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Module V Modern machining methods are also named as non-conventional machining methods. Non traditional machining processes, are employed where traditional machining processes are not feasible, satisfactory or economical due to special reasons as outlined. The complexity of the job profile, hard materials, need for smooth surface finish, closer dimensional tolerance and higher accuracy has led to the unconventional machining processes more important

Characteristics of unconventional process

  • 1. Very hard and brittle can be machined

  • 2. Flexible or slender work piece be machined, due to absence of physical contact of tool and work (less cutting force)

  • 3. Complex part geometries that can be produced

  • 4. Provide very good quality of surface finish and dimensional accuracy

  • 5. Stress free components are possible

  • 6. Less tool wear due the absence of tool contact

Disadvantages of non-conventional machining:

1) High cost 2) complex set-up 3) skilled operator required

Conventional machining involves the direct contact of tool and work -piece, whereas unconventional machining does not require the direct contact of tool and work piece. Conventional machining has many disadvantages like tool wear which are not present in non- conventional machining.

Machining performance characteristics of non conventional process

The machining characteristics of non-conventional processes can be analyzed with respect to:

  • (i) Metal removal rate

(ii) Tool wear rate (iii) Surface finish and Tolerance obtained

(iv) Depth of surface damage

  • (v) Power required for machining

Classification of non-conventional machining processes Classification based on principle of working and energy is described below. The suitability of application of any of the processes is dependent upon various performance factors.

Page 1 Module V Modern machining methods are also named as non-conventional machining methods. Non traditional

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Page 2 The process capabilities of non-conventional manufacturing processes have been compared in table.  
Page 2 The process capabilities of non-conventional manufacturing processes have been compared in table.  

The process capabilities of non-conventional manufacturing processes have been compared in table.

The metal removal rates by ECM and PAM are respectively that of conventional whereas others are only small fractions of it. Power requirement of ECM and PAM is also very high ECM has very low tool wear rate

The capital cost of ECM is very high whereas capital costs for AJM and PAM are comparatively low. EDM has got higher tooling cost than other machining processes. The metal removal efficiency is very high for EBM and LBM than for other processes.

Page 2 The process capabilities of non-conventional manufacturing processes have been compared in table.  

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Chemical machining processes (CHM)

This process is also called etching. The part of the workpiece whose material is to be removed is brought into the contact of chemical called enchant. The metal is removed by the chemical attack of enchant. The portion of workpiece where no material is to be removed is masked (maskant) before chemical etching. Chemical machining has been used where close tolerances are required. The surface finish obtained by the process is of the order of 0.5 to 2 microns.

Page 3 Chemical machining processes (CHM) This process is also called etching . The part of
Page 3 Chemical machining processes (CHM) This process is also called etching . The part of

Common maskants used are neoprene, polyvinylchloride, polyethylene etc. Enchant is selected depending on the workpiece material, rate of material removal and surface finish required. Common enchants are H 2 SO 4 , Fe CL 3 , HNO 3 . Advantages

  • 1. Different work can be done simultaneously.

  • 2. No application of force so no risk of damage to delicate or low strength work-piece

  • 3. Complicated shapes/patterns can be machined.

  • 4. Machining of hard and brittle material is possible.

  • 5. Low capital cost of equipment

  • 6. Easy and quick design changes

  • 7. The good surface quality

Disadvantages

  • 1. Difficult to get sharp corner

  • 2. Difficult to machine thick material. Limited to thin layer removal

  • 3. Slower process, very low MRR so high cost of operation.

  • 4. Causes less dimensional accuracy

Common application Creating shallow, wide cavities on plates, sheets, forgings and castings to reduce weight. Chemical Blanking: Metal blanks can be cut from very thin sheet metal

Chemical Milling:

is

used in

the aerospace industry to remove shallow layers of

material from large aircraft components. Etching is used widely to manufacture integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems components, decorative ornaments, filters or strainers etc

Page 3 Chemical machining processes (CHM) This process is also called etching . The part of

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Electrochemical machining (ECM)

In ECM, a dc voltage (10-25 V) is applied across the gap between a pre-shaped cathode tool

and an anode workpiece. The workpiece is dissolved by an electrochemical reaction to the

shape of the tool. ECM is the reverse of the electroplating. This process works on the

principle of Faraday‘s laws of electrolysis.

Tool is made cathode and kept in close proximity to the work-piece (anode) and current is passed through the circuit. The electrolyte is continuously flowing through a hole in the tool to the gap between the work piece and the tool surfaces. Material of work piece is removed by anodic dissolution. At the anodic workpiece surface, metal is dissolved into metallic ions by the deplating reaction, and thus the tool shape is copied into the workpiece. In ECM, electrolyte is so chosen that there is no deposition on tool and shape of tool remains unchanged. The machined surface takes the replica of tool shape

Page 4 Electrochemical machining (ECM) In ECM, a dc voltage (10-25 V) is applied across the
Page 4 Electrochemical machining (ECM) In ECM, a dc voltage (10-25 V) is applied across the
Page 4 Electrochemical machining (ECM) In ECM, a dc voltage (10-25 V) is applied across the

Dissolution reaction of iron (work material) in sodium chloride (NaCl) electrolyte The result of electrolytic dissociation

Page 4 Electrochemical machining (ECM) In ECM, a dc voltage (10-25 V) is applied across the
Page 4 Electrochemical machining (ECM) In ECM, a dc voltage (10-25 V) is applied across the

and Negatively charged anions: (OH) - and Cl - towards to anode, Positively charged cations: H + and Na + towards to cathode. At the anode:

Fe

Fe



2

e

Fe



2

Cl

FeCl

2

Fe



2(

OH

)

(

Fe OH

)

2

At the cathode, the reaction generates hydrogen gas

2H

2e

H

2

The outcome of these electrochemical reactions is that the iron ions combine with other ions to precipitate out as iron hydroxide Fe (OH) 2 and Fe Cl 2 as sludge.

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Electrolyte

Water is used as base of electrolyte in ECM. Normally water soluble NaCl and NaNO 3 are used as electrolyte. Electrolyte facilitates are carrier of dissolved workpiece material. It is

recycled by a pump after filtration. The main functions of the electrolytes in ECM are to

  • 1. Create conditions for anodic dissolution of workpiece material

  • 2. Remove the debris of the electrochemical reactions from the gap

  • 3. Carry away the heat generated by the machining process

Properties of electrolyte

  • 1. Ensure a uniform and high-speed anodic dissolution

  • 2. Not deposit on the cathode surface, so that the cathode shape remains unchanged

  • 3. Have a high electrical conductivity and low viscosity to reduce heat generation and to ensure good flow conditions in the extremely narrow inter-electrode gap

  • 4. Be safe, non-toxic, low cost and less erosive to the machine body

  • 5. Have small variation in its conductivity and viscosity due to temperature rise

Tool Feed Mechanism

Servo motor is used to feed the tool to the machining zone. It is necessary to maintain a

constant gap between the workpiece and tool so tool feed rate is kept accordingly while machining.

Process parameters and performance factors Supply voltage = 8 to 20V, Current (I) = 50 to 5000 A. Electrode gap is typically 0.1 to 0.2 mm. Tool material - Cu, Brass, Steel Tool feed rate, Electrolyte composition and temperature etc MRR is about 1600mm 3 /min per 1000 A Surface finishes 0.1 to 0.5 microns Specific power consumption 7W/mm 3 /min

Page 5 Electrolyte Water is used as base of electrolyte in ECM. Normally water soluble NaCl

using ECM

Accuracy and surface finish of ECM product is influenced on following input factors

Machining voltage

Feed rate of electrode

Temperature and concentration of electrolyte

Advantages of ECM Process or process capabilities

  • 1. Machining of hard and brittle material is possible with good surface finish

  • 2. Good for complicated shapes.

  • 3. There is almost negligible tool wear so cost of tool making is one time

  • 4. No direct contact between tool and work and absence of force or heat, so no scope of mechanical and thermal residual stresses in the work-piece.

  • 5. Very good surface finish can be obtained.

  • 6. MRR is not dependent on material hardness.

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Disadvantages and Limitations of ECM

  • 1. Electricity non-conducting materials can not be machined.

  • 2. Tool and workpiece material should be chemically stable with the electrolyte

  • 3. Accurate feed rate of tool is required to be maintained.

  • 4. High cost and difficult in dimensional control

Applications of ECM Process

  • 1. Used to machine dies, turbine and compressor blades

  • 2. ECM is used for deburring of parts like gears.

  • 3. ECM has been used in a wide variety of industrial applications ranging from cavity sinking to deburring.

Heat affected zone (HAZ)

Since it is a chemical process where generation of heat is very less, there is no heat affected

zone comparing with other non traditional machining process.

Material removal mechanism

Material is removed on the basis of anodic dissolution in an electrolytic cell.

