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AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY & FUTURE

TRENDS

19th June 2017


Presented By: SUMUKH T DESHPANDE,
Manager, Passive Safety Laboratory,
Homologation & Technology Centre,
The Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI)
Email: deshpande.psl@araiindia.com
Scope of Presentation
Background to Automotive Safety
Automotive Safety Active & Passive Safety
Crashworthiness
Vehicle Body
Restraint Systems
Crash Testing
Commercial Vehicle & Two Wheler Safety
Future Trends
Integrated Safety
Advanced Safety Technolgies
Evaluation & testing
Final few points
Background to Automotive Safety
Goal of the Decade UN Decade of Action
To halt or reverse the predicted increase in road traffic
fatalities around the world
Global Plan UN Decade of Action

Road safety Safer roads Safer Safer road Post-crash


management and mobility vehicles users response
Indian Scenario - Why focus on Automotive
Safety?
Modern Infrastructure & Technology in Indian Market

Improved Highways & Urban Infrastructure

Latest vehicles on road


Indian Scenario - Why focus on Automotive
Safety?
Pressure on Infrastructure due to mixed traffic conditions
Interesting Engineers / Designers !!!
AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY
Automobile safety is the study and practice of design,
construction, equipment and regulation to minimize the
occurrence and consequences of Automotive Crash
Automotive Safety
PASSIVE SAFETY
ACTIVE SAFETY
EXTERIOR SAFETY IINTERIOR SAFETY

Deformation
Driving Safety Passenger Cell
Behavior of vehicle
body
Strength
Conditional Safety
Exterior body shape Restraint Systems
Perceptibility Safety
Interior Impact Areas
Steering Systems
Operational Safety Smooth Surface
Occupant Extrication
Fire Protection
ACTIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS
Active safety systems engage to either prevent the crash from occurring or
reduce the severity of an unavoidable crash.
These are systems with sensors that monitor the driver, the vehicle and
/or its environment in order to mitigate / avoid collisions
Improving safety during pre-crash time period, or during the crash event.
Examples: Mirrors, Horns, Brakes, Lighting Systems, Indicators &
Warning Systems
Anti-lock brakes prevent the wheels from locking up when the driver
brakes, enabling the driver to steer while braking.
Traction control systems prevent the wheels from slipping while the
car is accelerating.
Electronic stability control keeps the car under control and on the
road.
INSPITE OF THESE SYSTEMS,
ACCIDENTS HAPPEN..
PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS
Passive driving safety refers to systems in the car that protect
the driver and passengers from injury if an accident does
occur
Examples:
Air bags provide a cushion to protect the driver and passengers during
a crash.
Seat belts hold passengers in place so that they aren't thrown forward
or ejected from the car.
Rollover bars protect the car's occupants from injury if the vehicle rolls
over during an accident.
Head restraints prevent the driver and passengers from getting
whiplash during a rear-end collision.
THE ULTIMATE GOAL IS TO MINIMIZE FATAL &
SEVERE INJURIES IN SURVIVABLE CRASHES
PASSIVE SAFETY SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Occupant Protection System
Vehicle Compartment
Restraint Systems
Safety Belts
Air Bags
Knee Bolster
Collapsible Steering
Seats
Dashboard
WHAT HAPPENS IN A ACCIDENT?
The first impact is the impact between the vehicle and
another object.

The second impact (also known as second collision and


human collision) is the impact suffered between a
vehicle occupant and the vehicle he or she is riding in
during some kind of safety incident.

