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ICS 27.

100
K 54
Record No. J9262009

Electric Power Industry Standard of the Peoples Republic of China


P DL / T 5428 2009

Technical Code for Design of I&C


Protection System in Fossil Fuel
Power Plant
Design of Fossil Fuel Power Plant
Design of Fossil Fuel Power Plant

Issue Date: July 22, 2009 Implementation Date: December 1, 2009

Issued by the National Energy Administration of the Peoples Republic of China


CIP

DL/T 5428 2009 =


Technical Code for Design of I&C Protection System in Fossil Fuel Power
Plant: /. 2012.2
ISBN 9787512327108

. D . .
. TM621.465

CIP 2012 024868


19 100005 http://www.cepp.sgcc.com.cn


*
2012 4 2012 4
850 1168 32 2.25 52





Electric Power Industry Standard of the Peoples Republic of China
P DL / T 5428 2009

Technical Code for Design of I&C


Protection System in Fossil Fuel
Power Plant
Design of Fossil Fuel Power Plant
Design of Fossil Fuel Power Plant

CHINA ELECTRIC POWER PRESS


BEIJING, 2011
DL / T 5428 2009

Contents

Foreword
1 Scope 1
2 Normative References 2
3 Terms and Definitions, Abbreviations 5
3.1 Terms and Definitions 5
3.2 Abbreviations 9
4 General 10
5 Design Principles of Protection System 11
5.1 Design Principles of Power Supply 11
5.2 Logic Design Principles 12
5.3 Configuration Principles of Protection System 14
5.4 Others 18
6 Boiler Protection 19
6.1 Partial Protection for Boiler 19
6.2 Boiler Furnace Safety Protection 21
6.3 Boiler Trip Protection 26
7 Boiler Burner Control 33
7.1 Ignition and Combustion-Supporting 33
7.2 Pulverized Coal Burner Control 36
7.3 Start and Stop Conditions of Coal Mill 37
7.4 Start and Stop Conditions of Coal Feeder 38
7.5 Start and Stop Conditions of Pulverized Coal Feeder (Exhauster) 39
8 Steam Turbine Generator Unit Protection 41
8.1 Partial Protections for Steam Turbine 41
8.2 Steam Turbine Generator Unit Trip Protection 42

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8.3 Protection for Prevention of Water and Cold Steam Damage to Steam
Turbine 43
8.4 Protection for Deaerating Feedwater System 47
8.5 Protection for Steam Turbine Bypass 48
8.6 Protection for Air Cooling Unit 49
9 Operation, Display and Signals 50
9.1Operation 50
9.2 Display and Signals 51
10 Protection Equipment and Sampling System 58
10.1 Instrumentation 58
10.2 Flame Scanner and Ignition Gun 59
10.3 Actuator 60
10.4 Protection Device 61
10.5 Sampling System 62

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DL / T 5428 2009

Foreword

This code is revised according to Circular of the General Office of


National Development and Reform Commission on the Issuance of
2006 Industrial Standard Program (FGBGY [2006] No. 1093).
This code is put forward by China Electricity Council.
This code is interpreted and under jurisdiction by Electrical
Planning and Design Standardization Technical Committee of Power
Industry.
This code is drafted by CPECC Southwest Electric Power
Design Institute.
This code is mainly drafted by Zhang Jinbin, Xu Huiqiang, Yu
Haiping, Song Chun, Zhang Yu and Du Shaomao.
This code comes into effect since the implementation date, in
lieu of the complete contents of DLGJ 1161993 Technical Regulations
on Design of Furnace Safe Supervisory System in Fossil Fuel Power
Plant and Chapter Protection of NDGJ 161989 Technical
Regulations on I&C Automation Design in Fossil Fuel Power Plant.
Suggestions and comments during application of this code shall
be fed back to the Standardization Center of China Electric Council
(No.1, 2nd Lane, Baiguang Road, Beijing, 100761).
This code is translated by SUNTHER Translation & Solutions
under the authority of China Electric Power Planning & Engineering
Association.

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DL / T 5428 2009

1 Scope

This code specifies the design principles and design methods that
shall be followed in power supply, logic and protection system
configuration as well as equipment part of protection system in fossil
fuel power plant.
This code is applicable to the design of new construction,
expansion and betterment projects for condensing fossil fuel power
plants with steam turbine generator unit rated 125MW 1000MW, as
well as the design of thermal power plants with capacity of 50MW
and above.

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2 Normative References

The following normative documents contain provisions which,


through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this code. For
dated references, subsequent amendments (excluding the contents of
errata) to, or revision of, any of these publications do not apply.
However, parties to agreements based on this code are encouraged to
investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the
normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the
latest edition of the normative document referred to applies.
GB/T 55782007 Fixed Power Plant Turbine Specifications
GB/T 133991992 Specification for Steam Turbine Safety
Monitoring Devices
GB/T 139831992 InstrumentsVocabularyBasic Terms
GB/T 17626.22006 Electromagnetic CompatibilityTesting
and Measurement TechniquesElectrostatic Discharge Immunity Test
GB/T 17626.32006 Electromagnetic CompatibilityTesting
and Measurement TechniquesRadiated Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic
Field Immunity Test
GB/T 17626.42008 Electromagnetic CompatibilityTesting
and Measurement TechniquesElectrical Fast Transient/Burst Immunity
Test
GB/T 17626.52008 Electromagnetic CompatibilityTesting
and Measurement TechniquesSurge Immunity Test
GB/T 17626.62008 Electromagnetic CompatibilityTesting
and Measurement TechniquesImmunity to Conducted Disturbances
Induced by Radio-Frequency Fields
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GB/T 17626.82006 Electromagnetic CompatibilityTesting


and Measurement TechniquesPower Frequency Magnetic Field Immunity
Test
GB/T 17626.91998 Electromagnetic CompatibilityTesting
and Measurement TechniquesPulse Magnetic Field Immunity Test
GB/T 17626.101998 Electromagnetic CompatibilityTesting
and Measurement TechniquesDamped Oscillatory Magnetic Field
Immunity Test
GB/T 17626.112008 Electromagnetic CompatibilityTesting
and Measurement TechniquesVoltage Dips, Short Interruptions and
Voltage Variations Immunity Tests
GB/T 17626.121998 Electromagnetic CompatibilityTesting
and Measurement TechniquesOscillatory Waves Immunity Test
GB/T 20438.12006 Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/
Programmable Electronic Safety-related SystemsPart 1: General
Requirements
GB/T 20438.22006 Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/
Programmable Electronic Safety-related SystemsPart 2: Requirements
for Electrical/Electronic/Programmable Electronic Safety-related
Systems
GB/T 20438.32006 Functional Safety of Electrical/Electronic/
Programmable Electronic Safety-related SystemsPart 3: Software
Requirements
GB/T 21109.12007 Functional SafetySafety Instrumented
Systems for the Process Industry SectorPart 1: Framework Definitions
System Hardware and Software Requirements
GB 50217 2007 Code for Design of Cables of Electric
Engineering
GB 502292006 Code for Design of Fire Protection for Fossil
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Fuel Power Plants and Substations


DL/T 4352004 Code for the Prevention of Pulverized Coal
Firing Furnace Explosions/Implosions in Power Plant Boilers
DL/T 5891996 Directives of Thermal Instrumentation and
Control for Coal Fired Boiler in Power Plant
DL/T 5901996 Directives of Thermal Instrumentation and
Control for Condensation Type Turbine in Power Plant
DL/T 5911996 Directives of Thermal Instrumentation and
Control for Turbo-Generator in Power Plant
DL/T 5921996 Directives of Thermal Instrumentation and
Control for Boiler Feedwater Pump in Power Plant
DL/T 6412005 Electric Valve Actuators for Power Plant
DL/T 7011999 Thermopower AutomationVocabulary for
Fossil Fired Power Plant
DL/T 711 1999 Test Guide of Steam Turbine Governing
System
DL/T 8342003 Guide for the Prevention of Water and Cool
Steam Damage to Steam Turbines in Fossil Power Plant
DL/T 8922004 Specification of Steam Turbine for Power
Plant
DL 50002000 Technical Code for Designing Fossil Fuel
Power Plant
DL/T 5182 2004 Technical Rule for Designing of Local
Equipment Installation, Pipeline and Cables of I&C in Power Plant
SD 2681988 Specification for Power Station Coal Fired Boiler
NFPA 852004 Boiler and Combustion Systems Hazards Code
ASME TDP-1 1998 Recommended Practices for the
Prevention of Water Damage to Steam Turbines Used for Electric
Power Generation
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3 Terms and Definitions, Abbreviations

In addition to the terms and definitions specified in GB/T 13983 and


DL/T 701, the following terms and definitions, as well as abbreviations
are applicable to this code.

3.1 Terms and Definitions

3.1.1
One out of two for binary variable
Logic consisting of two binary variables reflecting the same
event. When any variable is true, the logic output is true.
3.1.2
Two out of three for binary variable
Logic consisting of three binary variables reflecting the same
event. When any two variables are true, the logic output is true.
3.1.3
Dual redundancy for analog variable
One variable is measured simultaneously by two analog variable
transmitters or sensors for mutual standby.
3.1.4
Triple redundancy for analog variable
One variable is measured simultaneously by three analog variable
transmitters or sensors for mutual standby.
3.1.5
Multiple redundancy for analog variable
One variable is measured simultaneously by more than three
analog variable transmitters or sensors, for mutual standby.

