSalehsaid...

canIciteyoursiteonmypaper?
)
4:5 2A M

Amandeepsaid...

Hi,Iamimpressedbytherangeanddepthofyourwriting.I
cameacrossyourblogsearchingforAMOShelp.Adoctoral
student,Iamtestingamodelwithattitudesandbehavioursand
inneedofguidance.Ifitspossiblepleaseshareyouremail
addresssothatIcanwriteingreaterdetail.Thanks.
3:46A M

Anonymoussaid...

IwasreadingtheAMOShelptoperformtheSRMR,butitwas
impossible.Yougavemethesolution!Thankyou!
1 1 :48 A M

petesaid...
YourdiscussiononSRMRisbriliant!evenmanyauthorsof
Amostextbooksdontknowthat!
2:29P M

Poojasaid...
OitsawesomeIhavebeenoutofplacetilthetimeIreadthis.

Pooja
(IITD)
1 :37 A M

questsaid...

http://zencaroline.blogspot.in/2007/04/globalmodelfit.html 11/14
12/4/2017 theonlythingunchangedisChange:AssesswholeSEMmodelchisquareandfitindex

IfigotamodelwithRMSEA=0.1butnotpossibletogetthis
less,itriedtorefitthemodelbutcanonlydothatwitherror
correlation,whatwouldyousuggest
4:1 1 P M

beingsaid...

toquestcheckotherindexes
tootherpeopleyouhavethefreedomtocite,butIamnot
responsibleforanypossiblemistakesonthisblog.Thisblogis
justmystudynote.
8 :0 1 A M

Anonymoussaid...

Thankyoufortheinformation.Ihavebeensearchingforhow
togettheSRMRonAMOSwithnoluckuntilIreadyourpost.
1 1 :1 4A M

MasoodKalyarsaid...
Youdidreallyanexcellentandawsomework.Iwaslookingfor
acomprehensivearticleonmodelfitnessandafterthestruggle
ofseveraldaysifinallyexploredthissiteandreadthearticle
containsinvaluableinfomationatasinglepage.great.....!!!
Keepitonbuddy

2:30 A M

malkasaid...

Hithnksitsreallyveryinformative....btIhveanissuecminof
mydatais.096sohetoresolvedsIusedmaximumlikelihood
estimation.Plzdoreplyncanuquoteanyarticlereferingif
cmincanbtill1to5...

4:1 4P M

Andreassaid...

Greatsite.IneededonetextwrittenbyMarshformythesis.
5 :0 3P M

Anonymoussaid...

mychisqvalueis20,mysamplesizecontain120company
witheightfactorseachischisqvalueisokornot
1 1 :44A M

hubshanksaid...
Awesome.IhadnotnoticedthatThat1999paperbyHuand
BentlersuggestsanRMSEApvalue0.06ascutoffpointfor
goodfit!Myresearchfallbetween0.05and0.06.Thismakes
arguingabiteasier)

http://zencaroline.blogspot.in/2007/04/globalmodelfit.html 12/14
12/4/2017 theonlythingunchangedisChange:AssesswholeSEMmodelchisquareandfitindex

1 :5 7 A M

MarekSkorsepasaid...

Isitpossibletocreatealistofreferencesyouusedinthis
article?Thankyou.
3:39A M

ramansaid...


HelloSir,

IamtryingtoimplementSEMinmyprojectwork.Thevalueof
CFIis0.487andRMRis=0.046.thevalueofCFIisveryless
whatdoesitindicatethemodelisrejcted?Whatshouldido.
Kindlyguide
3:48 A M

Anonymoussaid...

Areallfitindicesconsideredstandardized?Oronlythetwo
wherenotedabove?
5 :40 A M

Jeanettesaid...

Thispageis,byfar,themosthelpful,understandable,and
comprehensiveonlineresourceforCFAthatIhavefound(andI
havespentseveralhourssearching)!Thankyousomuchfor
helpinganallbutdissertation(ABD)doctoralpsychology
studentfinishthedissertation!!Rockon!
5 :42P M

ultraanizadosaid...

AbsolutelyfantasticWebseite,danke.Ijusthaveonequestion.
MyRMSEAis.055butthePCLOSEis.181sosincethePCLOSE
isnotbiggerthan0.5thatwouldmeanthatdespitehavingthe
RMSEAinthat"fairfitting"result,isnotvalid?
1 :1 5 P M

JoshM.said...

Hooperetal2008SEMFit,andHo2006StructuralEquation
Modelingaretwogreatresourcesforunderstandingmodelfit
indices.

Questcheckyourotherindices.Ifthemodellookslikeit
doesn'tfitthedata,tinkeringawayatitmightnotbethebest
option.Youmighthavetorevampyourmodel.

Chisquarevalue(CMIN)aloneisnotenoughtodeterminefit.

http://zencaroline.blogspot.in/2007/04/globalmodelfit.html 13/14
12/4/2017 theonlythingunchangedisChange:AssesswholeSEMmodelchisquareandfitindex

Hell,theChiSquaretestisntevenenough.LookattheRelative
ChiSquarestatistic(X^2/df)andseeifitsintherangeof25
(fromwhatIremember).TheX^2testgetsscreweywithsample
size,sotoolargeortoosmallofNwillskewtheresultofthetest
drastically.IthinkthemagicnumberissomewherearoundN=
200.

HubshankYourRMSEAvaluelooksgood,butcheckyourother
indiciestodeterminefit.Therearecuttoffformost(ifnotall)of
thestandardizedfitindexes.Thecuttoffsaremorelike
guidelines,butthey'resomethingtocite.

UltraanizandoYourRMSEAvaluelooksgood,butcheckits
confidenceintervals.Youwanttheupperbound90%CItobe
lessthan.08andthelowerboundtobeverycloseto0.Noneof
thesecuttoffsaresetinstoneortheabsoluterulewhichleads
metoanimportantpointthatmostpeoplehereseemtomiss:

Theseindiciesshouldnotbeusedinisolation.Justbecuaseyou
haveoneindexthatsignifiesbadfit(evenhorriblefit)doesnot
meanyouhaveabadmodel.Youhavetotriangulatebetween
theindiciesknowingeachotherlimitations.IfyouhaveN=
100000youprobablydontwanttoputtoomuchstockinthe
outcomeofthex^2significancetest.Thekey,onceagain,isto
lookatmanyoftheindiciesknowingeachoftheirlimitations
andseeiftheonesthatshouldbelookinggoodarelooking
good.Therearemoreissuesthanjustmodelfit.Youdontwant
tomesswithsomethingtodeviateheavilyfromtheoryjusttofit
themodelbetter.MostofthatstuffisinthearticlesIcited.
1 0 :0 2P M

JoshM.said...
Alsocheckyourassumptionsofsem:randomsampling,
multivariatenormaldistribution,linearcorrelationbetween
eachendogenousandeachexogenousvariablebeingincluded
inthemodel,andindependenceofobvervations.Ifyour
variablesarenotlinearlyrelatedornormallydistributedthen
problemscanariseandSEMmaynotworkwell.

1 0 :0 7 P M

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