There is also a third impact between the internal


organs and the frame of the human body.
CRASHWORTHINESS
a measure of the ability of a structure and any of its
components to protect the occupants in survivable crashes
CRASHWORTHINESS
Crashworthiness
First used in the aerospace industry in the early 1950s, the term
crashworthiness provided a measure of the ability of a structure and
any of its components to protect the occupants in survivable crashes.
Similarly, in the automotive industry, crashworthiness connotes a measure
of the vehicles structural ability to plastically deform and yet maintain a
sufficient survival space for its occupants in crashes involving reasonable
deceleration loads.
Restraint systems and occupant packaging can provide additional
protection to reduce severe injuries and fatalities.
Requirements of Crashworthiness
Deformable, yet stiff, front structure with crumple zones to absorb the
crash kinetic energy resulting from frontal collisions by plastic deformation
and prevent intrusion into the occupant compartment
Deformable rear structure to maintain integrity of the rear passenger
compartment and protect the fuel tank.
Properly designed side structures and doors to minimize intrusion in side
impact and prevent doors from opening due to crash loads.
Strong roof structure for rollover protection.
Properly designed restraint systems that work in harmony with the vehicle
structure to provide the occupant with optimal ride down and protection
in different interior spaces and trims.
Accommodate various chassis designs for different powertrain locations
and drive configurations.
DESIGN ELEMENTS FOR CRASH ENERGY
MANAGEMENT
Vehicle Body
Basic vehicle types
Forces on the structure
Crash Load Path Front Crash
Crash Load Path Front Crash
RESTRAINT SYSTEMS
Three Point Safety Belt
Invented by Volvo engineer
Nils Bohlin and patented in
1959, three point seat belts
have saved more than one
million lives.
Wearing seat belts first
became mandatory in
Australias State of Victoria in
1970 and is now commonly
applied around the world.
Restraint Systems
Seat belt
- Early coupling of occupant with vehicle transfer loads
uniformly over the body and at load bearing parts
- Absorbs energy and brings occupant to a stop slowly

Airbag
- Provides cushion
- Prevents from hitting hard parts of vehicle interior
- Prevents head, neck and chest injuries
Restraint Systems in a crash event
The 3-point Belt
Seat Belt
Retraction Mechanism

Webbing g Lock

Vehicle g Lock
Seat Belt

Courtesy: TRW
Need for Early coupling
Pre-Tensioner
Buckle Pre-Tensioner
Reversible and Pyrotechnic PT
Load Limiter
Limits the load on the chest and transfers
more load on the shoulder and pelvis (since
the lap part loads more)
Load Limiter
Seatbelt Mechanics With PT and LL
Safety Advances with front seats

There have been several major features that have reduced the risk of injury to
front seat occupants over the last 15 years, aside from the obvious front airbag.
1. Pretensioners in the retractor associated with the sash portion of the seat
belt tightens the seat belt and reduce the jarring loads due to slack
2. Pretensioner in the buckle assembly reduces slack in the lap portion of the
seat belt and helps the seat belt engage the pelvic bones.
3. Load limiters that are usually built into the retractor, allow some controlled
payout of the webbing to help limit the maximum loads applied to the chest
by the seat belt
4. Structure of the seat base is designed to engage the dummy thighs and take
some of the forward forces. This also reduces the risk of submarining.
AIRBAGS
Originally invented by John Hetrick a retired US engineer in
1953 air bags work as a safety cushion to automatically
protect vehicle occupants in a crash
The first car with an air bag was the Oldsmobile Toronado
in 1973.
Air bags are a Supplementary restraint system (SRS). They
are intended to be used in conjunction with a seat belt and
not as alternative.
Volvo introduced the first side impact system in 1995 and
in 2006 Honda developed the first air bag system for
motorcycles.
Airbags
Airbag Operating Sequence
Crash 3m Sec

Crash Sensing

Ignite the Inflator


20m Sec 35m Sec 40m Sec
Produce Nitrogen Gas to Inflate the Bag

Bag Deploying

Full Deployment of the Bag

Protect the Occupants

Vent Gas (Bag Deflation) 105m Sec

Airbag System Completed


Airbag Components

3 components of an Airbag System:


1. Crash Sensing Accelerometer + Control Unit
2. Inflator Igniter + Sodium Azide (solid propellant) and
Potassium Nitrate + Silica
3. Air Bag Nylon or Polyamide with holes. Consists of talcum
powder/cornstarch for lubrication during deployment
Airbag Working
2NaN3 2Na + 3N2
Sodium Azide is very stable but at 300oC decomposes rapidly.
Igniter generates a spark and causes the necessary high temperature
condition
Na is a very highly reactive and potentially explosive metal. Hence
Potassium nitrate and Silica are mixed with sodium azide so as to combine
with Na and form harmless products

