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1. Fortunately, however, the growth of industrialism has coincided in the west with the growth of democracy. It is possible
now, if the population of the world does not increase too fast, for one man's labour to produce much more than is
needed to provide a bare subsistence for himself and his family. Given an intelligent democracy not misled by some
dogmatic creed, this possibility will be used to raise the standard of life. It has been so used to a limited extent, in Britain
and America, and would have been so used more effectively but for war. Its use in raising the standard of life has
depended mainly upon three things; democracy, trade unionism, and birth control. All three, of course, have incurred
hostility from the rich. If these three things can be extended to the rest of the world as it becomes industrialized, and if the
danger of great wars can be eliminated, poverty can be abolished throughout the whole world, and excessive hours of
labour will no longer be necessary anywhere. But without these three things industrialism will create a regime like that
in which the Pharaohs build the pyramids. In particular, if the world population continues to increase at the present
rate, the abolition if poverty and excessive work will be totally impossible.
Questions:
(i) What connection does the writer show between industrialism and democracy?
(ii) How can the standard of life be raised?
(iii) How can poverty be abolished?
(iv) What will be the impact of increase in population at the present rate?
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the passage.

2. Real beauty is as much an affair of the inner as of the outer self. The beauty of a porcelain jar is a matter of shape, of
colour, of surface texture. The jar may be empty or tenanted by spiders, full of honey or stinking slime - it makes no
difference to its beauty or ugliness. But a woman is live, and her beauty is therefore not skin deep. The surface of the
human vessel is affected by the nature of its spiritual contents. I have seen women who, by the standards of a
connoisseur of porcelain, were ravishingly lovely. Their shape, their colour, their surface texture were perfect. And yet
they were not beautiful. For the lovely vase was either empty or filled with some corruption. Spiritual emptiness or
ugliness shows through. And conversely, there is an interior light that can transfigure forms that the pure aesthetician
would regard as imperfect or downright ugly. There are numerous forms of psychological ugliness. There is an ugliness
of stupidity, for example, of unawareness (distressingly common among pretty women). An ugliness also of greed, of
lasciviousness, of avarice. All the deadly sins, indeed, have their own peculiar negation of beauty. On the pretty faces of
those especially who are trying to have a continuous good time, one sees very often a kind of bored sullenness that
ruins all their charm.
Questions:
(i) What does real beauty signify?
(ii) Where does the beauty of a porcelain jar lie?
(iii) Differentiate between inner beauty and outer beauty.
(iv) Point out some forms of psychological ugliness.
(v) Make a precis of the passage.

3. A person who is aware of his duties and rights in his society in a good citizens. He knows that he is a member of a group
with which he is associated by a thousand and one ties. He realizes that he should live in harmony with other members
of society. Man cannot live without a society. He cannot live alone. He must live with his fellow human beings. But living in
a society means cooperation with other members of that society. When you live in a society, you have to live as others
live. You have to accept the conditions and traditions that a society prescribes for its members. These conditions and
standards of behaviour are for the common good and welfare of the society and individuals. Society gives you some
rights and some duties.
A good citizen does his best to do his duty to the society. He always keeps in view the interests of his society and state.
He lives a clean and honest life. He keeps away from such activities that may harm the interests of his fellow citizens.
A good citizen is aware of the fact that his is indebted to his society in many ways. He knows that the labour and work of
countless persons have enriched his life. His life, to a very great extent, depends on others. He has received much in
material and spiritual benefits from others. It is only just and right that he should pay his debts. How does a good citizen
pay his debts to the society? By living a useful and fruitful life. He lives not for himself alone. He lives for others. He pays
his taxes. He takes keen interest in the affairs of his state. He does not live in isolation. He is not selfish. He is tolerant, kind
and virtuous.
Questions:
(i) Give a suitable title to passage.
(ii) Who is a good citizen?
(iii) Why is society formed?
(iv) What are the duties of a good citizen?
(v) Give other words for: (a) Harmony (b) Prescribe (c) Indebted (d) Isolation
(vi) Make a precis of the passage in about 100 words.