Material removal rate (MRR) calculation in ECM process

Electrochemical dissolution is governed by Faraday‘s laws The first law states that the amount of electrochemical dissolution or deposition is

proportional to amount of charge passed through the electrochemical cell

m I *t

where m = mass of material dissolved or deposited I = current intensity t=time The second law states that the amount of material deposited or dissolved further depends directly on atomic weight and inverse of valency of material. Combining both laws, we get

m

I *t *

N

n

MRR

1

*

I

*

t

*

N

 
 

96500

 

n

*

d

where

1

electroche mical cons

tan

t

 

96500

 

N

atomic weight

 

n

valency

 

t

time

 

d

density of material

 

MRR

volume of material

removed

Page 6 Disadvantages and Limitations of ECM 1. Electricity non-conducting materials can not be machined. 2.
Page 6 Disadvantages and Limitations of ECM 1. Electricity non-conducting materials can not be machined. 2.

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Electric discharge machining (EDM)

It is also known as spark erosion machining or spark machining. Material of workpiece removed due to erosion caused by electric spark. The metal electrode (tool) and the part (work) are placed very close to each other, separated by a non-conducting liquid (called a dielectric) a commonly used dielectric is kerosene. A voltage difference is then applied to the part and tool, generating a spark; the heat from the spark melts a tiny bit of metal from the partThe melted metal cools and solidifies as tiny particles in the dielectric. By pumping the dielectric to flow, the metal is carried away, and the process continues. (When potential difference is created across the two surfaces of dielectric fluid, it gets ionized). Servo mechanism is provided to make the tool feed as the machining is taking place to keep the gap constant.

    Voltage 50 to 450 V (DC) Electrode gap = 0.01 to 0.5
Voltage 50 to 450 V (DC)
Electrode gap = 0.01 to 0.5 mm
MRR: 2 to 400 mm 3 /min.
Ra varies from 0.05 – 12.5 μm

Tool/ electrodes in EDM

The geometry which is to be machined into the workpiece decides the shape and size of the

tool. The electrode is conductor, usually copper, graphite, tungsten and brass etc. Tool is given negative polarity. The tool material selected should be easy to machine, high wear resistant. Tool is made slightly under size for inside machining and over sized for cut side machining.

  • 1. High electrical conductivity

  • 2. High thermal conductivity the local temperature rise would be less

  • 3. High melting point high melting point leads to less tool wear

  • 4. Easy manufacturability

  • 5. Cost cheap

  • 6. Less wear rate

Dielectric Solution Important properties of dielectric are its dielectric strength, viscosity, thermal conductivity

and thermal capacity. Dielectric strength characterizes the fluid‘s ability to maintain high

resistivity before spark discharge and the ability to recover rapidly after the discharge.

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The functions of a dielectric fluid in EDM process

It acts as an insulating medium • To act as a coolant to quench the spark and to cool the tool and work piece.

• To carry away the metal particles and to maintain the gap for smooth operation. Mineral oils (kerosene) are commonly used as the oils exhibiting high dielectric strength and a low viscosity. Water based dielectrics are used almost extensively for wire EDM operations.

Properties of dielectric fluid

  • 1. Low viscosity to ensure efficient flushing

  • 2. High flash point

  • 3. Non-toxic

  • 4. Non-corrosive

  • 5. High latent heat

  • 6. Suitable dielectric strength

Tool Feed Mechanism

In case of EDM, feeding the tool means controlling gap between workpiece and the tool. This gap is maintained and controlled with the help of servo mechanism. The electrode gap normally varies from 0.005 mm to 0.50 mm. Since tool wear is expected, tool wear rate is a performance parameters.

Advantages or process capability of EDM

  • 1. Can machine hard material economically with close tolerance.

  • 2. High degree of dimensional accuracy, so recommended for tool and die making.

  • 3. Complicated geometries can be produced which are very difficult otherwise.

  • 4. Highly delicate sections and weak materials can be processed without any risk of their distortion, because tool never applies direct contact on the workpiece

  • 5. Fine holes can be drilled easily and accurately.

  • 6. A good surface finish can be obtained.

Disadvantages and Limitations of EDM Process

  • 1. Electrically non-conducting materials cannot be processed by EDM.

  • 2. EDM process is not capable to produce sharp corners.

  • 3. The slow rate of material removal.

  • 4. Specific power consumption is very high.

  • 5. Excessive Tool wear affects dimensional accuracy

  • 6. Cannot be used on large sized workpieces, size is constrained by the size of set up.

Application of Electric Discharge Machining

EDM is widely used for die making as complex cavities are to be made, cutting very small

and accurate dimension holes, e.g. in injection nozzles for motor engines etc. This process is highly economical for machining of very hard material as tool wear is independent of hardness of workpiece material. It is very useful in tool manufacturing. It is also used for making holes with straight and curved axes which cannot be produced by conventional machining operations.

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Process parameters of EDM

Many processes variables influence the performance like material removal rate, surface finish and tool wear etc. Few controllable main input variables are the following:

  • 1. Current I (current passing in the circuit)

  • 2. Pulse on time - t on (duration of spark during a cycle)

  • 3. Pulse off time - t off (duration of absence of spark during a cycle)

  • 4. Open circuit voltage V

  • 5. The gap between the workpiece and the tool spark gap

Page 9 Process parameters of EDM Many processes variables influence the performance like material removal rate,
Page 9 Process parameters of EDM Many processes variables influence the performance like material removal rate,

Voltage and current variation during EDM process

Similarities between EDM and ECM (draw both figures also)

The tool and workpiece are separated by a very small gap, i.e. no contact in between

The tool and material must be conductors of electricity.

A fluid is used as a medium between the tool and the work

The tool is fed continuously towards the workpiece to maintain a constant gap

Needs high capital investment and power

Material removal mechanism

In electro-discharge machining, the occurrence of sparks cause material removal in the form of craters. These craters are due to melting and vaporization of workpiece over a localized area under the spark, which acts as the heat source. MRR is basically a function of the current and the melting point of the work-piece material. But experimentally we consider metal removal is function of pulse energy and frequency. Nature of variation of crater diameter, crater depth and volume of material removed with respect to different machining parameters

such as ‗ON‘ time, ‗OFF‘ time and current have been noticed.

Material removal rate calculation

A number of sparks are produced between the electrodes and every spark removes material and a crater is formed. The crater under a single spark has been shown below. It is assumes a hemispherical shape of radius ― r‖. The molten crater can be assumed to be hemispherical in nature with a radius r which forms due to a single pulse or spark. Hence material removal in a single spark can be expressed as

V c

2

3

r

3

Now material removal rate is the ratio of material removed in a single spark to cycle time.

MRR

V

c

V

c

t

t

on

t

off

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The energy content of a single spark is given as E  VIt on volume of
The energy content of a single spark is given as E  VIt on volume of

The energy content of a single spark is given as

E VIt

on

volume of material removed radius of crater

V

c

r

t

time of

sin

gle spark

t

on

on time of spark

Now it can be assumed that material removal in a single spark would be proportional to the spark energy.

V

c

E

Heat Affected Zone In EDM, with the temperature of the discharges reaching 8000 to 12,000°C, metallurgical changes occur in the surface layer of the work piece. Due to the extremely-high temperature of

the spark in the EDM process, a heat-affected zone, or HAZ is produced. The work piece material

melted by the discharge is not fully expelled into the dielectric.

There are two thermally affected sub-layers of material: the recast layer or white layer and the heat affected zone.

  • 1. Re-cast or ―white layer‖: A white recast layer: This is the material that has melted and rapidly solidified(, rapidly quenched by the dielectric fluid) and is not flushed away by the electric fluid, subsequently producing an extremely brittle surface.

  • 2. Heat-affected zone (HAZ), or annealed layer, which has only been heated, not melted. The heat affected zone retains the metallurgical structure of the parent material as the temperature absorbed is not to the level to change the structure.

  • 3. Below the heat affected zone is the parent material and this area is unaffected by the EDM process.

The energy content of a single spark is given as E  VIt on volume of
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Wire cut electric discharge machining (WEDM)

This is a special type of electric discharge machining that uses a small diameter wire as a cutting tool on the work. Process details of WEDM are almost similar to EDM with slight difference. The tool used in WEDM process is a small diameter wire as the electrode to cut narrow kerf in the workpiece. During the process of cutting the wire is continuously advanced between a supply spool and wire collector. Material of wire can be brass, copper, tungsten or any other suitable material to make EDM tool. Normally, wire diameter ranges from 0.076 to 0.30 mm

depending upon the width of kerf. (notice the meaning of kerf from the figure). Like EDM

process dielectric fluid is continuously sprayed to the machining zone. This fluid is applied by nozzles directed at the tool work interface or workpiece is submerged in the dielectric fluid container.

Page 11 Wire cut electric discharge machining (WEDM) This is a special type of electric discharge

Advantages

  • 1. Accuracy and precision of dimensions are of very good quality.

  • 2. No force is experienced by the workpiece. It does not impose any force to workpiece so used for very delicated and thin workpieces

  • 3. Hardness and toughness of workpiece do not create problems in machining operation

  • 4. Efficient Production Capabilities - Because of the precision and high-speed of wire EDM machines, many parts can be more economically produced with wire EDM, rather than with conventional machining.(gears, cams and dies etc)

Disadvantages and Limitations of WEDM

  • 1. The major disadvantages of this process are that only electrically conducting materials can be machined. This process is costly so recommended for use specifically at limited operations.