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3.1.6
Programmable electronic
Based on computer technology, programmable electronic can be
composed of hardware, software, and their input and (or) output units.
3.1.7
Logic system
The part used to perform the decision and transition for functional
logic in this system. A logic system provides output in particular sequence
to respond to external input and internal logic. Logic system includes:
1 Hardwired system: devices and their interconnecting wiring.
2 The system based on microprocessor.
1) Computer hardware, power supply, I/O device and their
interconnecting parts.
2) Operating system and logic software.
3.1.8
Programmable electronic logic system
Logic system based on one or more programmable electronic
devices, used for control, protection or monitoring, which includes all
elements in the system, such as power supply, input device, data
highway, other communication channels, and output device, etc.. For
example: PLC, DCS, etc..
3.1.9
Safety function
The function realized by safety-related programmable electronic
system, other technical safety-related systems or external risk
reduction facilities in respect of certain hazardous events, in order to
achieve or maintain the safety state of controlled equipment.
3.1.10
Safety-related system
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The specified system must be capable of realizing the required


safety function to achieve or maintain the safety state of equipment
controlled; the system alone or together with other safety-related
programmable electronic systems, other technical systems or external
risk reduction facilities can achieve the safety integrity required by
the necessary safety function.
3.1.11
Safety integrity
The probability that safety-related system successfully achieves
the safety function required under conditions specified and within the
time specified.
3.1.12
Safety integrity level; SIL
A discrete level (one of the four possible levels), used to specify
the safety integrity requirements of safety function assigned to
safety-related programmable electronic system. SIL 4 herein is the
highest, and SIL 1 is the lowest. See Table 3.1.12.

Table 3. 1. 12 Safety Integrity Level: Target Failure Variable for Safety


Function Assigned to a Programmable Safety-Related System in
Demanding or Continuous Operation Mode
Demanding or Continuous Operation Mode
Safety Integrity Level
(Dangerous Failure Probability per Hour)

SIL 4 109 and108

SIL 3 108 and107

SIL 2 107 and106

SIL 1 106 and105

Note: see Para. 7.6.2.9 in GB/T 20438.12006 for detailed explanation

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3.1.13
Burner pair
The two diagonal burners on the same layer of tangentially fired
furnace consist of one burner pair.
3.1.14
Pulverized coal feeder pair
In case that coal pulverizing system with storage bin and
tangentially fired furnace are used, the pulverized coal feeders
corresponding to the burner pair consist of one pulverized coal
feeder pair.
3.1.15
Mass airflow
The value of airflow stated with mass as equivalent.
3.1.16
Local ignition
Performing ignition for burners one by one locally.
3.1.17
Remote ignition
Performing ignition for burners one by one in control room.
3.1.18
Automatic ignition
Performing ignition for burners automatically as per the
stipulated ignition logic.
3.1.19
Environmental condition
The physical, chemical and biological conditions around
instrumentation and protection and control equipment, including
ambient temperature, relative ambient humidity, ambient pressure,
electromagnetic field, gravity, inclination, power supply voltage and
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frequency changes, harmonic wave, radiation, impact, vibration,


corrosion, erosion, and flammable and combustible conditions.

3.2 Abbreviations

DCS: Distributed Control System


PLC: Programmable Logic Controller
UPS: Uninterrupted Power Supply
SOE: Sequence of Event
SIL: Safety Integrity Level
MFT: Master Fuel Trip
OFT: Oil Fuel Trip
FCB: Fast Cut Back
RB: Run Back
FSSS: Furnace Safety Supervisory System, composed of FSS
and BCS
FSS: Furnace Safety System
BCS: Burner Control System
I/O: Input/Output
ETS: Emergency Trip System
DEH: Digital Electro-Hydraulic Control System
MCS: Modulation Control System
SCS: Sequence Control System
PCV: Pressure Control Valve
CPU: Central Processing Unit
SPDT: Single-Pole Double-Throw
DPDT: Double-Pole Double-Throw

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4 General

4.0.1 Design of the protection system is an important part of I&C


automation design in power plant, which shall be conducted
according to the features of the unit, using equipment and
components of advanced technology and reliable quality. New
products and new technologies can only be adopted after successful
tests and verification or other applicable evaluations.
4.0.2 Approved Standard design, typical design and reference
design shall be adopted actively for design of the protection system in
power plant.
4.0.3 In designing the protection system, regulations of DL 5000
and the current related national standards and industrial standards
shall be implemented, and the requirements of this code shall be met.
4.0.4 In design of the protection system, integrated coordination
shall be made with related control system, interlocking device,
operation and process equipment and system.

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5 Design Principles of Protection System

5.1 Design Principles of Power Supply

5.1.1 AC single-phase protection power supply shall be of voltage


220V, with allowable voltage fluctuation range 176V264V, and
allowable frequency fluctuation range 47.5Hz52.5Hz; DC power
supply can be either of voltage 220V with allowable fluctuation range
176V286V, or of voltage 110V with allowable fluctuation range
88V143V.
5.1.2 All protection devices shall be equipped with two AC 220V
power supplies, one of which shall be AC uninterruped power supply
(UPS), while the other of which shall be led from auxiliary
emergency power supply or auxiliary low-voltage busbar. Where
redundant UPS power supply system is provided, the two incoming
lines can be powered by the UPS power supply, but shall be
connected to different supply busbars. Two DC 220V (or 110V)
power supplies can also be used, with DC current led from DC panel
of battery. The two power supplies shall be in mutual standby and be
transferred from one to the other automatically, with the transfer time
interval not affecting normal functions of protection system.
5.1.3 When DC protection trip circuit is used, bipolar control shall
be adopted, that is, the positive and negative sides are activated
simultaneously.
5.1.4 The hardwired protection logic circuit and the independent
protection drive circuit shall be equipped with power fuses or trippers
respectively, and power supply monitoring shall be arranged for
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DL / T 5428 2009

important circuits.
5.1.5 For fault of main protection power supply, alarm independent
from the programmable electronic logic system should be set up in
the control room.

5.2 Logic Design Principles

5.2.1 During design of the protection system, measures to prevent


malfunction shall be provided. Fault of single part in the system shall
not cause malfunction of the protection. In case of interruption or
recovery of power supply of protection system, action instruction will
not be sent in error.
5.2.2 When programmable electronic logic system is used to realize
main I&C protection logic, the following requirements shall be met:
1 Failure modes of components shall be evaluated, and effects
of at least the following faults shall be evaluated and addressed.
1) Effects of changes in power supply conditions, including
power supply interruption, fluctuation, steep drop,
recovery, transient variation, and partial power loss, etc.;
2) Error and loss of memory;
3) Error of information transmission and information loss;
4) Input/output error (fault opening and breaking);
5) Signal error or failure to recognize signal;
6) Failure to address error;
7) Processor fault;
8) Fault of relay coil, and fault of relay contact (fault
opening and breaking);
9) Timer fault.
2 Diagnosis means with function of monitoring processor logic
shall be configured.
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3 Fault of logic system shall not prevent the normal operation


of operator.
4 Protection means to prevent unauthorized logic change shall
be designed. During operation of the equipment, the relevant logic
shall not be changed.
5 System response time (total time from inputting to outputting
of information) shall be very short, so as not to cause negative effect.
6 Strong anti-interference capacity shall be provided, to
prevent false action.
7 Fault of any individual part in logic system shall not hinder
forced trip of steam turbine and boiler.
8 External watchdog timer for monitoring controller shall be
configured.
5.2.3 Important I&C protection circuit of the unit with capacity of
300MW and above should be capable of conducting action test during
unit operation, without disabling the protection function and affecting
normal operation of the unit.
5.2.4 For important protection circuit to stop operation of boiler or
steam turbine, dedicated manual trip button (duplicate or provided
with cover) shall be disposed on the console, which shall be
independent and directly connected to drive circuits for boiler and
turbine shutdown.
5.2.5 Event review function shall be set up for unit of 125MW and
above, with review span not less than 5min before and after trip,
review interval time not more than 3s5s, and review interval time
for rapidly changing parameters such as speed and furnace pressure
not more than 1s. The sequence of events logs shall be established for
the causes of operations of boiler and turbine shutdown protection.
5.2.6 The principle of protection first shall be implemented.
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Operation instructions of the protection system output shall have


priority over any other instructions and shall be executed by the
control circuit of the drive device of controlled object.
5.2.7 Contact signal input to the protection system should be
passive dry contact and shall generally be taken from the terminal
contacts of field binary variable instruments or controlled equipment.
5.2.8 After the controlled object has its state changed due to
acceptance of protection action, it will not restore to the state before
accepting the protection action automatically. After input conditions
are met, protection logic can be reset automatically. Any measures for
operator to switch on/off and reset logic protection manually shall not
be set up.