2KNO3 + 10Na K2O + 5Na2O + N2


K2O + Na2O + SiO2 Na2K2SiO4 (Alkaline silicate /glass)
Airbag Design Opt firing time
Calculate the optimum firing time for the airbag deployment for a
particular vehicle which crashes at 50 km/h

- The airbag must be inflated 80% when the driver reaches 125mm
forward displacement
- The airbag takes 30ms to reach 80% inflation (Obtained from High
Speed Video)
-125mm forward displacement is reached after 40 ms (Obtained from
High Speed Video)
Airbags Types Frontal Airbags
Mounted in the steering wheel and instrument
panel for driver and front passenger
Airbags Types Side Airbags
Door mounted located in the front doors
Seat mounted located in the outboard side
of the seats
Airbags Types Roof Rail Airbags
Roof rails located behind the trim covering
the roof rails
Deploys during Roll-Over crashes
Crash Sensing and Control Unit
Crash sensors/accelerometers located in
upper/lower tie bars, doors, B-pillars
Sense the sudden deceleration and send a
signal to the CU
CU activates the appropriate airbags and pre-
tensioners
SRS Layout of main components
Child Restraint Systems
Child Restraint Systems (CRS)
AIS 072 (ECE R44) CRS vehicle
st
installation approval from 1
April 2015
st
Mandatory use from 1 April
2016
CRASH TESTING
Passive Safety Evaluation - Types of Tests
Component tests those tests that do not require a crash
environment eg. Airbag timer, seat belt durability, seat belt
webbing tests
Sled tests for tests which require crash environment. Sled
simulates the crash pulse. Eg. Dynamic Seat belt testing, seat
anchorage testing
Full scale vehicle tests complete vehicle is tested eg. Car crash
test, pendulum test, roll over test
Crash Testing
Accidents can occur in any form,
place and time
Crash Testing
Crash testing simulates accidents
Crash testing helps in studying
effects of a crash
Optimization of Obtaining
vehicle design results Dummies are used which help in
ascertaining injuries during crash
Regulations and NCAP programmes
Analysis force companies to make safer cars
and makes general public aware
about safety
Early days of Crash Testing
Early days of Crash Testing
Early days of Crash Testing

The first Mercedes-Benz crash test of 10 September 1959


Objectives of Crash Testing
Simulate real world accidents and scenarios
Study effects on Vehicle structure
Study injury and potential risks
Validate CAE results
Types of Full Vehicle Crash Tests
Full frontal Barrier impact
Offset frontal deformable barrier impact
Side deformable barrier impact
Rear impact
Pole impact
Car to car impact
Pedestrian impact
Pendulum impact (CV cabin)
Roll Over Static and Dynamic
Full Frontal Test

The Full Frontal Fixed Barrier Crash test (or Rigid Barrier test) represents a
vehicle-to-vehicle full frontal engagement crash with each vehicle with
same mass and moving at the same impact speed.
The test is intended to represent most real world crashes (both vehicle-to-
vehicle and vehicle-to-fixed object) with significant frontal engagement in a
perpendicular impact direction.
The rigid barrier test is used in crashworthiness standards in the U.S.,
Canada, Japan, and Australia and in the New Car Assessment Programs
(NCAP) of the U.S., Japan, and Australia.
Offset Frontal Test

The Frontal Fixed Offset Deformable Barrier Test, often called the offset barrier
test, subjects the vehicle/occupant restraint system to partial engagement of
the front structure with a crushable barrier face.

The offset barrier test is intended to represent most real world crashes with
less frontal engagement-in perpendicular impacts.