Differences between EDM and ECM

Medium Removal mechanism Tool wear Removal rate Dimensional accuracy Surface finish HAZ

ECM Electrolyte Removal Chemical action No tool wears High MRR Low High Less

EDM Dielectric removal by melting tool wear Low MRR High Low High

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Electron Beam Machining (EBM)

EBM is a metal removal process by a high velocity focused stream of electrons. As the electrons strike the workpiece with high velocity, their kinetic energy is transformed into thermal energy which melts and vaporizes the material. The production of free electrons (negatively charged particles) are obtained by electron gun. Due to pattern of electrostatic field produced by grid cup, electrons are focused and made to flow in the form of a converging beam through anode. The electrons are accelerated while passing through the anode by applying high voltage at anode. A magnetic deflection coil is used to make electron beam circular and to focus electron beam at a point (localized heating). The process is carried out in a vacuum chamber to prevent electrons from colliding with molecules of the atmospheric air and to prevent tungsten filament from getting oxidizing with air

Page 12 Electron Beam Machining (EBM) EBM is a metal removal process by a high velocity

Advantages of EBM

  • 1. There is no mechanical contact between too land work piece, hence no tool wear.

  • 2. Very small holes can be machined in every type of material with high accuracy

  • 3. Drilling holes with high depth/diameter ratios, greater than 100:1

  • 4. A wide range of materials like steel, stainless steel, Ti and Ni super-alloys, aluminium as well as plastics, ceramics can be machined successfully using electron beam.

  • 5. EBM does not apply any cutting force on the workpieces. Thus very simple work holding is required. This enables machining of fragile and brittle materials by EBM.

Disadvantages of EBM

  • 1. Cost of equipment is high.

  • 2. Rate of material removal is low.

  • 3. It can be used for small cuts only.

  • 4. Vacuum requirements limits the size ofwork piece.

Application of EBM

  • 1. Drilling of holes in pressure differential devices used in nuclear reactors, air craft engine

  • 2. Machining of wire drawing dies having small cross sectional area

Material removal mechanism

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Page 13 Laser Beam Machining (LBM) Laser beam machining (LBM) uses the light energy from a

Laser Beam Machining (LBM)

Laser beam machining (LBM) uses the light energy from a laser to remove material by

vaporization and ablation. Laser beam melts the material by focusing a coherent beam of

monochromatic light on the work-piece. The light produced by the laser has significantly less power than a normal white light, but it can be highly focused, thus delivering a significantly higher light intensity and respectively temperature in a very localized area.

The LBM process does not involve mass material removal, but does provide rapid material removal with an easily controlled, non-contact, non wearing tool.

Page 13 Laser Beam Machining (LBM) Laser beam machining (LBM) uses the light energy from a
Page 13 Laser Beam Machining (LBM) Laser beam machining (LBM) uses the light energy from a

Cooling Mechanism: to avoid its overheating in long continuous operation. Tool Feed Mechanism

Focusing laser beam (cutting tool) at a pre-decided point in the workpiece serves as the tool.

The movement of the converging lens to shift the focussing is the tool feed mechanism in LBM process.

Mirrors direct the beam from the source down to the lens

The lens then focuses the beam into the desired geometry

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Advantages of LBM

  • 1. Materials which cannot be machined by conventional methods are machined by LBM (ceramics, glass to softer materials like plastics, rubber wood).

  • 2. There is no tool so no tool wear.

  • 3. Application of heat is very much focused so rest of the workpiece is least affected by the heat.

  • 4. Drills very find and precise holes and cavities.

Disadvantages of LBM

  • 1. High capital investment is involved. Operating cost is also high.

  • 2. Recommended for some specific operations only as production rate is very slow.

  • 3. Cannot be used comfortably for high heat conductivity materials light reflecting materials.

  • 4. Skilled operators are required.

Applications of LBM

LBM is used to perform different machining operations like drilling, slitting, slotting, scribing operations. It is used for drilling holes of small diameter of the order of 0.025 mm. It is used for very thin stocks. Other applications are listed below :

Making complex profiles in thin and hard materials like integrated circuits and printed

circuit boards (PCBS). Machining of mechanical components of watches.

Smaller machining of very hard material parts.

Ion beam machining

In IBM, a stream of charged atoms (ions) of an inert gas, such as argon, is accelerated in a

vacuum by high energies and directed toward a solid workpiece. The beam removes atoms from the workpiece by transferring energy and momentum to atoms on the surface of the

object. When an atom strikes a cluster of atoms on the workpiece, it dislodges between 0.1 and 10 atoms from the workpiece material.

  • superheated stream of electrically ionized gas to melt and remove material

  • The process can be used on almost any conductive material

Page 14 Advantages of LBM 1. Materials which cannot be machined by conventional methods are machined

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Ion beam machining (IBM) takes place in a vacuum chamber using charged ions fired from an ion source toward the workpiece by means of an accelerating voltage. The mechanism of material removal in IBM differs from that of EBM. It is closely related to the ejection of atoms, from the surface, by other ionized atoms (ions) that bombard the work material. The process is, therefore, called ion etching, ion milling, or ion polishing.

A heated tungsten filament acts as the cathode, from which electrons are accelerated by means of high voltage (1 kV) toward the anode. During the passage of these electrons from the cathode toward the anode, they interact with argon atoms in the plasma source, to produce argon ions.

Ar +e →Ar + + 2e Advantages of IBM

  • 1. Low temperature processing reduces handling an stress problems.

  • 2. No dimensional changes

  • 3. Good adhesion of treated surface

  • 4. Can improve corrosion, oxidation, wear, hardness, friction, fatigue

Disadvantages of IBM

  • 1. Very shallow treatment (< 1 μm)

  • 2. High cost

  • 3. The surface can be weakened by radiation effects

Ion beam machine consists of A plasma souce generates ions

Extraction grid for removing the ions from the plasma

Specimen holding table

Ultrasonic machining (USM)

In Ultrasonic Machining, the tip of the tool vibrates at low amplitude and at high frequency in

an abrasive slurry. This vibration transmits a high velocity to fine abrasive grains between tool and the surface of the work piece. Material removed by erosion with these abrasive particles.

Page 15 Ion beam machining (IBM) takes place in a vacuum chamber using charged ions fired

In ultrasonic machining, a tool of desired shape vibrates at an ultrasonic frequency (19 ~ 25 kHz) with an amplitude of around 15 – 50 μm over the workpiece. Generally the tool is pressed downward with a feed force, F. Between the tool and workpiece, the machining zone is flooded with hard abrasive particles generally in the form of water based slurry. As the tool vibrates over the workpiece, the abrasive particles act as the indenters and indent both the work material and the tool. The abrasive particles as they indent the work piece, material get

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removed. USM is mainly used for machining brittle materials {which are poor conductors of electricity and thus cannot be processed by Electrochemical and Electro-discharge machining

Page 16 removed. USM is mainly used for machining brittle materials {which are poor conductors of
Page 16 removed. USM is mainly used for machining brittle materials {which are poor conductors of

The typical elements of an USM are Slurry delivery and return system Feed mechanism to provide a downward feed force on the tool during machining

The transducer, which generates the ultrasonic vibration The horn or concentrator, which mechanically amplifies the vibration to the required amplitude of 15 – 50 μm and accommodates the tool at its tip.

High power sine wave generator

This unit converts low frequency (60 Hz) electrical power to high frequency (20kHz)

electrical power.

Transducer

The ultrasonic vibrations are produced by the transducer. Essentially transducer converts electrical energy to mechanical vibration. The transducer for USM works on the following

principle Piezoelectric effect Magnetostrictive effect

Electrostrictive effect

Piezo electric transducer: These transducer generate a small electric current when they are compressed. Also when the electric current is passed though crystal it expands. When the current is removed, crystal attains its original size and shape. Piezo electric crystals have high conversion efficiency of 95%.

Magneto-strictive transducer: is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape or dimensions during the process of magnetization. These transducer are made

of nickel, nickel alloy sheets. The maximum change in length can be achieved is about 25 microns.

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Tool holder or Horn or concentrator

The tool holder holds and connects the tool to the transducer. The concentrator is usually a cylindrically shaped metal rod which amplifies and concentrates the vibration to the tool from

the transducer. The device is necessary because the amplitudes provided by the transducers themselves are insufficient for most practical applications of power ultrasound

Page 17 Tool holder or Horn or concentrator The tool holder holds and connects the tool

Cutting Tool

Page 17 Tool holder or Horn or concentrator The tool holder holds and connects the tool

Tool of USM vibrates with small amplitude at high frequency to vibrate abrasive slurry to cut

the work-piece material. The tool is attached to the arbor (tool holder) by brazing or

mechanical

means. .

The tool is made of relatively soft material.

Feed Mechanism

Tool is fed to the machining zone of workpiece. The tool is shaped as same to the cavity of be

produced into the workpiece. The tool is fed to the machining area. The feed rate is maintained equal to the rate of enlargement of the cavity to be produced.