5.3 Configuration Principles of Protection System

5.3.1 The boiler and turbine protection systems (i.e., FSS and ETS)
may employ either safety-related systems or programmable electronic
logic systems (DCS or PLC) that are implemented using soft logics or
relay-forming hard logics. Where safety-related systems are used, they
should be of certified systems in compliance with GB/T 20438.1
2006, GB/T 20438.2 2006, GB/T 20438.3 2006 and GB/T
21109.12007 that are applicable to high standard applications or
have a safety integrity level of SIL3 under continuous operation mode.
Where safety-related systems or other programmable electronic logic
systems independent of unit control systems are used, they should
have communication interfaces to unit control systems to transmit the
monitoring information to the latter.
5.3.2 The protection systems except for boiler and turbine protection
system should be implemented by programmable electronic logic
systems (DCS or PLC) through the use of soft logics. The
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programmable electronic logic systems adopted independent of unit


control system should have communication interfaces with unit
control system, to send monitoring information into unit control
system.
5.3.3 When DCS or PLC programmable electronic logic system is
used to implement the protection logic, the following requirements in
addition to 5.2.2 shall be met as well.
1 At least the following requirements for electromagnetic
compatibility shall be satisfied, namely, the system performance shall
be normal under corresponding test conditions:
1) Level 3 for electrostatic discharge immunity test specified in
GB/T 17626.22006;
2) General test level 3 for radiated radio-frequency ele-
ctromagnetic field immunity and test level 4 for
protection (equipment)s resistance to radio-frequency
radiation of digital cordless phones, specified in GB/T
17626.32006;
3) Level 3 for electrical fast transient test specified in GB/T
17626.42008;
4) Level 4 for surge immunity test specified in GB/T 17626.5
2008;
5) Test level 3 for immunity to conducted disturbances induced
by radio-frequency fields, specified in GB/T 17626.6
2008;
6) Level 4 for stable and short-time acting magnetic field
test specified in GB/T 17626.82008;
7) Level 4 for pulse magnetic field test specified in GB/T
17626.91998;
8) Level 4 for damped oscillatory magnetic field test
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specified in GB/T 17626.101998;


9) All test levels for voltage dips and short interruptions
(i.e., test level 0, 40 and 70) and voltage test level 40 and
0 for voltage variations, specified in GB/T 17626.11
2008;
10) Level 3 for ring wave test and level 3 for damped oscillatory
wave test specified in GB/T 17626.121998.
2 Logic controller for protection system must be with
redundancy, and output relay must be reliable.
3 Response time of protection action shall meet the
requirements of the controlled object.
4 I/O channel shall have electric isolation.
5.3.4 DC relays should be adopted for protection logic; if power
supply is from UPS, AC relays may be used.
5.3.5 Unless otherwise specially indicated, the protection system
shall comply with the following independence principles:
1 Protection logic system for turbine shutdown and boiler
shutdown shall be equipped with independent logic and independent
redundancy controllers, independent input/output systems and
independent power supply, functionally and physically independent
of other logic systems, and shall not be in combination with any other
logic systems (such as MCS and SCS).
2 One set of protection logic system shall be restricted to single
unit and shall not be shared by multiple units.
3 Redundant I/O signals shall be input or output through
different I/O modules and channels.
4 The binary variable instrument and analog variable transmitter/
sensor triggering protection signals for turbine shutdown and boiler
shutdown shall be set up separately; when they are required to be
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used in combination with other systems due to difficulties, their


signals shall be first input into the protection system, and then led
into other systems through isolation facilities.
5 The sampling systems of the binary variable instrument and
analog variable transmitter/sensor triggering protection signals for
unit shutdown and boiler shutdown shall not be used in combination
with the transmitters of other systems, and the binary variable
instrument and analog variable transmitter/sensor with redundancy
shall not share one sampling system.
6 Action commands for steam shutdown and boiler shutdown
shall not be transmitted through communication bus. Signals
triggering turbine shutdown and boiler shutdown shall be hardwired.
5.3.6 The binary variable instrument with redundancy shall be set
up according to the actual situation of unit equipment, which shall at
least comply with the following requirements.
1 One out of two: differential between primary air pressure and
furnace pressure (if required by the manufacturer).
2 Two out of three: positive furnace pressure, negative furnace
pressure, differential between the flame scanner cooling air pressure
and furnace pressure (or flame scanner cooling air pressure),
condenser vacuum, lubricating oil pressure, fire-resistant oil pressure,
and generator cooling water flow.
5.3.7 The analog variable instrument with redundancy shall be set
up according to the actual situation of unit equipment, which shall at
least comply with the following requirements.
1 Dual redundancy: reheated steam temperature, axial displacement,
feed pump turbine speed, drum pressure, total forced draft air flow,
differential pressure of inlet and outlet of boiler water circulating
pump, outlet temperature of atmospheric fluidized bed cyclone
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separator, and fuel pressure.


2 Triple redundancy: drum level of drum boiler, feed water
flow of once-through boiler, furnace pressure, atmospheric fluidized
bed pressure and fluidized airflow, turbine speed, main steam
pressure, reheated steam pressure, and mill outlet temperature.
3 Multiple redundancy: atmospheric fluidized bed temperature.

5.4 Others

5.4.1 The measuring instrument and devices required for the


protection system provided along with boiler shall at least be in
conformity with the requirements of DL/T 5891996 and SD 268
1998; the measuring instrument and devices required for the
protection system provided along with the steam turbine shall at least
be in conformity with the requirements of GB/T 55782007, DL/T
5901996 and DL/T 8922004; the measuring instrument and
devices required for the protection system provided along with steam
turbine generator shall at least be in conformity with the requirements
of DL/T 5911996; the measuring instrument and devices required
for the protection system provided along with boiler feed pump shall
at least be in conformity with the requirements of DL/T 5921996.
5.4.2 Design of local equipment and pipeline shall meet the
requirements of DL/T 51822004.
5.4.3 Cable design shall be in conformity with the regulations of
GB 502172007 and 6.7 of GB 502292006.

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6 Boiler Protection

6.1 Partial Protection for Boiler

6.1.1 Main steam pressure high protection


Protection against high main steam pressure shall include the
following:
1 When main steam pressure exceeds the specified value , alarm
shall be issued; if bypass systems with quick open function are provided,
high pressure bypass valve shall be opened automatically and quickly.
2 When main steam pressure exceeds the specified value ,
pressure control valve (PCV) shall be opened automatically.
3 When main steam pressure exceeds the specified value ,
corresponding safety valve shall be opened automatically.
4 When saturated steam pressure of boiler exceeds the
specified value, drum safety valve shall be opened automatically.
6.1.2 Protection against high reheated steam pressure
Protection against high reheated steam pressure shall include the
following:
1 When reheater outlet pressure exceeds value specified,
alarm shall be given; if bypass system with quick open function are
provided, low pressure bypass valve shall be opened automatically.
2 When reheater outlet pressure exceeds value specified,
hot reheater safety valve shall be opened automatically, and alarm
shall be given.
6.1.3 High and low pressure bypass protection.
See 8.5.
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6.1.4 Protection against high reheated steam temperature.


When temperature of hot reheated steam section exceeds the
specified value, emergency water spray valve shall be opened with
override.
6.1.5 Drum level protection.
Drum level protection shall include the following:
1 When drum level reaches the specified value, alarm shall
be given; when it reaches the specified value , emergency drum
drain valve shall be opened automatically and alarm shall be given;
when it reaches the specified value specified, emergency boiler
shutdown (MFT) shall be done automatically.
2 When drum level drops to the specified value , alarm
shall be given; when it drops to the specified value , alarm shall be
given; when it drops to the specified value specified, emergency
boiler shutdown (MFT) shall be done automatically.
6.1.6 Water supply failure protection for forced circulation boilers
When differential inlet and outlet pressure of boiler water
circulating pump in operation drops to the specified value, alarm
shall be given; when it drops to the specified value , such pump
shall be removed out of service, and the standby boiler water
circulating pump shall be started automatically. In case of trip of all
boiler water circulating pumps, or small differential pressure or flow
loss before and after all boiler water circulating pumps, emergency
boiler shutdown (MFT) shall be done automatically.
6.1.7 Water supply failure protection for once-through boiler.
Water supply failure protection for once-through boiler shall
include the following:
1 When feed water flow drops to the specified value, alarm
shall be given;
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2 When feed water flow drops to the specified value ,


emergency boiler shutdown (MFT) shall be done automatically;
3 When all boiler feed water pumps trip, emergency boiler
shutdown (MFT) shall be done automatically.
6.1.8 Boiler partial flame loss protection.
Boiler partial flame loss protection of boilers shall include the
following:
1 For tangentially fired boiler with capacity of 1000t/h and
above, in case of flame loss of a single burner, alarm signal shall be
given, and the operator shall judge whether to stop corresponding
burner pair, or to stop the pulverized coal feeders or coal mills
corresponding to all burners at the layer.
2 For wall or arch fired boiler with capacity of 1000t/h and
above, in case of flame loss of single burner, alarm shall be given;
When the number of flame-out burners that are served by the same
coal mill or pulverized coal feeder exceeds the specified value, the
associated coal mill or pulverized coal feeder shall be stopped
automatically.
3 For tangentially fired boiler for direct-fired pulverizing
system of fan mill with capacity of 1000t/h and above, in case of
flame loss of a single burner, alarm shall be issued, and the operator
shall judge whether to stop the corresponding coal mill; when the
quantity of flameout burners at a corner is more than the specified
value, corresponding fan mill shall be stopped automatically.
6.1.9 The design for other partial protections of boilers should comply
with the requirements for boilers and their process system features.

6.2 Boiler Furnace Safety Protection

6.2.1 Explosion-proof design for furnace of pulverized coal fired


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boiler shall be in conformity with the regulations of DL/T 435


2004.
6.2.2 Boiler purging.
1 For atmospheric fluidized bed boiler, when bed fluidization
and bed temperature are more than the limit values for ignition and
there is no boiler trip mode, the purging logic can be bypassed. In
addition, the furnace (including flue ducts) must be purged before
boiler ignition, and all purging conditions must be met at the
beginning and during the process of purging. When any of the
purging conditions is not met, purging timing shall be stopped
immediately. When purging conditions are met again, purging
program shall be restarted.
2 Purging sequence control function for single oil gun should
also be provided for boilers with a capacity of 670t/h and above.
3 Purging time for boiler furnace shall not be less than five
minutes, or shall be equivalent to the time required for five times of
air changes in volume of the furnace and its rear pressure-bearing
member, whichever is the greater.
4 Basic purging conditions for boiler furnace shall be determined
according to boiler capacity and type of coal pulverizing system, in
accordance with the conditions listed in Table 6.2.2. Certain
conditions can also be added according to the requirements of boiler
manufacturer, such as:
1) All auxiliary air dampers shall be opened to purging
positions;
2) All hot air dampers shall be closed;
3) Others.
5 Indication shall be available after purging is completed, and
MFT logic shall be reset automatically through purging completion
22
DL / T 5428 2009

signal.