4. Ought women to have the same rights as men? A hundred year ago, the answer in every country in the world would have
been, "No". If you had asked, "Why not?" you would have been told, scornfully and pityingly, that women were weaker and
less clever than men, and had worse characters. Even now, in the Twentieth Century, there are many countries where
women are still treated almost like servants, or even slaves.
It is certainly true that the average woman has weaker muscles that the average man. Thousands of years ago, when men
lived in caves and hunted animals for food, strength of body was the most important thing; but now, in the Twentieth
Century, brains are more important. Strength of body is still needed for a few kinds of work, but the fact that such kinds of
work are not well paid shows that the Twentieth Century does not think that muscles are of very great importance.
What about women's brains? Of course, in countries where girls are not given so good an education as boys they know less.
But in countries where there is the same education for both, it has been clearly shown that there is no difference at all
between the brain of the average woman and that of the average man. There have been women judges in Turkey, women
ambassadors in America, women ministers in the British government and women University professors in many
countries. And among the greatest and strongest rulers of England were Queen Elizabeth and Queen Victoria.
But women can do one thing that men cannot: they can produce children. Because they, and not men, do this, they usually
love their children more, and are better able to look after them, since they are more patient and understanding with small
children. For this reason, many women are happier if they stay at home and look after their house and family than if they
go out and do the same work as men do. It is their own choice, and not the result of being less clever than men.
Questions:
(i) Why would you have been told a hundred years ago that women ought not to have the same rights as men?
(ii) Why was strength of body important thousands of years ago?
(iii) How can we see that it is no longer so important?
(iv) What work does the writer mention that women have done as well as men?
(v) What is particular about women that men can't do?

5. When the time for a general election approaches, candidates who wish to be elected travel around with loudspeakers and
hold meetings.
They hold meetings before the elections because they wish to appeal the electorate. They wish to present to the public
what they consider to be suitable programme for legislation when and if they are elected, and they seek to show why
their programme should be chosen in preference to that their opponents. The candidates are in this way seeking to
influence public opinion.
Holding a meeting is probably the simplest form in influencing public opinion, but it is still a very important method.
The speaker faces his audience, which is then able to gauge his honesty and sincerity. In these days of political parties, it
is more the political party that wields the greater influence, rather than the individual speaker and what he has to say.
Nevertheless if, as a speaker, he is unimpressive he may do a lot to reduce his party's chances in the election.
But public meetings are not the only means of influencing public opinion. Every time people assemble in a group and
discuss some matters, they are employing a method of forming and persuading opinion. In a democracy it is important
that there should always be this attempt to get some expression of opinion even among the humblest people. When
people meet and formulate opinion they are really helping to govern themselves. So this method of assessing and
gauging public opinion and thereby arriving at an agreement is of the greatest importance.
Questions:
(i) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(ii) What is the importance of holding public meetings?
(iii) What is meant by "electorate"?
(iv) Why does an unimpressive speaker reduce his party's chances?
(v) What are the means of influencing public opinion?
(vi) Make a precis of the passage in about 1/3 of the whole.

6. Great progress has been made by America in the field of mechanization. It is spending lavishly on labour-saving
machines. Efficient organization of highly mechanized system has resulted in maximum productivity in America. With
mass production, the amenities of life are available to almost every citizen. On the contrary Europe subordinates the use
of machines to human happiness and welfare. It encourages man's reliance on his own faculties and realizes the dangers
inherent in the American scheme. However great the advantages of mechanization, it crushes the creative faculty of
man and makes a machine out of him. His individual liberty and personality suffer on irretrievable loss. In his moments
of leisure the worker finds it difficult to turn his hands to creative work, because the machine-made goods do not
inspire him in the direction of refinement. These goods also lose their fascination because mass production has given a
setback to the individuality of the articles produced. The Europeans, therefore, contend that it is better to sacrifice a few
material comforts than crush
the aesthetic and spiritual urge in the individual which large-scale mechanization is doing in America.
Questions:
(i) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(ii) What is the result of progress in the field of mechanization in America?
(iii) How has it affected the citizens?
(iv) What is the case in Europe?
(v) Why do Europeans sacrifice a few material comforts?
(vi) Make a summary of the passage.