Advantages of USM

  • 1. Its main advantage is the workpiece after machining is free from any residual stress as to concentrated force or heat is subject to it during the machining process.

  • 2. Extremely hard and brittle materials can be machined, their machining is very difficult by conventional methods.

  • 3. Very good dimensional accuracy and surface finish can be obtained.

  • 4. Operational cost is low.

  • 5. The process is environmental friendly as it is noiseless and no chemical and heating is used.

Disadvantages of USM

  • 1. Its metal removal rate (MRR) is very low and it can not be used for large machining cavities.

  • 2. Its initial setup cost and cost of tool is very high, frequency tool replacement is required as tool wear takes place in this operation.

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3.

Not recommended for soft and ductile material due to their ductility.

Page18

  • 4. Power consumption is quite high.

  • 5. Slurry may have to be replaced frequently.

Applications

Used for machining hard and brittle metallic alloys, semiconductors, glass, ceramics, carbides etc.

Used for machining round, square, irregular shaped holes and surface impressions.

Machining, wire drawing, punching or small blanking dies.

Process Parameters and their Effects

The main process parameters which govern the ultrasonic machining process is as follows

Amplitude of vibration (a o ) 15 – 50 μm

Frequency of vibration (f) 19 25 kHz

Feed pressure (p)

Abrasive size – 15 μm – 150 μm

Abrasive material Al 2 O 3 -SiC -B 4 C -Boronsilicarbide -Diamond

Volume concentration of abrasive in water slurry C

3. Not recommended for soft and ductile material due to their ductility. Page 18 4. Power

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Abrasive Jet machining (AJM)

In abrasive jet machining, a focused stream of abrasive particles, carried by high pressure air or gas is made to impinge on the work surface through a nozzle and the work material is made to impinge on the work surface through a nozzle and work material is removed by erosion by high velocity abrasive particles. The selection of abrasive particles depends on the hadness and Metal Removal Rate (MRR) of the workpiece. Most commonly, aluminium oxide or silicon carbide particles are used.

Page 19 Abrasive Jet machining (AJM) In abrasive jet machining, a focused stream of abrasive particles,Metal Removal Rate (MRR) of the workpiece. Most commonly, aluminium oxide or silicon carbide particles are used. Working Dry air or gas is filtered, compressed and regulated (pressure and flow rate) while passed into the mixing chamber. In the mixing chamber, abrasive powder is fed and is thoroughly mixed with air. The nozzle increases the velocity of the mixture at the expense of its pressure. Nozzles direct abrasive jet in a controlled manner onto work material. The velocity of the abrasive stream ejected through the nozzle is generally of the order of 330m/sec. Advantages of Abrasive Jet Machining (process capabilities) 1. Surface of the workpiece is cleaned automatically. 2. Smooth surface finish can be obtained. 3. Equipment cost is low. 4. Hard materials and materials of high strength can be easily machined. 5. Narrow slot can be produced Disadvantages of Abrasive Jet Machining (limitations)  Metal removal rate is low  In certain circumstances, abrasive particles might settle over the workpiece.  Nozzle life is less. Nozzle should be maintained periodically.  Abrasive Jet Machining cannot be used to machine soft materials. Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014 " id="pdf-obj-18-11" src="pdf-obj-18-11.jpg">

Working

Dry air or gas is filtered, compressed and regulated (pressure and flow rate) while passed into

the mixing chamber. In the mixing chamber, abrasive powder is fed and is thoroughly mixed with air. The nozzle increases the velocity of the mixture at the expense of its pressure. Nozzles direct abrasive jet in a controlled manner onto work material. The velocity of the abrasive stream ejected through the nozzle is generally of the order of 330m/sec.

Advantages of Abrasive Jet Machining (process capabilities)

  • 1. Surface of the workpiece is cleaned automatically.

  • 2. Smooth surface finish can be obtained.

  • 3. Equipment cost is low.

  • 4. Hard materials and materials of high strength can be easily machined.

  • 5. Narrow slot can be produced

Disadvantages of Abrasive Jet Machining (limitations)

Metal removal rate is low

In certain circumstances, abrasive particles might settle over the workpiece.

Nozzle life is less. Nozzle should be maintained periodically.

Abrasive Jet Machining cannot be used to machine soft materials.

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Page 20 Process performance parameters For AJM process, it is necessary to analyze the following process

Process performance parameters

Page 20 Process performance parameters For AJM process, it is necessary to analyze the following process

For AJM process, it is necessary to analyze the following process criteria.

  • 1. Material removal rate

  • 2. Geometry and surface finish of work piece

  • 3. Wear rate of the nozzle

Performance generally influenced by the process parameters as enumerated below:

  • 1. Abrasives used and its shape, size and composition

  • 2. Carrier Gas properties (Density, pressure and velocity of carrier gas) Density 1.3 kg/m 3 Velocity - 500 to 700 m/s Pressure - 2 to 10 bar

  • 3. Nozzle (material and diameter (0.2 to 0.8mm)

Effect of abrasive flow rate and grain size on MRR

It is clear from the figure that at a particular pressure MRR increase with increase of abrasive

flow rate and is influenced by size of abrasive particles. But after reaching optimum value, MRR decreases with further increase of abrasive flow rate.

Stand off distance

Stand off distance is defined as the distance between the face of the nozzle and the work surface of the work. SOD has been found to have considerable effect on the work material and accuracy. A large SOD results in flaring of jet which leads to poor accuracy. It is clear

from figure that MRR increase with nozzle tip distance or Stand off distance up to certain distance and then decreases. Decrease in SOD improves accuracy, decreases kerfwidth, and reduces taper in machined groove.

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Page 21 Applications 1. Used for cutting thin fragile components like germanium, silicon etc. 2. Most

Applications

  • 1. Used for cutting thin fragile components like germanium, silicon etc.

  • 2. Most suitable for machining brittle and heat sensitive materials like glass, quartz, sapphire, mica, ceramics germanium , silicon and gallium.

  • 3. De-flashing small castings, engraving registration numbers on toughened glass used for car windows

  • 4. AJM is useful in manufacture of electronic devices , drilling of glass wafers, making of nylon and Teflon parts permanent marking on rubber stencils, cutting titanium foils

Water jet machining and Abrasive Water Jet Machining (WJM/ AWJM)

Water jet machining

Water jet cutting uses the beam of water exiting the orifice to cut soft materials. The inlet

water is typically pressurised between 1300 4000 bars. Water jet cutting is mostly used to cut lower strength materials such as wood, plastics and aluminium. This method is not suitable for cutting hard materials.

Abrasive water jet machining (AWJM)

Abrasive water jet cutting is an extended version of water jet cutting; in which the water jet

contains abrasive particles such as silicon carbide or aluminium oxide in order to increase the material removal rate above that of water jet machining. Almost any type of material ranging from hard brittle materials such as ceramics, metals and glass to extremely soft materials such as foam and rubbers can be cut by abrasive water jet cutting. Abrasive water jet cutting is highly used in aerospace, automotive and electronics industries. The addition of abrasives to the water jet enhanced MRR and cutting speeds (51 and 460 mm/min).

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Page 22 Advantages of abrasive water jet cutting 1. In most of the cases, no secondary
Page 22 Advantages of abrasive water jet cutting 1. In most of the cases, no secondary

Advantages of abrasive water jet cutting

Page 22 Advantages of abrasive water jet cutting 1. In most of the cases, no secondary
  • 1. In most of the cases, no secondary finishing required

  • 2. Low cutting forces on workpieces

  • 3. Limited tooling requirements

  • 4. Little to no cutting burr

  • 5. Very good surface finish(125-250 microns)

  • 6. No heat affected zone

  • 7. Eliminates thermal distortion and structural change

  • 8. Precise, multi plane cutting of contours, shapes, and bevels of any angle.

Limitations of abrasive water jet cutting

Cannot drill flat bottom

Cannot cut materials that degrades quickly with moisture

Surface finish degrades at higher cut

High capital cost and high noise levels during operation.

Plasma arc machining (PAM)

It is also one of the thermal machining processes. Here the method of heat generation is different than EDM. In this process gases are heated and charged to plasma state. Plasma state is the superheated and electrically ionized gases at approximately 5000 o C. A high velocity jet flow of hot ionized gas melts the metal and then removes the molten material to form a kerf.

Plasma Gun

The plasma gun consists of a tungsten electrode fitted in the chamber. The electrode is given negative polarity and nozzle of the gun is given positive polarity. Supply of gases is maintained into the gun. A strong arc is established between the two terminals anode and cathode. Gases are used to create plasma like, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen or mixture of these gases. There is a collision between molecules of gas and electrons of the established arc. As a result of this collision gas molecules get ionized and heat is evolved. This hot and ionized

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gas called plasma is directed to the workpiece with high velocity. The established arc is controlled by the supply rate of gases.

Power Supply and Terminals

Power supply (DC) is used to develop two terminals in the plasma gun. A tungsten electrode is inserted to the gun and made cathode and nozzle of the gun is made anode. Heavy potential difference is applied across the electrodes to develop plasma state of gases.