Table 6. 2. 2 Purging Conditions for Boiler Furnace


Storage Bin Direct-Fired
Pulverizing Pulverizing
S/N Purging Conditions System System
220t/h 1000t/h 220t/h 1000t/h
670t/h 3000t/h 670t/h 3000t/h
No MFT trip conditions
1
exist

At least one forced draft


fan (FDF) is operating, with
2
corresponding air damper
open

At least one induced draft


fan (IDF) is running, with
3
corresponding air damper
open

Both rotary air preheaters


4
are put into operation

Both electrostatic precipitators


5
trip

Furnace air flow is within


the range of 25%40% of
6
rated load mass airflow (or
determined by test)

Main fuel (or gas) shut-off


valve or quick closing valves
7
are closed, and main gas
vent valve is open

All oil gun (or gas gun)


shut-off valves or quick closing
8 valves are closed, and all gas
vent valves of gas guns are
open

9 All primary air fans trip

23
DL / T 5428 2009

Table 6. 2. 2 (continued)
Storage Bin Direct-Fired
Pulverizing Pulverizing
S/N Purging Conditions System System
220t/h 1000t/h 220t/h 1000t/h
670t/h 3000t/h 670t/h 3000t/h
All pulverized coal exhausters
10
and feeders trip
All coal feeders and mills
11
trip
Water level of drum or
steam-water separator is normal
12
(up to the level required for
ignition)
No flame is detected by
13
flame scanners
Power supply of boiler
14 furnace safe supervisory
system is normal
Purging instruction is
15
started
16 Oil leakage test is passed
Note: mark in the table means strict requirement, showing that it shall be
done under normal circumstances; mark means slightly optional
requirement, showing that it shall be done first under the permitted
conditions; mark means optional requirement, showing that it can be
done under certain conditions

6.2.3 Leakage test for oil system.


It shall be implemented in accordance with the special
regulations of boiler manufacturer, if any. Unless otherwise specially
specified, the following requirements shall be met:
1 Before furnace purging program is started, leakage test for
oil system should be conducted, which can also be bypassed through

24
DL / T 5428 2009

keyboard or program controller.


2 Each safety shut-off valve and oil return valve of oil burner
shall be closed, and quick-closing valves and control valve of main
oil pipe shall be opened, then the system oil pressure shall reach the
specified value within one minute, otherwise it may be determined
that leakage test fails; afterwards, the quick-closing valves of main oil
pipe shall be closed, the oil pressure shall maintain for more than
three minutes, otherwise it may also be determined that leakage test
fails. Acoustic and optical alarm signal shall be given if leakage test
fails.
3 After the aforesaid test is completed, oil return valve shall be
opened, and then closed when oil pressure is less than the specified
valve, which shall still be less than the specified value after 3min,
otherwise it may be determined that leakage test fails. Acoustic and
optical alarm signal shall be given if leakage test fails.
4 Indication shall be given for leakage test meeting requirements,
and furnace purging program shall be started automatically.
6.2.4 Flame detection and flame loss protection.
1 Flame monitoring shall be conducted respectively for each
coal, oil, and gas burner to facilitate the use of flame monitoring and
flame loss protection based on single burner.
2 Where there is critical flame monitoring logic in boiler
furnace safe supervisory system, it can only be used as alarm signal
before verified.
3 The pulverized coal fired boiler with a capacity of 410t/h and
above should be equipped with industrial television(s) for monitoring
furnace flame.
4 Flame scanner system shall have self-check function. In case
of fault of detection system, the signal indicating faulty flame
25
DL / T 5428 2009

detection system shall be given.


5 Reliable cooling air system for flame scanners must be
provided, such as dedicated flame scanners in mutual standby for
cooling fans. If proved reasonable technically and economically,
other reliable air source can also be used as cleaning air and cooling
air for flame detection.
6.2.5 Furnace pressure protection.
1 High and low furnace pressure must be measured near the
measuring point of conventional furnace pressure gauge or pressure
transmitter at the same level.
2 High and low furnace pressure alarm signals should be given
by pressure switches.
3 High and low furnace pressure trip signals shall be given by
pressure switches, using two out of three logic, with separate
sampling of three pressure switches. After a short delay, master fuel
trip (MFT) signal shall be sent.

6.3 Boiler Trip Protection

6.3.1 In case of any of the following situations for boiler in operation,


a MFT instruction shall be sent to realize emergency shutdown
protection:
1 Manual shutdown instruction.
2 Loss of all flame (delay).
3 Furnace pressure excessively high (as high as value ,
delay).
4 Furnace pressure excessively low (as low as value ,
delay).
5 Drum level excessively high (as high as value , delay).
6 Drum level excessively low (as low as value , delay).
26
DL / T 5428 2009

7 All forced draft fans trip.


8 All induced draft fans trip.
9 All primary air fans trip when only pulverized coal burners
are put into operation.
10 All fuel is cut off.
1) Atmospheric fluidized bed boiler: all fuel is cut off, and
the bed temperature is unsuitable for any fuel feeding.
2) Direct-fired pulverizing system: all coal mills trip or all
coal feeders trip, and the main fuel (gas) valve or all
branch fuel (gas) valves are closed.
3) Storage bin pulverizing system: all coal feeders trip and
all pulverized coal exhausters (primary air fans) trip,
and the main fuel (gas) valve or all branch fuel (gas)
valves are closed.
11 Total airflow is less than purging airflow by 5% of full load
airflow.
12 Reheater is overheated (should trip).
13 Unit system steam turbine trips (when bypass for operation
is not set up, or capacity of bypass for operation is not applicable).
14 Protection system power supply is lost.
15 Cooling air for flame detection of pulverized coal fired
boiler is lost.
In addition, the following MFT conditions shall be added for
boiler with different characteristics:
1) All boiler water circulating pumps trip, or differential
pressure before and after all boiler water circulating
pumps is small or flow is lost (for forced circulation
boilers);
2) Bed temperature is too high or flue gas temperature of
27
DL / T 5428 2009

furnace outlet is too high (for atmospheric fluidized bed


boilers);
3) Bed temperature is lower than the temperature at which
it is allowed to feed main fuel, and flame of start-up
burner is not confirmed (for atmospheric fluidized bed
boilers);
4) All fluidized fans trip or fluidized airflow is too small
(for atmospheric fluidized bed boilers);
5) Cooling water flow of fluidized bed system components
is too small (for atmospheric fluidized bed boiler);
6) Feed water flow is too small (for once-through boilers);
7) All feed water pumps trip (for once-through boilers);
8) Other protection items provided by boiler manufacturer.
6.3.2 When a pulverized coal boiler operates on fuel oil, an OFT
instruction shall be issued if any of the following conditions occur:
1 Item 1 to Item 8, Item 11 and Item 15 of MFT conditions;
2 Main fuel valve or the final safety shut-off valve of oil
burner is closed;
3 Fuel oil pressure is too low;
4 Pressure of atomizing medium for oil burner is too low (for
non-mechanical atomization).
6.3.3 The alarm values of furnace pressure, drum level, reheated
steam temperature, fluidized bed temperature and fluidized airflow,
and feed water flow of once-through boiler, the actuation value and
delay of MFT shall be designed based on the data provided by the
boiler manufacturer.
6.3.4 FDFs and IDFs shall not trip in case of MFT that is not
caused by tripping of FDFs and IDFs. At this time, if the airflow is
larger than the purging airflow, the airflow may be slowly decreased
28
DL / T 5428 2009

to the purging airflow; if the airflow is lower than the purging airflow,
it shall be maintained unchanged for 5 minutes and then increased to
the purging airflow gradually at which purging is conducted after
flame loss.
6.3.5 When the interlocking used is for startup, shutdown and
tripping of FDFs and IDFs in pairs, if only one FDF trips, the
corresponding IDF shall be tripped, and dampers associated with both
fans shall be closed. If it is the last FDF in operation that trips, the
IDFs shall be maintained in operation under controlled condition, and
dampers associated with the FDF shall be maintained in open
position.
6.3.6 When all FDFs trip, master fuel trip (MFT) instruction shall
be given, and the override of control device for IDF shall be actuated.
After a certain delay, all FDF dampers shall be opened and kept in
open state. The dampers of flue gas recirculating fan system shall be
closed. If the manufacturer of atmospheric fluidized bed boiler has
special requirements, these requirements shall be followed.
6.3.7 When the interlocking used is for startup, shutdown and trip
of FDFs and IDFs in pairs, if only IDF trips, the corresponding FDF
shall be tripped, and the dampers associated the both fans shall be
closed. If it is the last IDF in operation that trips, the dampers
associated with the both fans shall be maintained in open position.
6.3.8 When all IDFs trip, the master fuel trip (MFT) instruction
shall be given, and all the FDFs shall be tripped. After a certain delay,
all IDF dampers shall be opened and kept in open state. The dampers
of flue gas recirculating fan system shall be closed. If the
manufacturer of atmospheric fluidized bed boiler has special
requirements, these requirements shall be followed.
6.3.9 If emergency shutdown is due to loss of all FDFs or IDFs, or
29
DL / T 5428 2009

all the FDFs or IDFs have been tripped, all dampers on flue gas and
air ducts shall be opened slowly to the fully open position to establish
natural ventilation as practical as possible. The process of opening fan
dampers shall be timed or controlled in order to avoid excessive
positive pressure or negative pressure generated in furnace during
inertial motion of fans. Such natural ventilation state shall be kept for
at least 15min. After that, if fans can be restarted, fans shall be started
and airflow shall be adjusted to purging airflow slowly to complete
post-flame loss furnace purging according to corresponding
regulations. If the manufacturer of atmospheric fluidized bed boiler
has placed special requirements, these requirements shall be
followed.
6.3.10 When positive furnace pressure exceeds normal operation
pressure and reaches the limit value specified by boiler manufacturer,
MFT shall be triggered. After trip, if fans are still in operation,
operation shall be continued, but the air flow shall not be increased
manually or automatically. Following MFT and subsequent furnace
purging, if furnace pressure is still more than the specified value of
boiler manufacturer before main fuel ignition, all FDFs shall trip.
6.3.11 When negative furnace pressure exceeds the negative
pressure for normal operation and reaches the limit value specified by
boiler manufacturer, MFT shall be triggered. After trip, if fans are
still in operation, operation shall be continued, but the air flow shall
not be increased manually or automatically. After MFT and
subsequent furnace purging, if negative furnace pressure is still more
than the specified value of boiler manufacturer before main fuel
ignition, all IDFs shall trip.
6.3.12 It is not allowed to scavenger oil pipes immediately after
master fuel trip (MFT) or fuel oil trip (OFT).
30
DL / T 5428 2009