Indian & UN ECE R94 regulations is based on the offset barrier test. The test is
also part of EuroNCAP, Latin NCAP, ASEAN NCAP, Australia, and US (IIHS)
Small Overlap Frontal Test

The test is designed to replicate what happens when the front corner of
a vehicle collides with another vehicle or an object like a tree or utility
pole.
This crash test is a challenge for some safety belt and airbag designs
because occupants move both forward and toward the side of the
vehicle.
Small overlap frontal crashes primarily affect a vehicle's outer edges,
which aren't well protected by the crush-zone structures. Crash forces
go directly into the front wheel, suspension system and firewall.
Types of Side Crash Test

Crab
Side
Impact

Side
Pole
90 Side Impact Impact
Side Crash Test

The Side Crash Moving Deformable Barrier Crash test


represents a vehicle-to-vehicle side engagement crash
The test is intended to represent real world crashes
usually observed at T junctions
This test is used in crashworthiness standards in the
India, Europe, U.S, Canada, Japan, Australia and in the
New Car Assessment Programs (NCAP) of the
EuroNCAP, US NCAP, JNCAP, ANCAP.
Pole Side Crash Test

The pole test simulates an accident in which a car collides


with a fixed object such as a tree or pole.
This test is a part of NCAP programs like EuroNCAP, US NCAP,
ANCAP, JNCAP.
Global Technical Regulations is formulated to address Pole
Side Impact test
Rear Crash Test

Rear Crash Test is conducted to evaluate from post-crash fires that result from fuel
spillage during and after motor vehicle crashes, and resulting from ingestion of fuels
during siphoning.
The purpose of this test is to assess whether there is a significant risk of fire both
during & after crash
Whiplash Injuries are predominantly observed in Rear Impacts due to ineffective
restraining of Head. Sled Method is used to evaluate whiplash injuries.
OTHER CRASH TESTS

Car-to-car Crash Test Rollover Crash Testing


Front Pole Impact

Commercial Vehicles Full Frontal Crash Test Car crash test against
underrun devices
Pedestrian Safety - VULNERABLE ROAD USERS

The pedestrian impact test simulates accidents in which a pedestrian is hit


by an oncoming vehicle.
During impact with an automobile, a pedestrian suffers multiple impacts
with the bumper, hood and the windscreen. Mainly Head Injuries & leg
injuries are assessed.
Vulnerable road users, which include pedestrians and non-motorized two
wheeler riders, have been found to be the major constituent in road
fatalities in developing countries.
Pedestrian Protection
Various Systems and Technologies
involved in Crash Test Analysis
Crash Test Dummies & Calibration
Data Acquisition System (DAQ)
High Speed Photography
Motion Analysis (Post Analysis)
High Intensity Lighting Systems
Propulsion & Control Systems
Movable Barriers
CMM Measurements (Pre & Post)
Meet the Drivers
Crash Test Dummies & Dummy
Calibration
Hybrid III 95%ile Male
Hybrid III 50%ile Male
Hybrid III 5%ile Female
Euro Side Impact Dummy (ES II)
World Side Impact Dummy (World SID )
Bio Rear Impact Dummy (BIORID-II)
Instrumented Child Dummies (9 month,
3, 6 and 10 years)
TNO 10 Dummies - Seat Belt Testing
Example: Hybrid III 50% Dummy:
Terminologies
Data Acquisition System (DAQ)
Ruggedized on board data acquisition Systems
Accelerometers, displacement transducers, contact switches
& other sensors for crash & other dynamic tests.
High Speed Photography & High
Intensity Lighting Systems
Motion Analysis & Data Analysis

Forward Head
Movement

Head Velocity

Head
Acceleration
UPCOMING MANDATORY REGULATIONS

AIS098 - Offset Frontal Impact AIS099 Side Impact

AIS096 Full Frontal Impact AIS 100 - Protection of Pedestrian


and other Vulnerable Road Users
NEW CAR ASSESSMENT PROGRAM
(NCAP) Beyond Regulations