Cooling Mechanism

As we know that hot gases continuously comes out of nozzle so there are chances of its

overheating. A water jacket is used to surround the nozzle to avoid its overheating. The metals usually cut with this process are the aluminium and stainless steels. The process can also be used for cutting carbon steels, copper alloys, and nickel alloys

Page 23 gas called plasma is directed to the workpiece with high velocity. The established arc
Page 23 gas called plasma is directed to the workpiece with high velocity. The established arc

Advantages of PAM Process

It gives faster production rate.

Very hard and brittle metals can be machined.

Small cavities can be machined with good dimensional accuracy.

Disadvantages of PAM Process Its initial cost is very high. The process requires over safety precautions which further enhance the initial cost Some of the workpiece materials are very much prone to metallurgical changes on excessive heating so this fact imposes limitations to this process. It is uneconomical for bigger cavities to be machined.

Applications of PAM

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The chief application of this process is profile cutting as controlling movement of spray focus point is easy in case of PAM process. This is also recommended for smaller machining of difficult to machining materials.

Transferred and non transferred plasma arc machining

A plasma jet can be operated in the transferred mode, where the electric current flows between the plasma torch electrode (cathode) and the workpiece (anode). It can also be operated in the non-transferred mode where the electric current flows between the electrode and the torch nozzle. Both modes of operation are illustrated in Figure. The quality of plasma produced is a function of density (pressure), temperature and torch power (the greater the better). The Non-trasferred arc torch extends from the electrode or the cathode to the end of the nozzle. The nozzle acts as the anode. This type of plasma jet is completely independent of the work piece.

Page 24  The chief application of this process is profile cutting as controlling movement of
Page 24  The chief application of this process is profile cutting as controlling movement of

Transferred In the transferred system the arc is completed by making contact with the workpiece. Non-transferred In the non-transferred system the arc is completed by making contact with nozzle, it can produce an arc without touching the grounded workpiece and can be very dangerous

Rapid prototyping

The term rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a class of technologies that can automatically construct physical models from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data for the purpose of testing the various design features, ideas, concepts, functionality, output and performance. Rapid Prototyping technology employs various engineering, computer control and software techniques directly to produce a physical model layer by layer (Layer Manufacturing) in accordance with the geometrical data derived from a 3D CAD model. A virtual prototype (a CAD model of the part) may not be sufficient for the designer to visualize the part adequately

  • Using RP to make the prototype, the designer can see and feel the part and assess its merits and shortcomings

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Conventional machining (turning, milling, drilling etc) can produce prototypes using metal removal method until the desired shape is achieved, which are called subtractive processes. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is an additive process, adds material in a layering process, to create the desired form, thus enabling complex forms to be manufactured in one piece that would otherwise be impossible.

Page 25 Conventional machining (turning, milling, drilling etc) can produce prototypes using metal removal method until

Rapid Prototyping (RP), also known as Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) builds complex shapes through additive processes, producing components without the use of tools.

The advantages of RP

  • 1. Physical models of parts can be manufactured in a matter of hours and allow the rapid

evaluation of manufacturability and design effectiveness. In this way, rapid prototyping serves as an important tool for visualialization and concept verification. This helps the user in knowing how the final product will look like.

  • 2. As the development costs are reduced, Rapid prototyping proves to be cost effective.

  • 3. The process itself reduces waste, as unused materials can be recycled.

  • 4. It is easier to find the design flaws in the early developmental stages.

  • 5. There is better communication between the user and designer as the requirements and expectations are expressed in the beginning itself.

  • 6. High quality product is easily delivered by way of Rapid prototyping.

In short why use Rapid Prototyping

  • 1. To increase effective communication.

  • 2. To decrease development time.

  • 3. To decrease costly mistakes.

  • 4. To minimize sustaining engineering changes.

  • 5. To extend product lifetime by adding or eliminating features early in the design.

All RP techniques employ the same basic five-step process.

Starting with CAD file of the object, software divides the object into a series of thin slices,

stacked on top of one another. Using this data, commercial Rapid Prototyping machines slowly and precisely add material, recreating the individual layers and ultimately the component.

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Page 26 1. Create a 3D CAD model of the design 2. Convert the CAD model
  • 1. Create a 3D CAD model of the design

  • 2. Convert the CAD model to STL format (Stereo lithography)

  • 3. Slice the STL file into thin cross-sectional layers

  • 4. Construct the model one layer atop another

  • 5. Clean and finish the model

Types of Rapid Prototyping

While there are many ways in which one can classify the numerous RP systems one of the better ways is to classify RP systems on the basis of the material that the prototype or part is built with. In this manner, all RP systems can be easily categorized into (1) Liquid-based (2) Solid-based and (3) Powder-based. Liquid-based RP systems have the initial form of its material in liquid state. The Stereolithography Apparatus (SLA) falls into this category.

Solid-based RP systems encompass all forms of material in the solid state. In this context, the solid form can include the shape in the form of wire, roll, laminates, pellets and powders. The Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP) Fused Deposition modeling (FDM) fall into this definition

Another classification of Rapid prototyping into following groups Subtractive ( Removal of material ) Conventional methods of prototyping (by machining or other process0

Additive (adding of material): Build parts in layer by layer (slice by slice as stacking a loaf of bread)

o

Stereolithography

o

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

o

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

o

Laminated Object Manufacturing

Stereolithography (SLA)

Stereo-lithography is one of the most common types of Rapid Prototyping processes. Stereo- lithography Apparatus (SLA) technology fabricates three-dimensional solid objects from liquid resin. It is a material additive manufacturing process. A computer controlled UV laser draws the image of the object on the surface of liquid plastic. The laser takes passes at hitting

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the liquid plastic and thereby hardening it. At the completion of each pass, the object would be lowered so that the UV laser could go through its next pass. This process continues and the end result is a carved out 3-D physical model of the object.

Page 27 the liquid plastic and thereby hardening it. At the completion of each pass, the

Laserconcentrative UV beam to transom liquid resin into solid state Elevatorcontrol the movement of platform upward Platformfor the basement of part building Resin vatcontain raw material to form SLA model In SLA process, the software firstly interprets the CAD data and slices it into a series of thin horizontal layers and converted to machine specified control data files based on the part. The machine control data is then downloaded into the equipment for part building. A perforated stainless steel building platform attached to a vertical elevator is moved to the start position which is just below the resin surface. An X-Y electronic motor driver optical scanning mirrors directs the laser beam, which cures the borders and cross sections of the built parts one layer at a time on the surface of the resin. Photopolymers are converted into solid state instantly after irradiation of laser beam. The elevator then lowers the newly built layer by a distance of one layer thickness after a short period of time to allow the newly formed layer to increase the green strength. The process is repeated until the object is completed and object is taken out by raising the elevator and object is removed from the vat.

Advantages

1.

Stereolithography is one of the most used forms of rapid prototyping because of

accuracy (Tolerances= 0.0125mm)

2.

Less time taken (depends upon the size and complication of the part)

3.

Wide shape and complex geometries can made

4.

Pattern for all casting and moulding can be made economically

Disadvantages

1.

Expensive

2.

Size of object (50*50*60 cm) is limited

Applications

  • 1. Medical and Health care parts

  • 2. Electronics; Packaging, Connectors

  • 3. Casting Patterns and Jigs and Fixtures

  • 4. To test design Appearance and evaluation of Models

  • 5. Wind-Tunnel Test Models etc

Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)

Fused deposition modeling is also a rapid prototype technology commonly used to convert CAD drawings into physical parts. FDM works on an "additive" principle which extrudes material in layers. Plastic or wax is melted and liquefied in the extrusion head and extruded through a nozzle. The nozzle is made to move over a trail identified by the CAD design to

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produce part. This way single layer is extruded and then it is dropped to extrude the next layer on top of the first until the entire prototype is built, with one layer at a time. Upon hitting the build platform, the liquid solidifies and the platform lowers where the next layer of liquid is laid upon it. This process continues until the product is complete.

Page 28 produce part. This way single layer is extruded and then it is dropped to

Advantages

Page 28 produce part. This way single layer is extruded and then it is dropped to
  • 1. FDM process part can be high strength, it is cost-effective and waterproof.

  • 2. Easy material change

  • 3. Thin parts can be made

  • 4. Tolerance of +/- 0.005‖

  • 5. Low temperature operation

Disadvantages

  • 1. Part strength is weak perpendicular to build axis

  • 2. Seam line between layers

  • 3. Temperature fluctuation during production lead to de-lamination

  • 4. Support requirement is difficult

Application

Used for making concept and functional models in many industries. Concept models Test form and fit, communicate design intent Functional prototypes Tough prototypes that can be used for functional tests

Typical applications include automotive, aerospace or any application where your part needs to be functionally tested in an environment of heat or chemicals.

Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Selective Laser Sintering uses the principle of sintering. Sintering is a heating process that prevents melting and a coherent mass is produce. In SLS, metallic or non-metallic powders are sintered using a CAD program guided laser that selectively fuses the powdered material. It works with a high powered laser as the laser selectively moves over the surface of

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thermoplastic powder it fuses cross-sections of the material layer by layer. As one layer is completed, the process is repeated by lowering the powdered bed and adding a fresh layer of material.