6.3.13 In case of master fuel trip (MFT) or fuel oil trip (OFT),
indication signal of cause for trip must be given.
6.3.14 When master fuel trip (MFT) occurs, the following
commands shall be executed automatically:
1 All coal mills shall be stopped and all outlet dampers of coal
mills shall be fully closed (for direct-fired pulverizing system);
2 All coal feeders shall be stopped (for direct-fired pulverizing
system);
3 All pulverized coal feeders shall be stopped (for storage bin
pulverizing system);
4 All pulverized coal exhausters shall be stopped (for storage
bin pulverizing system);
5 All primary air fans shall be stopped and primary air
dampers shall be closed;
6 The main oil (gas) fuel safety shut-off valve and
quick-closing valve shall be closed, and the main gas vent valve shall
be opened;
7 All oil (gas) fuel safety shut-off valves and quick-closing
valves shall be closed, and all gas vent valves of gas gun shall be
opened;
8 Spraying water control valves and shut-off valves of
superheater and reheater shall be closed;
9 All igniters shall be switched off, and ignition gun and oil
(gas) gun shall be retracted;
10 Electrostatic precipitator shall be stopped;
11 Operation of soot blower shall be blocked, the soot blower
in operation shall be removed out of service automatically;
12 Flue gas desulfurization and de-NOx devices shall be
stopped;
31
DL / T 5428 2009

13 Lime stone feeders shall be stopped (for atmospheric


fluidized bed boiler);
14 Steam turbine shall be tripped (for unit system arrangement);
15 Motor-operated main stop valve at boiler outlet shall be
closed (common header system unit);
16 Other actions required.

32
DL / T 5428 2009

7 Boiler Burner Control

7.1 Ignition and Combustion-Supporting

7.1.1 Regardless of local ignition, remote ignition or automatic


ignition, all conditions as shown in Table 7.1.1 must be met before
boilers are ignited during the startup.

Table 7. 1. 1 Conditions for Starting Ignition Oil (Gas) Gun


Local Remote Automatic
S/N Starting Conditions
Ignition Ignition Ignition
Power supplies of ignition oil gun
1
and igniter are normal

2 MFT has been reset

Tilting burner is at horizontal


3
position

Furnace airflow is within the range


4 of 25%40% of mass airflow under
the rated load of boiler

Differential pressure of wind


5
box/furnace meets requirements

Shutoff valve of main ignition oil


6
(gas) pipe is open

Quick-closing valve of ignition oil


7
(gas) gun is closed

8 Ignition oil (gas) pressure is normal

Ignition oil temperature is normal


9
(heavy diesel)

Atomizing medium pressure is normal


10
(for non-mechanical atomization)

33
DL / T 5428 2009

Table 7. 1. 1 (continued)
Local Remote Automatic
S/N Starting Conditions
Ignition Ignition Ignition

Flame scanner system is normal


11
(for power supply and cooling air)

12 Oil gun scavengering valve is closed

Note 1: After pulverized coal burner is put into operation, item 4 in the table
shall be neglected.
Note 2: mark in the table means strict requirement, showing that it shall be
done under normal circumstances; mark means slightly optional
requirement, showing that it shall be done first under the permitted
conditions; mark means optional requirement, showing that it can
be done under certain conditions

7.1.2 For starting combustion-supporting oil gun, the following


conditions shall be met:
1 Flame is present in the corresponding ignition oil (gas) gun,
or boiler load is more than the specified value;
2 Quick-closing valve of combustion-supporting oil gun is
closed;
3 Shutoff valve of main combustion-supporting oil pipe is
open;
4 Purging valve of combustion-supporting oil gun is closed;
5 Oil temperature is normal;
6 Oil (gas) pressure is normal;
7 Atomizing medium pressure is normal (for non-mechanical
atomization);
8 Flame scanner system is normal (e.g., power supply and
cooling air);
9 Other requirements of boiler manufacturer.
7.1.3 If ignition oil (gas) flame is not established within 10s15s
34
DL / T 5428 2009

(10s for light diesel and 15s for heavy diesel) of ignition by igniter,
oil (gas) fuel shall be cut off to stop the ignition system, and it is
prohibited to reignite within 1min.
7.1.4 Local ignition shall be restrained by system logic and
permissive conditions, and direct ignition independent of BCS logic
shall not be allowed. When boiler is only designed with local ignition
mode, ignition shall be done in accordance with the interlocking
conditions in Table 7.1.1; when boiler is designed with multiple
modes such as local ignition and remote ignition, the ignition
conditions for local ignition shall be implemented strictly in
accordance with the conditions for remote ignition.
7.1.5 Ignition and oil (gas) fuel guns should be put into operation
and stopped in pairs or groups.
7.1.6 Normally, oil guns shall be purged after being retracted. In
order to purge the oil guns, the igniters shall be first put into service,
followed by opening the purging valve to purge the oil guns for 2min.
Where the purging valve fails to open within 10s after the igniters are
put into service, the purging process shall be suspended. The failure
to ignite the first oil gun does not necessitate a purging process.
However, the cause shall be investigated and another attempt of
ignition may be made after 1min.
7.1.7 In case of any of the following situations during oil gun
operation, the gas gun shall be stopped automatically:
1 Low atomizing medium pressure for a certain period of time;
2 Very low oil pressure for a certain period of time.
7.1.8 In case of any of the following situations during gas gun
operation, the gas gun shall be stopped automatically:
1 Excessively low air pressure for a certain period of time;
2 Excessively high air pressure for a certain period of time.
35
DL / T 5428 2009

7.1.9 For units equipped with pulverized coal burners that are
capable of automatic start up and stop according to the loads, the
function of putting into service of oil (gas) guns automatically shall
be provided.

7.2 Pulverized Coal Burner Control

7.2.1 In addition to maintaining normal boiler drum level and


establishing normal water circulation for forced circulation boiler and
once-through boiler, all conditions shown in Table 7.2.1 shall be met
as a minimum before the pulverized coal burners are put into service.

Table 7. 2. 1 Conditions for Putting Pulverized Coal


Burner into Operation
S/N Direct-Fired Pulverizing System Storage Bin Pulverizing System

No other pulverized coal feeders


1 No other coal mills are being started and pulverized coal exhausters
are being started

No trip condition for pulverized


No trip condition for coal mill and
2 coal feeders and pulverized coal
coal feeder exists
exhauster exists

Related air dampers are in suitable positions (opening position signal


3
for secondary air damper)

The corresponding oil (gas) gun has been put into operation, or the
corresponding lower adjacent pulverized coal burner has been put into
4 operation, and boiler load (steam flow) or furnace outlet flue gas
temperature is higher than the given value (only for tangentially fired
furnace)

Note: for Item 3, during both startup and operating under initial load of boiler,
in addition to guaranteeing airflow of the burner, continuous ventilation
flow of boiler shall be maintained no less than furnace purging airflow

7.2.2 For day and night shift units or units with FCB function, the
burner can be started up and stopped automatically according to
36
DL / T 5428 2009

loads.
7.2.3 For boilers rated 1000t/h and above, the function of starting
and stopping single set of pulverizing coal system (for direct-fired
pulverizing coal system) or single burner (for storage bin pulverizing
coal system) automatically or in case of runback (RB) may be
provided.

7.3 Start and Stop Conditions of Coal Mill

7.3.1 For startup of the coal pulverizers of direct-fired pulverizing


system, the following conditions must be met and maintained in
addition to those specified in 7.2.1:
1 Signals coming from ignition logic that allow igniting
coal-fired burner exist;
2 No coal mill trip condition and MFT signal exists;
3 Lubricating oil system and sealing air system of coal mill
meet the operation requirements;
4 No flame is detected in coal burner corresponding to the coal
mill;
5 Dampers for cold air, hot air, fuel air and seal air are in
appropriate position;
6 Valves/dampers and gate valves of coal mill are in appropriate
position;
7 Coal mill outlet temperature meets requirements;
8 Corresponding adjacent oil (gas) gun is put into operation,
existence of flame is confirmed or boiler load reaches a certain value;
9 Related analog modulation control system is put into normal
operation;
10 Magnetic separator is put into operation state (fan coal
mill);
37
DL / T 5428 2009

11 Other requirements of coal mill manufacturer.


7.3.2 In case of any of the following conditions, the coal mill shall
be automatically stopped for direct-fired pulverizing system:
1 Flame loss logic of corresponding burner sends command;
2 Coal feeder is out of operation (with a delay);
3 Coal feeding failure (with a delay);
4 Differential pressure between seal air and primary air is less
than the given value;
5 Auxiliary system of coal mill, such as lubricating oil and seal
air, is lost;
6 MFT has actuated;
7 Coal mill outlet temperature is high;
8 Other requirements of coal mill manufacturer.