7. Pakistanis are sometimes treated as suspects as they enter Saudi Arabia. They procedures for search and investigation
are aggressive, and naturally, time-consuming may be a humiliating experience for a self-respecting Pakistani. Lately,
another trend is developing which can hurt as still more as injury is being added to insult. Quite a few Saudis are now
unwilling to employ Pakistanis as they used to do in the Seventies. One main reason cited is the incidence of drug-
trafficking (business) through expatriate Pakistanis who, at times, collaborate with drug-traffickers. Thus, the channel
of employment of our labour in Saudi Arabia is drying up, partly owing to our failing as a people.
Pakistan is a victim as drugs produced in Afghanistan pass through our territory. It cannot be denied that drugs are
produced in Pakistan, but the Government is trying to curtail their production. However, with an estimated indigenous
(native) population of just over three million addicts the local production of drugs does not appear enough to meet the
home demand. Thus, having started as a producer of heroine in 1979, thanks to the transfer of such technology by a
western adventurer, it is now the major consumer. However, in the western countries, the treatment meted out to
Pakistani nationals is humiliating.
Questions:
(i) Why is the treatment humiliating for Pakistanis on entering Saudi Arabia?
(ii) What is the main reason for the reduction of employment opportunities in Saudi Arabia?
(iii) How much is Pakistan responsible for drug-trafficking?
(iv) Who is technologically responsible for the production of heroin?
(v) Suggest a suitable title to the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the above passage.

8. One of the main objectives of Imam Khomeini's foreign and domestic policy was the propagation of the humanitarian
principles of Islam. The Islamic Republic of Iran took a bold stand on the basis of this objective. Iran explained this stand
at every international forum. The divine commands that have shaped the Iranian policies are perhaps common to every
major religion.
The revered Imam tried to associate the masses in his own and other Muslim countries with his objective. He addressed
them directly, had a silent dialogue of the heart with them even when he could not meet them personally. The people in
almost all the Muslim countries, and even in others whether they were inhabited by Muslims or followers of other
faiths, listened to his speeches and talks attentively and devotedly. Thus, instead of appealing to the unpopular and
reactionary governments of the day, he established durable and lasting contacts with the common people and their true
representatives. The great leader demanded the common people's presence, through their representatives, at important
meetings and participation in his decision-making. In this way he wanted to ensure the achievement of the aims of the
Islamic Revolution. This policy was instantly successful in winning the support of the Muslim masses even in the
countries that were being ruled by the so called representatives.
Questions:
(i) Explain the main objective of Imam Khomeini.
(ii) What was his mode of achievement towards his goal?
(iii) How can you call The Iranian Revolution a "people's revolution"?
(iv) Comment on the success of The Iranian Revolution.
(v) Suggest a suitable title to the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the above passage.

9. It is common in our day, as it has been in many other periods of the world's history to suppose that those among us who
are wise have seen through all the enthusiasms of earlier times and have become aware that there is nothing left to live
for. The men who hold this view are genuinely unhappy but they are proud of their unhappiness which they attribute to
the nature of the universe and consider to the only rational attitude for an enlightened man. Their pride on their
unhappiness makes people suspicious of its genuineness: they think that man who enjoys being miserable is not
miserable. This view is too simple; undoubtedly there is some slight compensation in the feeling of superiority and
insight which these sufferers have, but it is not sufficient to make up for the loss of simple pleasure. I do not myself
think that there is any superiority rationality in being unhappy. The wise man will be as happy as circumstances permit
and if he finds the contemplation of the universe painful beyond a point, he will contemplate something instead. I am
persuaded that those who quite sincerely attribute their sorrows to their views about the universe are putting the cart
before the horse: the truth is that they are unhappy for some reasons of which they are not aware.
Questions:
(i) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(ii) What is common with the wise today to suppose?
(iii) What is the result of pride on unhappiness?
(iv) How can a wise man be happy?
(v) Explain the meanings of the following words:
(a) Enthusiasms (b) Contemplation
(vi) Make a summary of the passage.