Bharat NCAP
coming soon
NEW CAR ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NCAP)
COMPLETE LIST OF GLOBAL PROGRAMS
NCAP programmes around the world have Name of the Region Started in
been introduced to evaluate vehicles with a Program the year
more stringent performance requirements Euro NCAP Europe 1997
than minimum regulatory requirements US NCAP USA 1978
To motivate vehicle manufacturers in their IIHS USA 1994
competition to optimize the Safety Level of Latin NCAP South America & 2010
Caribbean
the vehicles beyond minimum Regulatory
JNCAP Japan 1991
Standards
C-NCAP China 2006
Program provides consumers independent
KNCAP South Korea 1999
information about cars comparative safety
ASEAN NCAP South East Asia 2011
sold in the Market or to be sold in the Market
ANCAP Australia & New 1993
NCAP for India Bharat NCAP is in
Zealand
formulation stage.
GNCAP Global Program
Bharat NCAP India Proposed
NCAP TEST REQUIREMENTS Beyond Regulations

Frontal Impact test


Good
Adequate
Marginal
Weak
Poor
Side Impact Test

Good
Adequate
Marginal
Weak
Poor
Changing ScenarioSafety Evaluation
COMMERCIAL VEHICLE SAFETY
Seat Belt Assembly Window
and Anchorage (AIS: Wind Screen Wiping Seat Anchorage
Retention System AIS: 011 (AIS: 023)
005, AIS: 015) (IS: 13944)

ABS, ESP
etc.
Retro-reflectors
(AIS: 090)
Front Headlights

Warning Triangle
(AIS: 022)
Fog Headlights

Brakes Tires
Bus Body Design Rear View Mirrors
(AIS: 052) (AIS: 001, AIS: 002)
Survival Space for Occupant of
ABS,
Reflective Tapes the Cab of a Commercial
Wind Screen Wiping ESP etc.
AIS: 090 Vehicle (AIS: 029)
System AIS: 011
Rear Underrun
Protector Device
Drivers field of Visions (RUPD) (IS: 14812)
AIS: 032

Side Underrun
Protector Device
Front Headlights (SUPD) IS: 14682

Warning Triangle
Fog Headlights (AIS: 022)

Retro-reflectors
Brakes Tires (AIS: 090)
Front Underrun
Truck and Trailer Protector Device Rear View Mirrors
Body Building(AIS: 093) (FUPD) (AIS: 069) (AIS: 001, AIS: 002)
MOTORCOACH SAFETY
USE OF UNDER RUN PROTECTION DEVICES

1. Front Under Run Protection Device ( FUPD)

2. Rear Under Run Protection Device (RUPD)

3. Side Under Run Protection Device (SUPD)


Two Wheeler ABS & CBS
Anti lock Braking System for two wheeler from
2018 with displacement of more than 125cc
Combined Braking System (CBS) for two
wheeler from 2018 with displacement of less
than 125cc
Day-time running head lights
Future Trends
Integrated Safety
Advanced Safety Technologies
Future of Safety Evaluation & Testing
INTEGRATED SAFETY
Integrated Safety
Integrated Safety Example
Advanced Safety Technologies
O C C U PA N T S A F E T Y

INFLATABLE SEAT BELTS

When inflated the belt helps spread crash force energy across
five times more body area than a standard seat belt and helps
cradle the head and neck.
O C C U PA N T S A F E T Y

Airbags for All Occupant Positions

Curtain Side Airbags and Rear Curtain Airbags for Rear


Airbags for Pelvic Area Seated Passengers

Airbag for Rear Centre


Knee Airbag Passenger
O C C U PA N T S A F E T Y

ADAPTIVE RESTRAINT SYSTEM

1. Ultrasonic sensors
2. Weight sensors
3. Buckle switches
4. Smart inflator
5. Gentle Bag
6. Seat position sensor
7. Seat belts with
adaptive load limiter
8. Adaptive seat belt
pretensioners that
could tension the belt
system even before
impact
CRASHWORTHINESS

Safety of Colliding Partner


In vehicle-to-vehicle crashes, it is often the case that one vehicle sustains
greater damage (usually resulting in greater injury to its occupants) because
of differences in mass, size and geometryincluding, among other factors,
body shape, ride height and bumper height.
CRASH AVO I DA N C E S YS T E M S