7.4 Start and Stop Conditions of Coal Feeder

7.4.1 In addition to start conditions of coal mill, the following


conditions must be met to start coal feeder:
1 Coal mill in operation;
2 Primary air flow of coal mill meets the requirements of
minimum coal quantity;
3 Command signal of coal feeder speed is at the minimum;
4 Gate valve at inlet of coal feeder is open, and there is no
blocking at the outlet;
5 No command for stopping coal feeder exists;
6 Other conditions required by coal feeder manufacturer.
7.4.2 In case of any of the following conditions, coal feeder shall
be removed out of operation automatically:
1 No coal feeding at coal feeder inlet (with a delay);
2 Coal feeder outlet is blocked (with a delay);
38
DL / T 5428 2009

3 Coal feeder speed is too low;


4 Coal mill has tripped;
5 MFT has actuated;
6 Other conditions required by coal feeder manufacturer.

7.5 Start and Stop Conditions of


Pulverized Coal Feeder (Exhauster)

7.5.1 For startup of pulverized coal feeder and exhauster of storage


bin pulverized coal systems, the following conditions in addition to
those specified in 7.2.1 must be met and maintained:
1 Signals (coming from ignition logic) that allow igniting
coal-fired burner exist;
2 No trip condition for pulverized coal feeder (exhauster) and
no MFT signal exists;
3 Primary air is normal during feeding pulverized coal with
hot air;
4 Corresponding oil (gas) layer is put into operation, existence
of fire is confirmed or boiler load reaches a certain value;
5 Level of pulverized coal in bunker is appropriate;
6 Coal mill outlet temperature in pulverized coal feeding by
exhaust steam is normal (in case of feeding pulverized coal with hot
air, this condition is not a start condition for pulverized coal feeder);
7 Other conditions required by pulverized coal feeder (exhauster)
manufacturer.
7.5.2 The relevant pulverized coal feeders and exhausters of
storage bin pulverizing coal systems shall be automatically stopped if
any of the following conditions occur:
1 MFT actuates;
2 In case of feeding pulverized coal with hot air, primary air is

39
DL / T 5428 2009

lost after pulverized coal feeder starts;


3 No flame is detected for a certain period after pulverized
coal feeder (exhauster) starts;
4 Corresponding oil (gas) layer is not put into operation, or
boiler load fails to reach a certain value;
5 Level of pulverized coal in bunker is too low;
6 Coal mill outlet temperature in pulverized coal feeding by
exhaust air is high (in case of feeding pulverized coal with hot air,
this condition may not act as a trip condition for pulverized coal
feeder);
7 Other requirements of the manufacturer of pulverized coal
feeder (exhauster).

40
DL / T 5428 2009

8 Steam Turbine Generator Unit Protection

8.1 Partial Protections for Steam Turbine

8.1.1 Overspeed protection for load shedding.


When the generator is disconnected from the grid and the main
stop valve is not required to be closed, the governing valve can be
controlled to maintain the speed within permissible range.
When transient fault occurs at power grid leading to unbalance
between actual output of steam turbine and generator load, interceptor
valve (or high and intermediate pressure governing valve) shall be
closed quickly according to requirements of the power grid and
situation of the unit and then be opened quickly after a short delay.
8.1.2 Exhaust steam over-temperature protection of low pressure
cylinder.
When exhaust steam temperature of low pressure cylinder
reaches the specified value, the low pressure cylinder spraying valves
shall be opened automatically.
8.1.3 Steam extraction backflow protection.
In case of steam turbine trip, steam turbine overspeed, generator
disconnection from the gird or trip, and high high water level of
heater (or deaerator), the corresponding steam extraction check valves
and extraction isolation valves shall be closed automatically.
8.1.4 High pressure heater high water level protection.
When the water level in high pressure heater reaches value I, the
emergency drain valve of this heater stage shall be opened and alarms
shall be given. When it reaches value II, the drain valve leading to the
41
DL / T 5428 2009

preceding heater stage shall be closed, the corresponding extraction


check valve and extraction isolation valve shall be closed, the drain
valve on steam extraction pipe shall be opened, the bypass valve of
high pressure heater shall be opened, and feed water valves at inlet
and outlet of the high pressure heater shall be closed in order to
disconnect the high pressure heater.
8.1.5 Low pressure heater high water level protection.
When the water level in low pressure heater reaches value I, the
emergency drain valve of this heater stage shall be opened and alarms
shall be given. When it reaches value II, the drain valve leading to the
preceding heater stage shall be closed, the corresponding extraction
check valve and extraction isolation valve shall be closed, the drain
valve on steam extraction pipe shall be opened, the bypass valve of
low pressure heater shall be opened, and condensate valves at inlet
and outlet of the low pressure heater shall be closed in order to
disconnect the low pressure heater.
8.1.6 Other partial protections of steam turbine should be designed
in accordance with the requirements for steam turbine proper and
process system features.

8.2 Steam Turbine Generator Unit Trip Protection

8.2.1 The interval from the occurrence of steam turbine trip signal
to full closing of main stop valve and governing valve shall comply
with the regulations of DL/T 7111999.
8.2.2 Steam turbine shutdown protection.
During operation of turbine-generator units, emergency shutdown
protection shall be triggered if any of the following conditions occur:
1 Overspeed of steam turbine;
2 Excessively low vacuum of condenser;
42
DL / T 5428 2009

3 Excessively low lube oil pressure;


4 High bearing vibration (for units of 200MW and above);
5 Excessively low control oil pressure (as required by the
manufacturer);
6 Large axial displacement;
7 Failure of speed governor (for electronic speed governor);
8 Loss of DEH power supply;
9 Operation of generator main protection;
10 Disconnection of generator from the grid for whatever
reason when the unit system is not provided with FCB function;
11 MFT of unit system boilers;
12 Manual shutdown command;
13 Operation of other protections specified by the steam
turbine manufacturer.
8.2.3 Generator trip protection.
1 Steam turbine has tripped;
2 Generator cooling system fails;
3 Other protections required by generator manufacturer.

8.3 Protection for Prevention of Water and


Cold Steam Damage to Steam Turbine

8.3.1 The protection for prevention of water and cool steam


damage to steam turbine should meet the requirements of DL/T 834
2003. If the steam turbine manufacturer specifies otherwise, the
relevant regulations shall be followed.
8.3.2 High drum level protection.
See Item 1 in 6.1.5.
8.3.3 Protection against high water level in steam-water separator
of once-through boiler.

43
DL / T 5428 2009

1 When steam-water separator reaches high water level, alarm


shall be given, and drain valves of the separator shall be opened
successively;
2 When steam-water separator reaches super-high water level,
alarm shall be given, stop valves between the separator and main
steam system shall be closed, and all feedwater pumps shall be
tripped or stop valves at the inlet of the separator shall be closed.
8.3.4 Protection for desuperheating water systems for both main
steam and reheated steam.
In case of MFT or steam turbine trip, or when the unit load is as
low as the specified value, water spray control valve and stop valve
shall be closed with override automatically. The bypass valve
equipped for the water spray control valve, if any, shall also be closed
as well.
Automatic water spray control should not be put into operation
at the load points at which it is confirmed that water spray is basically
ineffective to lowering steam temperature. These load points should
be in conformity with the recommendations by boiler manufacturer.
When automatic regulation is put into operation again, water spray
amount shall be increased gradually, avoiding spraying plenty of
water suddenly.
8.3.5 Drain valves on main steam pipes and reheated steam hot
section pipes shall be operable in control room, with indication of
valve position. In addition, on each drain pipe of main steam pipe and
reheated steam hot section pipes, corresponding drain water
temperature measuring points should be designed.
8.3.6 During steam turbine operation, when main steam or reheated
steam temperature suddenly decreases by 50 or more, or steam
temperature decrease is more than the specified value, the turbine
44
DL / T 5428 2009

should be stopped immediately.


8.3.7 Measures for prevention of water ingression into cold
reheated steam section:
1 In case of air or power loss, drain valve of drain pot shall be
in open position.
2 When water level of drain pot is as high as value , alarm
shall be given, and drain valve shall be opened automatically; when it
is as high as value , danger signal for high water level shall be
given and whether or not stopping the turbine shall be at the
discretion of the operators.
3 A thermocouple should be respectively installed on the
vertical cold section reheating pipe of high pressure cylinder steam
exhaust and at the lowest point of reheating pipe of cold section
respectively, to judge whether water is present in the pipe according
to the temperature difference between both thermocouples.
8.3.8 Measures for prevention of entry of water into high and low
pressure heaters and extraction system:
1 Measures for prevention of water for high pressure heater:
see 8.1.4.
2 Measures for prevention of water for low pressure heater:
see 8.1.5.
3 A pair of thermocouples for temperature difference shall be
installed on the top and bottom of the first horizontal pipe section
behind the check valve of each extraction pipe in order to judge
whether there is water accumulated in the pipe. When the temperature
difference exceeds the specified value, alarm shall be given, and the
corresponding drain valve shall be opened.
4 When steam turbine or generator trips, drain valve on
extraction pipe should be opened automatically, and extraction check
45
DL / T 5428 2009

valve shall be closed automatically. The aforesaid valves can be


operated in control room in groups.
5 When unit load is as low as the value specified by
manufacturer, drain valve on extraction pipe should be opened
automatically.
8.3.9 Measures for prevention of entry of water into deaerator:
See 8.4.2.
8.3.10 Measures for prevention of water for gland steam system of
steam turbine.
If gland steam for low pressure cylinder is produced by
desuperheater, a power driven stop valve shall be installed in front of
the water spray control valve. When the gland system is not put into
operation or the control valve is fully closed, such stop valve shall be
closed automatically.
Temperature measuring points shall be set up for pipes of gland
steam source and for gland header.
8.3.11 Measures for prevention of water for steam turbine body:
1 Thermocouples for detecting inflow water shall be installed
on the high pressure cylinder and medium pressure cylinder of steam
turbine. These thermocouples shall be installed in pairs on the top of
outer cylinder and the corresponding bottom, along the axis and by
several cross sections, to give alarm in case of large temperature
difference.
2 Other measures provided by steam turbine manufacturer.
8.3.12 Measures for prevention of water damage to steam-driven
feed water pump turbine.
1 When water level in drain pot on live steam pipe section is as
high as the specified value, drain valve shall be opened automatically.
2 When the feed water pump steam turbine trips, drain valve
46
DL / T 5428 2009

shall be opened automatically.