10. Space travel is by far the most expensive type of exploration ever undertaken by man. The vast expenditure of money and
human effort now being devoted to projects for putting man into space might well be applied to ends more practically
useful and more conducive to human happiness. It is a strange world in which tens of millions of pounds are spent to give
one man a ride round the earth at thousands of miles an hour, while beneath him in his orbit live millions for whom life
is a daily struggle to win a few coins to buy their daily bread. The money and effort that go into the development and
construction of a single type of space-rocket would more than suffice to rid several countries of such scourge as malaria
or typhoid fever, to name only two of the diseases that medical science has conquered but still persist in the world
simply because not enough money and effort are devoted to their eradication.Why should the richer countries of the
world be pouring their resources into space when poverty and disease on the earth are crying out of relief? One could
give a cynical answer to this question and assert that man's expensive adventures into space are merely the by-products
of the struggle between great powers for prestige and possible military advantage.
Questions:
(i) Why is it a strange world?
(ii) Why do malaria and typhoid still exist in the world?
(iii) Why is man pouring his resources into space?
(iv) Explain the meanings of the following words:
(a) Scourge (b) Eradication
(v) Suggest a suitable title of the passage.
(vi) Make a summary of the passage.

11. Advertising is essentially the art of communication. As such, its origin can be traced right back to the origin of the
species. "Advertising colouration" is a familiar biological phrase denoting the colours developed by certain animals to
make them stand out against their natural background. It is the direct opposite of camouflage. There is always a
message in these colours, such as; "keep away, "mind your step", "darling won't you care for a dance?"
While camouflage is tricky and timed, "advertising" is honest, confidant, and forthright, as far as the world of nature goes.
In human life, advertising through the mouth must have begun with the beginning of commerce. The tradition is still kept
alive by hawkers and street vendors in our towns and villages. As regards advertising through the written word there is
archaeological evidence that it was being practiced at least 3,000 years ago. An advertisement offering a gold coin as a
reward to anyone tracing out a runaway slave was unearthed in the ruins of Thebes and is computed to be as old as the
third millennium B.C. It was the prototype of our "lost and found" classified ad that was painted on a wall.
Questions:
(i) What was advertising?
(ii) What does the phrase "advertising colouration" mean?
(iii) What is the difference between camouflage and advertising?
(iv) When did verbal and written advertising begin in human life?
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the passage.