ADAPTIVE CRUISE CONTROL


CRASH AVO I DA N C E S YS T E M S

ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL (ESC)


CRASH AVO I DA N C E S YS T E M S

LANE DEVIATION WARNING & LANE-KEEPING ASSIST


CRASH AVO I DA N C E S YS T E M S
ADAPTIVE FRONT-LIGHTING SYSTEM (AFS)
CRASH AVO I DA N C E S YS T E M S

COLLISION-MITIGATION BRAKING SYSTEM


CRASH AVO I DA N C E S YS T E M S

NIGHT VISION MONITORING


CRASH AVO I DA N C E S YS T E M S

PARK ASSIST
Park assist technology interfaces with electric power-assisted
steering, front and rear side sensors and a back-up monitoring
camera to enable a car to steer itself into a parking space with no
steering-wheel operation by the driver.
CRASH AVO I DA N C E S YS T E M S
Communication - the future basis for estimating the
severity of an accident

New possibilities for the enhancement of active and passive safety are also
opening up through the exchange of information
Car2Car
Car2Infrastructure

Vehicle communication technologies can be used both for warning systems


(accident avoidance) as well as for applications in the actual collision zone.
CRASH AVO I DA N C E S YS T E M S

Vehicle Perimeter Monitoring & Blind-Corner Monitoring

This technology uses cameras mounted on the vehicles exterior to


transmit views of the vehicles periphery to the display screen
inside the car.
Picture of an Advanced Safety Vehicle
Future of Safety Evaluation & Testing

Crash testing with Crash Avoidance Systems


Future of Safety Evaluation & Testing
Crash testing with Electrical Vehicles
Future of Safety Evaluation & Testing
Safety evaluation of vehicles driven by
hydrogen, dual fuel
Safety evaluation of Autonomous vehicles
Evaluation / regulations for advanced active
safety systems
Intelligent transport systems, V2V, V2E
communication will further evolve the safety
testing and compliance processes
VEHICLE SAFETY DESIGN &
DEVELOPMENT
VEHICLE SAFETY DESIGN TYPICAL DRIVERS

CONSUMER GROUP
REQUIREMENTS

REGULATIONS &
TEST COMPETETION
REQUIREMENTS

VEHICLE USER POPULATION


LOCAL TRAFFIC
CONDITIONS SAFETY INFORMATION

DESIGN
Evolution of an Automotive
Development
Beyond
Regulations
Meeting the
Regulations
Improving
quality of the
Objective
Development in vehicle and
the design to achieving higher
Development of Meet the quality standards
Vehicle meeting Regulations Driven by Competition,
Mobility Driven by government
market, internal policies,
requirements policies
Consumer Rating forums
& Customer outlook
Need for Mobility
Ensuring Minimum Enhancing safety
Safety
CHANGING TIMESSeller Market to Buyers market
Indian Govt. Initiatives
New safety bill has setup an target to reduce the fatalities
by 50% by end of 2020
Various interventions are being taken by government in
terms of new regulations being implemented
Multipronged approach:
Crash Regulations
Mandatory requirements in M1 category vehicles ABS, SBR,
etc
Bus Body Code
Truck & Trailer Code
Ambulance Code
Standard for three wheeler construction
ABS / CBS for two wheelers
Final Few Points
There will be lot of opportunities as well as challenges for Engineers pursuing
the safety

Severity and fatalities of the accidents can be reduced with better crash
worthy designs of the vehicle and car compatibility

Restraint systems play a very important role along with the crash
worthy structures for occupant protection

Mandatory certification provides minimum safety whereas programs like


NCAP ratings go a long way in improving safety beyond regulations.

V2V, crash avoidance and concept of integrated safety will be the future of
automotive safety strategies.

Indian Automotive Safety Scenario in coming years will see a drastic


transformation
Short Video of Passive Safety
Laboratory @ ARAI
Safety Research & Development is very expensive
Human Life is Priceless !!!

Questions ???