8.4 Protection for Deaerating Feedwater System

8.4.1 Pressure protection for deaerator


1 When pressure of the deaerator reaches the specified value
, alarm shall be given; when it reaches the specified value ,
motor-operated valve on the steam supply pipe of its auxiliary steam
header (and/or other high pressure section) shall be closed
automatically.
2 When deaerator pressure reaches the action value of safety
valve, all motor-operated valves on steam supply pipes shall be
closed automatically.
3 When steam supply pressure of auxiliary steam header (or
high pressure section) of the deaerator exceeds the specified value,
the opening circuit of the motor-operated valve on the steam supply
pipe shall be blocked.
8.4.2 Water level protection for deaerator
1 When water level of deaerator reaches the specified value
, alarm shall be given, and motor-operated valve on the pipes
leading to the condensate recovery tank shall be opened automatically
if conditions permit.
2 When water level of deaerator reaches the specified value
, motor-operated overflow valve of deaerator shall be opened
automatically.
3 When water level of deaerator reaches the specified value III,
all motor-operated valves and extraction check valves on the steam
supply pipes shall be closed automatically.
8.4.3 Feed water pump trip protection
The trip conditions shall be determined according to the data
47
DL / T 5428 2009

submitted by the feed water pump manufacturer and the basic trip
conditions as the follows:
1 Pressure of bearing lubricating oil is low;
2 Oil temperature at the inlet of working oil cooler is high (for
motor-operated speed-governing pump);
3 Differential pressure of seal water is small, and return seal
water temperature is high;
4 Water level in deaerator is as low as value , or water
pressure at feed water pump inlet is low;
5 Booster pump trips;
6 Pump outlet flow is as low as the specified value.
8.4.4 Trip protection for steam turbine of feed water pump
It shall be determined according to the data of the manufacturer
of steam turbine for feed water pump, with basic trip conditions as the
follows:
1 Overspeed;
2 Large axial displacement;
3 Low exhaust steam vacuum.

8.5 Protection for Steam Turbine Bypass

8.5.1 Automatic operation of steam turbine bypass


The quick acting bypass system configured as required by the
FCB function shall be provided with protection that can automatically
switch in the bypass systems in response to FCB commands or when
steam pressure rises up to the specified value, while the bypass
systems designed according to the unit startup function should not be
provided with such kind of protection.
8.5.2 Automatic blocking and shutdown of steam turbine bypass
In case of any of the following conditions, bypass operation
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DL / T 5428 2009

shall be blocked and stopped automatically:


1 Steam temperature at the outlet of high pressure bypass
system reaches the specified high value;
2 Pressure of bypass desuperheating water reaches the specified
low value;
3 Bypass desuperheating water valve that shall be open is not
open;
4 Condenser vacuum reaches the specified low value;
5 Condenser water level reaches the specified high value;
6 Exhaust steam temperature of low pressure cylinder for
steam turbine reaches the specified high value.

8.6 Protection for Air Cooling Unit

8.6.1 Freezing protection


In order to protect tube bundles of air cooler from freezing,
corresponding instrumentation (such as ambient temperature measuring
instrument) shall be provided according to the requirements of the
manufacturer. When the conditions for starting freezing protection are
achieved, freezing protection program shall be started according to
requirements of the manufacturer.
8.6.2 Back pressure protection
Corresponding back pressure control shall be established
according to the requirements of manufacturer of air cooled steam
turbine. When back pressure exceeds the specified value
corresponding to steam turbine load, back pressure protection shall
actuate to stop the steam turbine.

49
DL / T 5428 2009

9 Operation, Display and Signals

9.1 Operation

9.1.1 In order to ensure safe emergency shutdown, the following


hardwired backup manual operation means independent of any unit
protection system and unit control system shall be installed on the
control panel (console). These dedicated manual switches or buttons
shall be independent and directly connected to corresponding drive
circuit.
1 MFT;
2 Steam turbine trip;
3 Generator trip;
4 Boiler safety valve (not required for mechanical type);
5 Emergency drum drain valve;
6 Emergency drum make-up pump (when atmospheric fluidized
bed boiler is equipped with emergency drum make-up pump);
7 Steam turbine vacuum breaker valve;
8 DC lubricating oil pump;
9 AC lubricating oil pump.
It is not allowed to set up the operation means for MFT reset
on the control panel (console).
9.1.2 Operator stations (including display terminal, keyboard and
mouse) without redundancy measures should not be adopted for
FSSS.
9.1.3 Furnace safety system in FSSS and electrical interlocking
system of unit shall be independent of each other. Output of furnace
50
DL / T 5428 2009

safety system shall directly act on the final execution object specified
in 6.3.14.
9.1.4 Operation equipment for operators to disable protection
shall not be provided for any protection system.

9.2 Display and Signals

9.2.1 Display and alarm signals of important protection system


actions shall be set up on the control panel (console)/operator station;
according to automation level of the unit, display and alarm contents
shall be configured at least in accordance with Table 9.2.1-1~Table
9.2.1-3.

Table 9. 2. 1-1 Configuration for Display and Alarm Signals of Boiler


Steam Water Protection System
S/N Contents of Signals Display and Alarm
Main steam pressure is high, open high
1
pressure bypass
Main steam pressure is high high, open PCV
2
valve
Main steam pressure is as high as value III,
3
safety valve actuates
Reheated steam pressure is high, open low
4
pressure bypass
Reheated steam pressure is high high, open
5
medium pressure safety valve
Reheated steam temperature is high, open
6
emergency water spray valve
7 Drum level is as high as value
Drum level is as high as value , open
8
emergency drain valve
Boiler water circulating pump of forced
9
circulation boiler trips

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DL / T 5428 2009

Table 9. 2. 1-1 (continued)


S/N Contents of Signals Display and Alarm
Feed water flow of Once-through boiler is too
10
small
Note: mark in the table means strict requirement, showing that it shall be
done under normal circumstances

Table 9. 2. 1-2 Configuration for Display and Alarm Signals of FSSS


S/N Contents of Signals Display and Alarm
Devices of furnace safety protection system
1
lose power supply
2 MFT actuates
3 MFT resets
4 Master fuel oil valve is open
5 Purging of furnace is allowed
6 Purging is under way
7 Purging is interrupted
8 Purging is completed
9 Flame signals of flame scanners
10 Failure of flame scanner (generalized signal)
11 Ignition is allowed

12 Ignition fails

Putting pulverized coal burner into operation


13
is allowed
14 OFT actuates

15 Fuel oil or fuel gas pressure is low

16 Fuel oil temperature is low

17 Cooling air pressure of flame scanner is low

18 Loss of all fuels

52
DL / T 5428 2009

Table 9. 2. 1-2 (continued)


S/N Contents of Signals Display and Alarm
19 Furnace pressure is low (action value of MFT)
Furnace pressure is high (action value of
20
MFT)
Drum level (action value of MFT) reaches
21
high value
Drum level (action value of MFT) reaches low
22
value

23 All FDFs trip

24 All IDFs trip

25 All primary air fans trip

26 Loss of all flames

27 Critical flame appears

28 Corner flame disappears

Airflow is less than 25%-40% of the rated


29
load airflow

Fault of power supply or air supply of control


30
system

31 Manual MFT

32 Reheated stop valve of steam turbine is closed

33 Main stop valve of steam turbine is closed

At least one FDF is running, and the


34
corresponding air damper is open

At least one IDF is running, and the


35
corresponding air damper is open

At least one rotary air preheater is running,


36
and the corresponding damper is not closed

All coal feeders trip (for direct-fired pulverizing


37
system)

53
DL / T 5428 2009

Table 9. 2. 1-2 (continued)


S/N Contents of Signals Display and Alarm

All coal mills trip (for direct-fired pulverizing


38
system)

All pulverized coal feeders trip (for storage


39
bin pulverizing system)

All pulverized coal exhausters trip (for storage


40
bin pulverizing system)

40% of rated load airflow > airflow > 25% of


41
rated load airflow

Master fuel oil (or flue gas) shut-off valve or


42
quick closing valve is closed

All oil gun (or gas gun) shut-off valves or


43
quick closing valves are closed

Cooling air pressure of flame scanner is


44
normal

All oil gun (or gas gun) and pipeline valves


45
pass the leakage test

46 Boiler feed water pump is put into operation

Feed water flow of once-through boiler is low


47
low

All boiler water circulating pumps of forced


48
circulation boiler trip

49 Oil system fails the leakage test

Temperature at furnace outlet of atmospheric


50
fluidized bed boiler is high (MFT value)

Furnace outlet temperature of atmospheric


51
fluidized bed boiler is low (MFT value)

Temperature at furnace center of atmospheric


52
fluidized bed boiler is high (MFT value)

Temperature at furnace center of atmospheric


53
fluidized bed boiler is low (MFT value)