12. Fortunately, however, the growth of industrialism has coincided in the West with the growth of democracy. It is
possible now, if the population of the world does not increase too fast, for one man's labour to produce much more than
is needed to provide a bare subsistence for himself and his family. Given an intelligent democracy not misled by some
dogmatic creed, this possibility will be used to raise the standard of life. It has been so used to a limited extent, in Britain
and America, and would have so used more effectively but for war. Its use in raising the standard of life has depended
mainly upon three things: democracy, trade unionism, and birth control. All three, of course, have incurred hostility from
the rich. If these three things can be extended to the rest of the world as it becomes industrialized, poverty can be
abolished throughout the whole world, and excessive hours of labour will no longer be necessary anywhere. But
without these three things industrialism will create a regime like that in which the Pharaohs built the pyramids. In
particular, if world population continues to increase at the present rate, the abolition of poverty and excessive work will
be totally impossible.
Questions:
(i) What connection does the writer show between industrialism and democracy?
(ii) How can the standard of life be raised?
(iii) How can poverty be abolished?
(iv) What will be the impact of increase in population at the present rate?
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the passage.
13. Recently the mass media, formerly subservient to the medical profession, have become increasingly restive and
occasionally hostile. In Germany, in particular the newspaper and television have given a great deal of time and space to
the complaints against the medical profession. In Britain on BBC radio and television, the medical practices have come
under sharp and aggressive criticism. Is this antagonism to the profession justified? And if so, why? I have tried to answer
that question by looking at the way it deals with some of the diseases of our civilization, including the most lethal, heart-
attacks and cancer. If what emerges is an indictment of the profession, then I would rebut the charge that I am anti-
doctor. What is required in the relationship between the doctor and the patient? The trust and unshakable trust, I would
say. Montaigne said; "I honour physicians not for their services but for themselves". That goes for me too.
Questions:
(i) What do you understand by the mass media?
(ii) What is the writer's stance towards the medical profession?
(iii) What is a lethal disease? Explain.
(iv) Is there a radical change in the presentation of the art of healing by the mass media?
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the passage.
14. Moral self-control, and external prohibition of harmful acts, are not adequate methods of dealing with our anarchic
instincts. The reason they are inadequate is that these instincts are capable of many disguises as the Devil in medieval
legend, and some of these disguises deceive even the elect. The only adequate method is to discover what are the needs
of our instinctive nature, and then to search for the least harmful way of satisfying them. Since spontaneity is what is
most thwarted by machine, the only thing that can be provided is opportunity, the use made of opportunity must be left
to the initiative of the individual. No doubt, considerable expense would be involved but it would not be comparable to
the expense of war. Understanding of human nature must be the basis of any real improvement in human life. Science
has done wonders in mastering the laws of the physical world, but our own nature is much less understood, as yet than
the nature of stars and electrons. When science learns to understand human nature, it will be able to bring happiness into
our lives which machines and the physical science have failed to create.
Questions:
(i) Why are moral self-control, and external prohibition inadequate to deal with our anarchic instincts?
(ii) What is the adequate method of anarchic instincts?
(iii) What should be the basis of any real improvement in human life?
(iv) How can science help humanity to achieve happiness?
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the passage.
15. Poverty is almost as widely shared as Islam in Afghanistan. Except for a small number of wealthy traders, nomadic
tribal leaders, and the Royal family and its retainers, few Afghans have lived far from the basic level of subsistence.
Throughout the century their diet consists of coarse bread, tea, and dairy products, supplemented by fruits and
vegetables in season and an occasional serving of mutton or chicken. Though the food is never plentiful, the Afghan diet
during good crop years appears to be sufficient to support a vigorous population, but the precariousness of the food
supply is obvious from the drastic and continuing erosion of the soil and the creeping desertization of its landscape. The
poverty of most Afghan farmers and herders has imposed an elemental quality on their culture. Values are oriented
toward social survival. Loyalty to the primary group ultimately takes precedence over self-assertion, despite the great
importance given to personal independence. The conflict between these competing
values is a major feature of Afghan life, but in-group loyalty has necessarily played the paramount role in the shaping of
the attitudes toward fellow Afghans and outsiders.
Questions:
(i) What is the economic condition of the people of Afghanistan?
(ii) What does the diet of Afghan people consist of?
(iii) Why is the food supply becoming so precarious?
(iv) What is the major feature of Afghan life?
(v) Make a suitable title of the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the above passage.
16. Great progress has been made by America in the field of mechanization. It is spending lavishly on labour-saving
machines. Efficient organization of highly mechanized system has resulted in maximum productivity in America. With
mass production, the amenities of life are available to almost every citizen. On the contrary Europe subordinates the use
of machines to human happiness and welfare. It encourages man's reliance on his own faculties and realizes the dangers
inherent in the American scheme. However great the advantages of mechanization, it crushes the creative faculty of
man and makes a machine out of him. His individual liberty and personality suffer on irretrievable loss. In his moments
of leisure the worker finds it difficult to turn his hands to creative work, because the machine-made goods do not
inspire him in the direction of refinement. These goods also lose their fascination because mass production has given a
setback to the individuality of the articles produced. The Europeans, therefore, contend that it is better to sacrifice a few
material comforts than crush the aesthetic and spiritual urge in the individual which large-scale mechanization is doing
in America.
Questions:
(i) What is the result of progress in the field of mechanization in America?
(ii) How has it affected the citizens?
(iii) What is the case in Europe?
(iv) Why do Europeans sacrifice a few material comforts?
(v) Make a suitable title of the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the above passage.
17. The rich nations have made adjustments after the 1973 oil crisis, but the poor nations, who cannot afford the continue
using oil, have to look for alternatives in order to keep up the pace of their development. The sun, therefore, offers a free
supply of thermo-dynamically high-quality fuel -- sunshine -- to countries that are located in the earth's solar belt (35N,
35S of the Equator), where the sun comes out every day, keeping its radiant energy undiminished. What, however, stand
in the way, are a series of institutional and economic barriers which must be overcome if solar energy is to have an
impact on the energy scene. The solar energy plan
requires new ways of thinking. It calls for a shift from centralized energy supply systems to on-site decentralized
distribution of energy. The term 'on-site' derives from the limited areas within which the energy produced by a system is
consumed. It rests its emphasis on the social benefits rather than the cost benefits of a system.
Questions:
(i) What is the effect of 1973 oil crisis on poor nations?
(ii) What are the obstacles in the way of acquiring solar energy?
(iii) What system of distribution does the author recommend for solar energy?
(iv) What does the term "on-site" mean?
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the above passage.
18. The grand strategy for his campaign against Muslim backwardness envisaged two main activities, namely; a weekly
periodical to propagate progressive social and religious ideas among the intelligentsia and an institution of higher
learning to impart modern education to the new generation. The two projects in his mind were closely interlinked; for
without an enlightened public opinion adequate support for the educational institution could not be ensured and,
observed without modern education the new generation would never outgrow its elders' prejudices and
misconceptions. Syed Ahmad addressed himself to the periodical first. He had tentatively proposed it in a letter, dated 22
April 1870, to Mehdi Ali as the organ of an association which he wanted organized before his return to India for "the
uplift and reform of the Muslim", but with which his connection was not to be divulged. He had a block prepared in
England for the title page of the periodical, which was to be called the Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq in Urdu and the Mohammedan
Social Reformer in English.
Questions:
(i) What was the strategy against Muslim backwardness?
(ii) Why were the two projects interlinked in his mind?
(iii) What was Syed Ahmed's proposal about the periodical?
(iv) When did he propose the establishment of the periodical?
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the above passage.
19. Teaching more even than most other professions, has been transformed during the last hundred years from a
small, highly skilled profession concerned with a minority of the population, to a large and important branch of the
public service. The profession has a great and honorable tradition extending from the dawn of history until recent
times, but any teacher in the modern world who allows himself to be inspired by the ideals of his predecessors is likely
to be made sharply aware that it is not his function to teach what he thinks, but instill such beliefs and prejudices as are
thought useful by his employers. In former days, a teacher
was expected to be a man of exceptional knowledge or wisdom to whose words men would do well to attend. In antiquity,
teachers were not an organized profession and no control was exercised over what they taught. It is true they were
often punished afterwards for their subversive doctrines. Socrates was put to death and Plato is said to have been
thrown into prison, but such incidents did not interfere with the spread of their doctrines.
Questions:
(i) What changes have occured in the profession of teaching during the last hundred years?
(ii) What were the teachers supposed to be in golden days?
(iii) What is the function of a teacher nowadays?
(iv) Write a note on the rewards that a teacher gets nowadays.
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the above passage.
20. This brings me along to democracy, even love the beloved Republic which feed upon freedom. Democracy is not a
Beloved Republic really and never will be. But it is less hateful than other contemporary forms of Government and to
that extent it deserves our support. It does start from the assumption that the individual is important and that all types
are needed to make a civilization is does not divide its citizens into bossers and bossed as an efficiency regime tends to
do. The people I admire most are those who are sensitive and want to create something or discover something and do
not see life in terms of power and such people get more of a chance under a democracy than elsewhere. They find
religions great or small or they produce literature and art or they do disinterested scientific research or they may be
what is called ordinary people who are creative in their private lives, bring up their children decently for instance or help
their neighbours. All those people need to express themselves; they cannot do so unless society allows them liberty to do
so and the society which allows them most liberty is democracy.
Questions:
(i) What other advantages of democracy can you think of in addition to the fact that it allows most liberty?
(ii) Summarize the writer's definition of creative persons.
(iii) Why does the writer call democracy a less hateful form of Government?
(iv) What type of people does the writer like?
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the above passage.
21. The chief causes of large-scale violence are love of power, competition, hate and fear. Love of power will have not
national outlet when all serious military force is concentrated in the international army. Competition will be effectively
regulated by law, and mitigated by governmental controls. Fear -- in the acute form in which we know it -- will disappear
when war
is no longer to be expected. There remains hate and malevolence. This has a deep hold on human nature. The wide
diffusion of malevolence is one of the most unfortunate things in human nature, and it must be lessened if a world State
is to be stable. It can be lessened, and be very quickly. If peace becomes secure there will be a very rapid increase of
material prosperity, and this tends more than anything else to provide a mood of kindly feeling. Consider the immense
diminution of cruelty in Britain during the Victorian Age; this was mainly due to rapidly increasing wealth in all classes. I
think we may confidently expect a similar effect throughout the world owing to the increased wealth that will result
from the elimination of war. A great deal, also, is to be hoped from a change in propaganda. Nationalist propaganda, in
any violent form, will have to be illegal, and children in school will not be taught to hate and despise foreign nations.
Questions:
(i) What are the chief causes of large-scale violence in the world?
(ii) How can hate be lessened?
(iii) How can material prosperity be achieved?
(iv) How can nationalist propaganda be controlled?
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the above passage.