Page 29 thermoplastic powder it fuses cross-sections of the material layer by layer. As one layerpaper, plastic, or metal laminates are successively glued together and cut to shape with a knife or laser cutter. The main components of the system are a feed mechanism that advances a sheet over a build platform, a heated roller to apply Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014 " id="pdf-obj-28-7" src="pdf-obj-28-7.jpg">
Page 29 thermoplastic powder it fuses cross-sections of the material layer by layer. As one layerpaper, plastic, or metal laminates are successively glued together and cut to shape with a knife or laser cutter. The main components of the system are a feed mechanism that advances a sheet over a build platform, a heated roller to apply Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014 " id="pdf-obj-28-9" src="pdf-obj-28-9.jpg">

First cylinder moves up so that a layer of material can be send to the second cylinder. In second cylinder after recieving a layer of material, it is processed using laser beam. Then second cylinder moves down to receive the next layer from the first cylinder as it moves up to supply the next layer of materials. The processes continue till final product forms.

Advantages

  • 1. SLS offers the freedom to quickly build complex parts that are more durable and provide better functionality over other rapid prototyping technologies.

  • 2. Fabricated prototypes are porous (typically 60% of the density of molded parts) thus impairing their strength and surface finish.

  • 3. Fast build times

  • 4. Variety of materials can be processed

Disadvantages/ Limitations

  • 1. Typical SLS parts have little rough & porous surface finish which is not as smooth as SLA

  • 2. The larger shrink rates of SLS increase the tendency for the prototype to warp, bow or curl subject to the part geometry.

  • 3. Material changeover difficult compared to FDM & SLA.

  • 4. Some post-processing / finishing required

Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)

In it, layers of adhesive-coated paper, plastic, or metal laminates are successively glued together and cut to shape with a knife or laser cutter. The main components of the system are a feed mechanism that advances a sheet over a build platform, a heated roller to apply

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pressure to bond the sheet to the layer below, and a laser to cut the outline of the part in each sheet layer. Parts are produced by stacking, bonding, and cutting layers of adhesive-coated sheet material on top of the previous one. A laser cuts the outline of the part into each layer. After each cut is completed, the platform lowers by a depth equal to the sheet thickness and another sheet is advanced on top of the previously deposited layers. The platform then rises slightly and the heated roller applies pressure to bond the new layer. The laser cuts the outline and the process is repeated until the part is completed. After a layer is cut, the extra material remains in place to support the part during build.

The process is performed as follows:

  • 1. Sheet is adhered to a substrate with a heated roller.

  • 2. Laser traces desired dimensions of prototype.

  • 3. Laser cross hatches non-part area to facilitate waste removal.

  • 4. Platform with completed layer moves down out of the way.

  • 5. Fresh sheet of material is rolled into position.

  • 6. Platform moves up into position to receive next layer.

  • 7. The process is repeated.

Page 30 pressure to bond the sheet to the layer below, and a laser to cutstereolithography and selective laser sintering but no milling step is necessary. 2. Relatively large parts may be made, because no chemical reaction is necessary 3. Low cost due to readily available raw material Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) This process is similar to other rapid prototyping technologies in its approach to fabricate a solid component by layer additive methods. The laser creates a molten pool of metal on the substrate, into which powder feeder injects powders into the melt pool. The metal powder rapidly solidifies forming lines of deposited material on the substrate. Lines are sequentially deposited adjacent to one another until an entire layer is fabricated. The laser focal point is then moved in the positive Z direction to begin depositing the next layer. An inert gas is used to shield the metal from atmospheric gases. It uses a layered approach to manufacture the components. Process principle; local melting of metal powders using a laser Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014 " id="pdf-obj-29-23" src="pdf-obj-29-23.jpg">
Page 30 pressure to bond the sheet to the layer below, and a laser to cutstereolithography and selective laser sintering but no milling step is necessary. 2. Relatively large parts may be made, because no chemical reaction is necessary 3. Low cost due to readily available raw material Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) This process is similar to other rapid prototyping technologies in its approach to fabricate a solid component by layer additive methods. The laser creates a molten pool of metal on the substrate, into which powder feeder injects powders into the melt pool. The metal powder rapidly solidifies forming lines of deposited material on the substrate. Lines are sequentially deposited adjacent to one another until an entire layer is fabricated. The laser focal point is then moved in the positive Z direction to begin depositing the next layer. An inert gas is used to shield the metal from atmospheric gases. It uses a layered approach to manufacture the components. Process principle; local melting of metal powders using a laser Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014 " id="pdf-obj-29-25" src="pdf-obj-29-25.jpg">

Advantages

  • 1. Dimensional accuracy is slightly less than that of stereolithography and selective laser sintering but no milling step is necessary.

  • 2. Relatively large parts may be made, because no chemical reaction is necessary

  • 3. Low cost due to readily available raw material

Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) This process is similar to other rapid prototyping technologies in its approach to fabricate a solid component by layer additive methods. The laser creates a molten pool of metal on the substrate, into which powder feeder injects powders into the melt pool. The metal powder rapidly solidifies forming lines of deposited material on the substrate. Lines are sequentially deposited adjacent to one another until an entire layer is fabricated. The laser focal point is then moved in the positive Z direction to begin depositing the next layer. An inert gas is used to shield the metal from atmospheric gases. It uses a layered approach to manufacture the components. Process principle; local melting of metal powders using a laser

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Page 31 Advantages 1. Can be used to repair parts as well as fabricate new ones
Page 31 Advantages 1. Can be used to repair parts as well as fabricate new ones
 

Advantages

1.

Can be used to repair parts as well as fabricate new ones

2.

The properties of the material are similar or better than the natural materials

Disadvantages

1.

Some post processing involved

2.

Has a rough surface finish, may require machining or polishing

3.

Low dimensional accuracy

Application

1.

Fabrication and repair of injection molding tools

2.

Fabrication of large titanium & other exotic metal parts for aerospace applications

3.

Parts have been fabricated from stainless steel alloys, nickel-based alloys, tool steel alloys, titanium alloys etc

Laser welding

Laser beam welding (LBW) is a welding technique used to join multiple pieces of metal through the use of a laser. The beam provides a concentrated heat source, allowing for narrow, deep welds and high welding rates. The process is frequently used in high volume applications, such as in the automotive industry.

Page 31 Advantages 1. Can be used to repair parts as well as fabricate new ones

Advantages of LBW

Page 31 Advantages 1. Can be used to repair parts as well as fabricate new ones
  • 1. Laser beam can be transmitted through air rather than requiring a vacuum,

  • 2. The process is easily automated

  • 3. LBW results in higher quality welds.

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Liga processes The LIGA-process is used to manufacture micro structures by deep X-ray lithography. Using the process, microstructures can be manufactured from different plastic materials and metals.

The LIGA consists of three main processing steps;

  • 1. Lithography,

  • 2. Electro-forming/electroplating

  • 3. Molding.

Page 32 Liga processes The LIGA-process is used to manufacture micro structures by deep X-ray lithography.PMMA, (Poly methyl methacrylate), a transparent thermoplastic bonded to an electrically conductive substrate, is exposed to parallel beams of high-energy X-rays from a radiation source through a mask partly covered with a strong X-ray absorbing material. Chemical removal of exposed (or unexposed) photoresist results in a three-dimensional structure, which can be filled by the electrodeposition of metal. The resist is chemically stripped away to produce a metallic mold insert. The mold insert can be used to produce parts in polymers or ceramics through injection molding. Advantages 1. The primary advantage of LIGA process is its capability to make large aspect ratio structures(can be up to 1000 μ m thick while only several micron wide/large height-to-width ratios in the fabricated part) 2. LIGA is a versatile process – it can produce parts by several different methods 3. Wide range of part sizes is feasible 4. Close tolerances are possible and highsurface finish. 5. High production is possible Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014 " id="pdf-obj-31-17" src="pdf-obj-31-17.jpg">

Step involved

Page 32 Liga processes The LIGA-process is used to manufacture micro structures by deep X-ray lithography.PMMA, (Poly methyl methacrylate), a transparent thermoplastic bonded to an electrically conductive substrate, is exposed to parallel beams of high-energy X-rays from a radiation source through a mask partly covered with a strong X-ray absorbing material. Chemical removal of exposed (or unexposed) photoresist results in a three-dimensional structure, which can be filled by the electrodeposition of metal. The resist is chemically stripped away to produce a metallic mold insert. The mold insert can be used to produce parts in polymers or ceramics through injection molding. Advantages 1. The primary advantage of LIGA process is its capability to make large aspect ratio structures(can be up to 1000 μ m thick while only several micron wide/large height-to-width ratios in the fabricated part) 2. LIGA is a versatile process – it can produce parts by several different methods 3. Wide range of part sizes is feasible 4. Close tolerances are possible and highsurface finish. 5. High production is possible Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014 " id="pdf-obj-31-21" src="pdf-obj-31-21.jpg">
  • 1. Apply resist and X-ray exposure through mask,

  • 2. Remove exposed portions of resist,

  • 3. Electrodeposition to fill openings in resist,

  • 4. Strip resist for (a) mold or (b) metal part

In the process, an X-ray sensitive polymer photoresist, typically PMMA, (Poly methyl methacrylate), a transparent thermoplastic bonded to an electrically conductive substrate, is exposed to parallel beams of high-energy X-rays from a radiation source through a mask partly covered with a strong X-ray absorbing material. Chemical removal of exposed (or unexposed) photoresist results in a three-dimensional structure, which can be filled by the electrodeposition of metal. The resist is chemically stripped away to produce a metallic mold insert. The mold insert can be used to produce parts in polymers or ceramics through injection molding.