54
DL / T 5428 2009

Table 9. 2. 1-2 (continued)


S/N Contents of Signals Display and Alarm
All fluidized fans of atmospheric fluidized bed
54 boiler trip or fluidized airflow is low (MFT
value)
Cooling water flow of system components of
55 atmospheric fluidized bed boiler is low (MFT
value)
Pressure of atomizing medium for oil burner
56
is low
Note: mark in the table means strict requirement, showing that it shall be
done under normal circumstances

Table 9. 2. 1-3 Configuration for Display and Alarm Signals of Steam


Turbine Protection System
S/N Contents of Signals Display and Alarm

Overspeed protection during load shedding


1
actuates

2 Generator trips

3 Steam turbine overspeed 103%

4 High pressure governing valve is closed

5 Medium pressure govering valve is closed

6 Fast valving for steam turbine

Over-temperature protection for exhaust steam


7
of low pressure cylinder actuates

Water level in drain pot of high pressure


8
cylinder exhaust steam is high

Water level in drain pot of cold reheated


9
steam pipe is high

Water level in drain pot of reheated steam


10
pipe behind high pressure bypass is high

55
DL / T 5428 2009

Table 9. 2. 1-3 (continued)


S/N Contents of Signals Display and Alarm
Water level in fresh steam pipe drain pot of
11
steam-driven feed water pump is high
12 Extraction backflow protection actuates
13 Extraction check valve is closed
Protection against high water level of high
14
pressure heater actuates
Protection against high water level of low
15
pressure heater actuates
16 Shutdown protection for steam turbine actuates
17 Emergency governor actuates
18 Automatic main stop valve is closed
19 Generator cooling water is cut off
20 Pressure protection for deaerator actuates
21 Water level protection for deaerator actuates
22 Trip protection for feed water pump actuates
23 Automatic operation of steam turbine bypass
Automatic blocking and shutdown of steam
24
turbine bypass
25 Water level in high pressure heater is high
26 Water level in low pressure heater is high
27 Water level in deaerator reaches high value
28 Water level in deaerator reaches high value

29 Water level in deaerator reaches high value


Note: mark in the table means strict requirement, showing that it shall be
done under normal circumstances

9.2.2 Quantity, resolution and precision of SOE signals shall be so


designed as to meet the requirements of unit fault analysis.
56
DL / T 5428 2009

9.2.3 SOE groups can be set up according to classification of the


triggering accidents sources. When setting up SOE groups by classes,
the main SOE groups including at least MFT group, steam turbine
trip group at unit level shall be configured; when conditions permit,
SOE group for main auxiliary equipment trip can also be set up.

57
DL / T 5428 2009

10 Protection Equipment and Sampling System

10.1 Instrumentation

10.1.1 Instrumentation required for protection system shall be able


to withstand the most severe working conditions without causing
damage and performance degradation to the instrumentation.
10.1.2 The instrumentation required for protection system must be
of proven products that can operate reliably and the measuring range,
precision, repeatability, sensitivity, drift, dead zone, response
characteristics, stability and other indicators of them shall meet the
specific application requirements.
10.1.3 Protection class of the instrumentation required for
protection system shall be no lower than IP54 for indoor applications
and no lower than IP65 for outdoor applications.
10.1.4 In addition to the requirements in 10.1.1-10.1.3, the pressure,
differential pressure, flow, liquid level, temperature and travel
switches, and other binary variable instruments required for
protection shall meet the following basic technical conditions:
1 Contact capacity shall not be less than 220V AC, 5A; 110V DC,
1A.
2 Repeatability shall not be more than 1.5% of full scale.
3 Setting point and switching hysteresis shall be adjustable.
10.1.5 Various sensors and instruments selected for steam turbine
protection must comply with the requirements of 3.4 and 4 in
GB/T 133991992.
10.1.6 Positive and negative pressure switches for furnace pressure
58
DL / T 5428 2009

protection should be of SPDT type, rather than DPDT type with large
hysteresis.
10.1.7 Differential pressure transmitter should be used for boiler
drum level protection and shall send high or low drum level
protection signals after density correction and setting value
conversion.
10.1.8 Flow switch can be of temperature difference radiation type,
vane type, piston type or other reliable types, with precision higher
than 1% of full scale, and response time within 0.5s-10s.
10.1.9 Temperature switch should be of thermal bulb type. The
thermal bulb can be made of stainless steel, and should be filled with
such media as silicone oil or non-toxic oil. Mercury-filled
temperature switch should not be used. Setting point of temperature
switch shall be adjustable within full scale, with precision better than
1% of full scale.
10.1.10 Travel switch may be of non-contact proximity switch.
When contact-type travel switches that are supplied complete with the
equipment or valves are selected or used, more than two pairs of
splash proof travel switches shall be provided at opening and closing
directions respectively.

10.2 Flame Scanner and Ignition Gun

10.2.1 The flame scanner which can discriminate coal flame and oil
flame shall be selected. Coal burner and oil burner should be installed
with a flame scanner respectively.
10.2.2 Furnace flame scanners must have self-checking function
and shall send alarm signal in case of faults to prevent malfunction of
the protection system.
10.2.3 Transmission cable of flame scanner output signals shall
59
DL / T 5428 2009

have good shielding performance and resistance to high temperature.


10.2.4 Flame scanner shall have cooling air system, and there shall
be a standby cooling fan, to ensure long-term and reliable operation
of flame scanner.
10.2.5 Ignition gun and oil gun shall be inserted and retracted
reliably, and more than two pairs of splash proof travel switches shall
be provided for both ends respectively.
10.2.6 Local ignition box shall be resistant to its most severe
working conditions, of which the protection class shall be no lower
than IP54 for indoor applications and no lower than IP65 for outdoor
applications.

10.3 Actuator

10.3.1 Action time and no-load closing time of oil (gas) fuel quick
closing valve, oil safety shut-off valve, scavenging valve and
atomizing valve shall be less than 1s. Closing time under working
pressure shall be 1s or less, opening time shall not be more than 7s,
and tightness of valves shall be guaranteed.
10.3.2 Electric actuator used for protection system and motor-
operated device of valve shall have reliable braking performance,
bidirectional overtorque protection and limit travel switches, power
supply monitoring and electrical circuit fault alarm measures. When
the actuator loses power supply or signals, it shall be able to remain at
the position before loss of power supply or signal, and shall have
output contact for alarming.
10.3.3 For pneumatic/hydraulic actuator used for protection system,
protection functions shall be selected according to features of the
object operated and safety requirements of process system, that is, in
case of loss of control signals or instrument air supply or power
60
DL / T 5428 2009

supply fault, it shall keep the position or make the object operated
actuate in accordance with the way predetermined for system safety.
10.3.4 Actuators shall be able to withstand the most severe working
conditions and shall have a protection class not lower than IP54 for
indoor applications and not lower than IP65 for outdoor applications.
10.3.5 In addition to the specific regulations of this code, electric
actuator of valves shall comply with other requirements specified in
DL/T 6412005.

10.4 Protection Device

10.4.1 The configuration of protection devices shall comply with


the regulations in 5.3 of this code. Where PLCs are used to perform
protection logic, such PLCs shall have the ability to communicate
with unit control system and can be conveniently extended. The
hardware configuration and performance indicators of the PLCs shall
at least meet the following basic requirements:
1 CPU: 16 bits and more.
2 Scanning speed: not less than 5 ms per thousand words.
3 Input: dry contact, with interrogation voltage no lower than
48V DC, opto-electrically isolated. If conditions do not permit, 24V DC
may be used as well.
4 Output: dry contact, with capacity of 220V AC, 5A or
220V DC, 3A, opto-electrically isolated.
5 At least two communication interfaces.
10.4.2 Programmable electronic logic devices used for I&C
protection shall be configured according to the following minimum
requirements:
1 Under the most severe working conditions, when the
processor works under the busiest mode, CPU loading rate of
61
DL / T 5428 2009

controller shall not be more than 60%, and that of man-machine


interface station shall not be more than 40%.
2 Processing period shall be determined according to real-time
needs of the object protected, however, it shall never be more than
100ms.
3 Memory allowance of processor shall be more than 50% of
memory capacity.
4 Spare external memory of processor shall be more than 60%
of memory capacity.
5 Spare of each type of I/O in each cabinet shall be 10%15%.
6 Spare I/O module slots in each cabinet shall be 10%15%.
7 Under the busiest working condition, loading rate of
communication bus shall not be more than 30%. For Ethernet, it shall
not be more than 20%.
8 Spare power shall be 30%40%.

10.5 Sampling System

10.5.1 Three positive pressure and three negative pressure


sampling points shall be provided respectively for furnace pressure
protection. These sampling points shall be at the same elevation and
connected to different pressure switches via separate sampling tubes
that are routed through holes separately made on the furnace wall.
Relevant anti-clogging provisions should be made in order to prevent
ash clogging of sampling tubes.
Furnace pressure sampling holes shall be sufficiently spaced
from soot blower and flame observation hole so as not to affect the
pressure measurement during soot blowing or uncovering the holes.
10.5.2 Hot air pipe, primary air pipes, and secondary air pipes of
pulverizing system shall have sampling holes in conformity with
62
DL / T 5428 2009

technical requirements to measure air pressure and airflow and have


necessary measures to prevent clogging of measuring pipes.
10.5.3 The space for installation of flame scanners shall be
reserved on burners so as to ensure that burner flame can be detected
reliably. The exact installation location shall be jointly determined by
boiler and flame scanner manufacturers.
10.5.4 Visual angle of flame scanner shall be adjustable, so as to
detect flame within full load range. The optimum visual angle shall
be determined through test, which shall be adjustable within the range
of 118.

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DL / T 5428 2009

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