22. The man who is perpetually hesitating which of the two things he will do first, will do neither. The man who resolves
but suffers his resolution to be changed by the first counter suggestion of a friend who fluctuates from opinion to opinion,
from plan, and veers like a weather-cook to every point of the compass, with every breath of caprice that blows-can
never accomplish anything great or useful instead of being progressive to anything, he will be at best stationary, and more
probably retrograde in all. It is only the man who first consults wisely, then resolves firmly and then executes his
purpose with inflexible perseverance undismayed by those difficulties which daunt a weaker spirit that can advance to
eminence in any time. Take your course wisely, but firmly, and haven taken it, hold upon it with heroic resolution and
the Alps and Pyrenees will sink before you. Wavering and fickleness of the mind are not only signs of a weak personality
but also symptoms of inferiority complex. Taking a decision promptly and then sticking to it firmly may be the quality
found rarely in the selected few but average human beings are quite capable of developing the habit of thinking deeply
and wisely and then executing the plans efficiently. It can be achieved through guidance, will power and psychological
treatment.
Questions:
(i) What is the result of indecisiveness?
(ii) Why should a man refrain from changing his plans after taking a firm decision?
(iii) What are the conditions of successful accomplishment of a task?
(iv) What do repeated change in plans show about a man's personality?
(v) Suggest a suitable title for the passage.
(vi) Make a precis of the above passage.

