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es

Statisticss Formulas

Descriptive Statistics Regression and correlation

Frequencies Linear regression

Sample size n num of individuals in the sample. xi yj ni j

Covariance s x y = x y

n

Absolute frequency n i (num of x i in the sample)

Regression lines :

Relative frequency fi = n i /n

i sx y

Cumulative absolute freq N i = y on x : y = y + (x x )

k =0 n i s x2

Cumulative relative freq Fi = N i /n sx y

x on y : x = x + (y y )

s 2y

sx y sx y

(y on x ) b y x = (x on y ) b x y =

Mean x =

xi ni s x2 s 2y

n

Median me The value with cum.rel.freq. Fme = 0.5. Coefcient of determination

Mode mo The most frequent value. s x2 y

r2 = 0 r2 1

s x2 s 2y

sx y

r = . 1 r 1

Quartiles Q 1 , Q 2 , Q 3 divide the distribution into 4 sx s y

equal parts. Their cum.rel.freqs. are FQ 1 = 0.25,

FQ 2 = 0.5 and FQ 3 = 0.75.

Percentiles P 1 , P 2 , , P 99 divide the distribution into

100 equal parts. Non-linear regression

The cum.rel.freq. is FPi = i /100.

Exponential model y = e a+bx

Apply the logarithm to the dependent variable and

compute the line log y = a + bx .

Dispersion statistics

Logarithmic model y = a + b log x

Apply the logarithm to the independent variable and

Interquartile range I Q R = Q 3 Q 1 compute the line y = a + b log x .

2

(x i x )2 n i xi ni Potential model y = ax b

Variance s 2 = = x 2

n n Apply the logarithm to both variables and compute

Standard deviation s = + s 2 the line log y = a + b log x .

s

Coefcient of variation cv =

| x |

Shape statistics

(x i x )3 fi

Coefcient of skewness g 1 =

s3

(x i x )4 fi

Coefcient of kurtosis g 2 = 3

s4

Linear transformations

Linear transformation y = a + bx

y = a + b x

s y = bs x

x x

Standarization z =

sx

1

http://aprendeconalf.es

Union P (A B) = P (A) + P (B) P (A B)

Event operations

Intersection P (A B) = P (A)P (B |A)

Union Difference P (A B) = P (A) P (A B)

A B

Conditional probability

AB P (A B)

Conditional probability P (A |B) =

P (B)

Intersection Independent events P (A |B) = P (A).

Total probability Theorem

n

A B P (B) = P (Ai )P (B |Ai )

i =1

AB Bayes Theorem

P (Ai )P (B |Ai )

P (Ai |B) = n

i =1 P (Ai )P (B |Ai )

Complement

Diagnostic tests

Prevalence Proportion of people with the disease

A A P (D )

Sensitivity P (+ |D )

Specicity P (|D )

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) P (D |+)

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) P (D |)

Difference

P (+ |D )

Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+)

P (+ |D )

A B P (|D )

Negative Likelihood Ratio (LR-)

P (|D )

AB

Idempotency A A = A, AA =A

Commutative A B = B A, AB =B A

Discrete

Associative (A B) C = A (B C ), (A B) C =

A (B C ) Binomial probability function B(n, p)

Distributive (AB)C = (AC )(B C ), (AB)C = ( )

n x

(A C ) (B C ) f (x ) = p (1 p)nx

x

Neutral element A = A, A=A

Poisson probability function P ()

Absorbing element A = , A = .

Complementary symmetric element A A = , A x

f (x ) = e

A= x!

p 0.1.

Morgans laws A B = A B, AB =AB

2

http://aprendeconalf.es

Continuous

Normal N (, )

(x ) 2

1

f (x ) = e 2 2

2

Standard normal N (0, 1)

Chi-square 2 (n)

X = Z 12 + + Z n2 ,

where Z i N (0, 1).

Students t T (n)

Z

T = ,

X /n

where Z N (0, 1) and X 2 (n).

Fishers F F (n, m)

X /m

F = ,

Y /n

where X 2 (m) and Y 2 (n).

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