Advantages

  • 1. The primary advantage of LIGA process is its capability to make large aspect ratio structures(can be up to 1000 μm thick while only several micron wide/large height-to-width ratios in the fabricated part)

  • 2. LIGA is a versatile process it can produce parts by several different methods

  • 3. Wide range of part sizes is feasible

  • 4. Close tolerances are possible and highsurface finish.

  • 5. High production is possible

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Disadvantages X-ray LIGA is expensive due to the equipment required.

Slow process.

Complicated process.

Difficulty transitioning from research to production.

Applications

MEMS Components

Components such as micro lenses, mirrors, and filters

Sensors

Actuators

Trajectory Sensing Devices

Mass Spectrometers

Microoptical Components

benefit from low surface roughness to reduce scattering.

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Module V---Question

  • 1. Briefly explain non-transitional machining process. Give applications

  • 2. Discuss the dimensional tolerance that can be achieved by unconventional machining.

  • 3. What is the importance of non traditional machining?

  • 4. How is chemical machining different from electrochemical machining?

  • 5. Explain the influence of chemical machining as product tolerance and surface finish.

  • 6. Draw the schematic arrangement of ECM. Explain its working and limitations.

  • 7. Name any two electrolytes used in ECM process.

  • 8. How will you differentiate the ECM with EDM process?

  • 9. With a neat sketch, explain Electro-chemical Machining process. List the major process and applications.

*****************************************************************

  • 10. Explain EDM. What are its applications?(8 marks)

  • 11. Compare the different tool materials used in spark EDM.

  • 12. Explain the principle of Wire

EDM.

.

  • 13. List out the advantages of EDM

  • 14. Explain EDM. What are its applications?(8 marks)

  • 15. Illustrate arid explain the process of EDM and state the differences in process parameters used in wire cut EDM.

  • 16. List out the advantages of EDM

process.

.

  • 17. Discuss the EDM process.

  • 18. List out its applications of `WEDM.

  • 19. Explain the role of dielectric' in EDM process. (4 marks)

  • 20. Discuss the various factors of EDM that affect

    • a. the metal removal rate and

    • b. the accuracy of holes obtained in EDM

  • 21. Why has the wire EDM process become so widely accepted in industry.

  • 22. Sketch and explain an Electro-discharge machining process. List the important process variables and discuss their effects on MRR and surface finish.

  • 23. Discuss the various factors that affect (i) the metal removal rate and (ii) the accuracy of holes obtained in EDM.

  • 24. What are the merits of EDM

  • 25. Describe the selection of dielectric medium in EDM.

  • 26. What are the capabilities of wire EDM? Could this process be used to make tapered pieces? Explain. *********************************************************

  • 27. Explain the working of Electron Beam machining with the help of a neat diagram. Discuss its application areas

  • 28. Distinguish between laser beam machining and electron beam machining. Give their field of application in the area of manufacturing.

  • 29. Draw and explain the construction and working of the Electron Beam

  • Illustrate the 4

    steps leading to material removal by EBM and explain the process. (12 marks)

    Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014

    30.

    In Plasma Arc Machining, how a transferred is are processes different from a non-

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    transferred arc ―process?

    • 31. What are the distances of electron beam over laser beam for machining?

    • 32. List the different types of laser used in Laser beam

    machining.

    .

    • 33. How is laser produced?

    • 34. Briefly explain the working principle of LBM.

    • 35. Describe the plasma are cutting and machining;

    **************************************************************

    • 36. What is meant by kerfwidth in AJM? How does it relate to the nozzle tip distance?

    • 37. Illustrate and explain the Abrasive Water Jet Machining process and state the advantages, limitations and applications of the process.

    • 38. Draw graphs to relate the following process parameters to the material removal rate in abrasive jet machining

      • a. Nozzle tip distance.

      • b. Abrasive flow rate.

      • c. Abrasive grain size

  • 39. Discuss abrasive water jet machine.

  • 40. List any two advantages of AJ M process.

  • 41. Discuss any four process parameters involved in AJM.

  • 42. List the various elements of AJM process and explain their influence on process parameters.

  • 43. Explain the process parameters which influence Metal Removal rate in Abrasive Jet Machining

  • 44. What are the limitations of abrasive jet machining

  • 45. Describe, in detail, metal removal by abrasive jet machining. *******************************************************

  • 46. Why are abrasive slurry is used in ultrasonic machining? _

  • 47. Sketch and explain Ultrasonic Machining.

  • 48. Explain the principle of ultrasonic machining. What are the limitations of USM

  • 49. Why is frequency tuning a must in Ultrasonic Machining?

  • 50. What is the function of a concentrator in Ultrasonic Machining?

  • *********************************************************************

    • 51. `What is rapid proto-typing?

    • 52. Briefly explain the types, process and advantages of Rapid prototyping process.

    • 53. Explain the fused deposition modelling and laminated object manufacturing methods used in

    Prototyping process.

    • 54. List out the any four advantages of Rapid. Prototyping.

    • 55. What do you meant by Virtual and Physical prototyping?

    • 56. Name the different types of Rapid prototyping.

    • 57. Explain basic steps involved in Rapid prototyping with flow diagram.

    • 58. What are the advantages of` rapid prototyping

    • 59. What is Fused Disposition Modeling method of rapid prototyping

    Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014

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    • 60. What is stereo lithography?

    • 61. Briefly explain sterio-lithograpy

    • 62. With a neat sketch, explain the stereo lithography process.

    • 63. Discuss stereo lithography.

    • 64. Explain the stereo lithography process in Rapid Prototyping with suitable sketches.

    • 65. What is the abbreviation for LIGA? What are the tolerances obtained in the LIGA process?

    • 66. Explain LIGA process.

    • 67. Discuss briefly LIGA process and list out its applications.

    • 68. Write short notes on Liga process.

    **********************************************************************

    • 69. What are the advantages of hydraulic forming?

    • 70. Describe, briefly hydro forming

    • 71. Explain the process of electro hydraulic forming and give its salient characteristics.

    • 72. Describe with neat the sketch the principle of operation and equipment required for Electro hydraulic forming

    • 73. Sketch and explain an Electro hydraulic forming process.

    • 74. Explain Electro-hydraulic forming with the help of a neat sketch.

    • 75. Sketch and explain the explosive forming methods to produce a bulge and a cavity in a cylindrical part

    • 76. Differentiate between contact and non-contact explosive forming.

    • 77. Mention some of the uses of explosive forming.

    • 78. Write short notes on application of explosive forming.

    • 79. Sketch a few shapes of some parts that are formed by explosive forming.

    • 80. Describe, with suitable sketches, the explosive forming.

    • 81. Define the tern explosive forming.

    • 82. What are the advantages and limitations of explosive forming?

    • 83. Name two distinctive advantages and limitations of explosive forming. Briefly explain how it is performed.

    • 84. Explain the process of electro-magnetic forming and give its salient characteristics.

    • 85. What is the principle of Electromagnetic forming?

    • 86. Describe, with suitable sketches, echo-magnetic forming.

    • 87. What is the principle of electro-magnetic forming? What are its advantages? State a few applications of this process.

    • 88. Explain the principle of magnetic pulse forming with neat sketch. What are the major constraints of this process?

    • 89. What is the principle of Magnetic Pulse Forming?

    • 90. Write down about 3D-welding.

    • 91. List the merits of High Energy Rate Forming.

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    Extra

    Page 37 Extra Area of application of various non conventional processes Chemical machining (CM): Chemical milling
    Page 37 Extra Area of application of various non conventional processes Chemical machining (CM): Chemical milling

    Area of application of various non conventional processes

    Chemical machining (CM): Chemical milling is usually applied where larger quantities of material is to be removed from large plates or panels in the aircraft industry, space industry or cutting in depths of up to 12 mm. The process is used to make large aluminium alloy, etc.

    plates and sheet-metal parts lighter. Chemical blanking is used for manufacturing various scales, dials, rulers, etc. in the instrument-making industry and fine mechanical engineering industry as well as for manufacturing a variety of thin component parts in the mechanical engineering industry. The photo-chemical blanking is applied for manufacturing printed circuit boards for the electronic industry, electrical wiring, electronic chip sets and very thin component parts (depths of up to 0.0025 mm) for the aero-space industry, optics, microelectronics, instrument -making industry, printing industry, crafts engraving metal or other material articles.

    b) Electrochemical machining (ECM): This is used in wide machining applications for high-alloyed rigid steels and materials and also for manufacturing complex cutting shapes turbine propellers, tools stamps, moulds, dies. The technique is suitable for drilling small holes and cutting into hard materials

    Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014

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    c) Electrochemical grinding (ECG): The technique is applied in machining carbide tools and alloy tools, carbide steel parts, etc. alloys featuring high strength characteristics. Used for grinding, milling and drilling small holes. Not suitable for manufacturing dies

    d)Electrical discharge machining (EDM): The technique is applied for manufacturing tools and dies for machining cavities and contour shaping and cutting. Used to cut and machine very hard and hardened conductor materials. Used to manufacture complex dies, for example for extrusion of aluminium component parts, etc.

    e)Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM): Used for contour cutting of flat or curved surfaces The depth of the cutting plates is adjustable to up to 300mm. Mostly used for grinding hard carbide alloys of titanium, tungsten etc and for machining fragile and brittle small-size components, surgical tools, optical devices etc.

    f)Laser-beam machining (LBM) is used for cutting, drilling, marking and for surface machining and welding operations involving various materials: metals, ceramics, plastics, leather, textiles, composite materials (in the aircraft industry, etc.).

    g)Electron-beam (plasma) machining (EBM) is used in similar applications to those described for LBM but performed in a vacuum surrounding medium: precise cutting and welding of various materials.

    h)Water-jet machining (WJM): This technique is used for dynamic cutting and machining various materials: plastic, rubber, foodstuffs, paper, leather, insulation materials, composite materials of up to 25mm thickness. Finds application in the food industry and the production of plastics

    j)Abrasive jet (gas) machining (AJM): Applied for machining small holes, cleaning surfaces from removing sand or scale in foundry applications, stamped forgings and also for non- metal and fragile materials, as well as for deburring operations.

    Dielectric fluid in EDM

    Fluids with high dielectric strength need lower time for the recovery of dielectric strength. Thus, low pulse -off times are sufficient. This not only improves the MRR but also provides better cutting efficiency because of a reduced probability of arcing. Liquids with low viscosity generally provide better accuracies because of a better flow ability of the oil leading to improved flushing. Dielectric fluids with high thermal conductivity and thermal heat capacity can easily carry away excess heat from the discharge spot and lead to a lower thermal damage.

    Electrodes properties used in EDM Electrical Conductivity: higher conductivity (or conversely, lower resistivity) promotes more efficient cutting. Melting Point: Since EDM is a thermal process, the higher the melting point of the electrode material, the better the wear ratio between electrode and workpiece. Mechanical Properties strength and hardness etc should be high Manufacturability: electrode shape should be easy to fabricate Cost- low

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    Various EDM electrodes Brass: Brass was one of the first EDM electrode materials. It is inexpensive and easy to machine. Not in use due to its high wear rate. Copper: Copper electrode is conventional using for EDM process on its merits of highly conductive, low cost, low wear ratio, good machinability, high finishing.

    Tungsten: Due to the combination of its high density, tensile strength, and highmelting point, tungsten had been the electrode material of choice for certain limited EDM applications. But cuts much slower than Brass or Copper due its poor electrical conductivity

    Graphite

    Electrodes:

    Graphite is the preferred electrode material for EDM

    applications. Graphite is faster than Copper in both roughing and finishing (machinability)

    o

    o

    o

    Graphite usually wears less than Copper.

    Gives better Surface Finish:

    Copper Tungsten

     

    Copper graphite etc

    Performance of EDM processes is highly influenced on processes parameters given below

    Discharge current (current Ip)

    Discharge current is directly proportional to the Material removal rate. As current density increases, the MRR is also increased and surface finish reduces. Spark On - time (pulse time or T on )

    The duration of time (μs) the current is allowed to flow per cycle. Material removal is directly proportional to the amount of energy applied during this on -time. This energy is really controlled by the peak current and the length of the on - time. Spark Off-time (pause time or T off ) The duration of time (μs) between the sparks (that is to say, off -time). This time allows the molten material to solidify and to be wash out of the arc gap. This parameter is to affect the speed and the stability of the cut. Thus, if the off -time is too short, it will cause sparks to be unstable.

    Arc gap (or gap):

    The Arc gap is distance between the electrode and work piece during the process of

    EDM. It may be called as spark gap.

    Voltage (V):

    It is a potential that can be measure by volt it is also effect to the material removal rate

    Comparison to other machining processes Comparison with EDM Extremely precise parts are possible [±0.0001" (±0.025mm)] Very thick parts [over 12" (30 cm)] can be made Intentional taper can be put into a part for die clearance and other uses

    Comparing abrasive jet to laser Very fast production in thin, non-reflective materials such as sheet steel. Accuracy to ±0.001" (±0.025 mm) or better in thin material.

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    Kerf

    Like other jet cutting technologies, AWJM also produce kerfs which have some distinct features and the quality of the kerf determines the quality of the work. Generally a kerf is produced with a wider at the entrance of the jet and reduces at the bottom which is called a kerf taper. Kerf geometry plays an important in determining the work quality as the kerf produced has some taper angle, which is wider at the top and narrow at the bottom.

    Page 40 Kerf Like other jet cutting technologies, AWJM also produce kerfs which have some distinctcomputer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) software to validate a design before committing to making a physical prototype. This is done by creating (usually 3D) computer generated geometrical shapes (parts) and either combining them into an "assembly" and testing different mechanical motions, fit and function or just aesthetic appeal. Physical and virtual prototypes are not competitive technologies. They are complementary. The strengths and advantage of one technology will address the weaknesses and limitations of the other. Forming methods (high energy forming) In these forming processes large amount of energy is applied for a very short interval of time. Many metals tend to deform more readily under extra – fast application of load which make these processes useful to form large size parts. Hydroforming is a specialized type of die forming that uses a high pressure hydraulic fluid to press room temperature working material into a die. Different types of metal forming operations are used. During electrohydraulic forming stored electric energy is suddenly discharged through a spark gap so that the surrounding working medium (e.g. water) is ionized and vaporizes, initiating a shockwave. Electro Magnetic Forming: This process utilizes the energy of the magnetic field to deform the metal. Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014 " id="pdf-obj-39-9" src="pdf-obj-39-9.jpg">

    Virtual prototyping

    Virtual prototyping involves using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) software to validate a design before committing to making a physical prototype. This is done by creating (usually 3D) computer generated geometrical shapes (parts) and either combining them into an "assembly" and testing different mechanical motions, fit and function or just aesthetic appeal. Physical and virtual prototypes are not competitive technologies. They are complementary. The strengths and advantage of one technology will address the weaknesses and limitations of the other.

    Forming methods (high energy forming)

    In these forming processes large amount of energy is applied for a very short interval of time.

    Many metals tend to deform more readily under extra fast application of load which make these processes useful to form large size parts. Hydroforming is a specialized type of die forming that uses a high pressure hydraulic fluid to press room temperature working material into a die.

    Page 40 Kerf Like other jet cutting technologies, AWJM also produce kerfs which have some distinctcomputer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) software to validate a design before committing to making a physical prototype. This is done by creating (usually 3D) computer generated geometrical shapes (parts) and either combining them into an "assembly" and testing different mechanical motions, fit and function or just aesthetic appeal. Physical and virtual prototypes are not competitive technologies. They are complementary. The strengths and advantage of one technology will address the weaknesses and limitations of the other. Forming methods (high energy forming) In these forming processes large amount of energy is applied for a very short interval of time. Many metals tend to deform more readily under extra – fast application of load which make these processes useful to form large size parts. Hydroforming is a specialized type of die forming that uses a high pressure hydraulic fluid to press room temperature working material into a die. Different types of metal forming operations are used. During electrohydraulic forming stored electric energy is suddenly discharged through a spark gap so that the surrounding working medium (e.g. water) is ionized and vaporizes, initiating a shockwave. Electro Magnetic Forming: This process utilizes the energy of the magnetic field to deform the metal. Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014 " id="pdf-obj-39-38" src="pdf-obj-39-38.jpg">

    Different types of metal forming operations are used. During electrohydraulic forming stored electric energy is suddenly discharged through a spark gap so that the surrounding working medium (e.g. water) is ionized and vaporizes, initiating a shockwave. Electro Magnetic Forming: This process utilizes the energy of the magnetic field to deform the metal.

    Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014

    Page41

    Page 41 Taper-cutting : Wire electric discharge machining method can be used for taper cutting by
    Page 41 Taper-cutting : Wire electric discharge machining method can be used for taper cutting by

    Taper-cutting: Wire electric discharge machining method can be used for taper cutting by directly programming the cut contour of the upper and lower surfaces of the workpiece. Standard taper capability is up to 30 degrees

    Industry importance of WEDM (Application)

    • 1. Many parts can be economically produced with wire EDM, such as: precision gages and templates, keyways, shaft and collet slots, gears, internal splines, cams, punches and dies from one piece of tool steel

    • 2. To cut intricate parts for aerospace and electrical industry

    • 3. It is used to make narrow kerf with sharp corners.

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    Page 42 EDM process voltage and current variation during a cycle Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET

    EDM process voltage and current variation during a cycle

    Department of Mechanical Engineering SSET 2014