23. To be a good teacher, you need some of the gifts of a good actor. You must be able to hold the attention of and interest of
your audience; you must 1e a clear speaker with a good pleasing voice and you must be able to act when you are
teaching in order to make its meanings clear. Watch a good teacher, and you will see he does not sit motionless before
his class; he stands the whole time he is teaching; he walks about using his arms, hands and fingers to help him in his
explanation and his face to express his feelings. Listen to him and you will hear the loudness, the quality and the musical
note of his voice always changing according to what he is teaching. But the fact that a good teacher has some of the gifts
of a good teacher does not mean that he will indeed be able to act on the stage, for there are very important differences
between the teachers work and actors work. The actor has to speak words which he has learnt by heart; he has to
repeat certain dialogues which he has learnt earliest. Even his movements and the ways in which he uses his voice are
usually fixed before. The good teacher works in a different way because his audiences take an active part in his play.
They ask questions, and if they do not understand something, they will say so. So the teacher has to suit his act to the
need of his audience that is his class. I know many teachers who were fine actors in the class but were unable to take
part in a stage play because their brains would not keep strictly to what another had written.
1. What is the difference between a good teacher and good actor?
2. How can a good teacher be compared to a good actor?
3. Who according to you, is a good teacher?
4. What is the role of teacher in nation building?
5. Make a precis.
24. If you ask any man in America, or any man in business in England, what it is that most interferes with his enjoyment of
existence, he will say: The struggle for life. He will say this in all sincerity; he will believe it. In a Certain sense it is true; yet
in another, and that a very important sense, it is profoundly false. The struggle for life is a thing which does, of course, occur. It
may occur to any of us if we are unfortunate. It occurred, for example, to Conrads hero Falk, who found himself on a derelict
ship, one of the two men among the crew who were possessed of fire-arms, with nothing to eat but the other men, when the two
men had finished the meals upon which they could agree, a true struggle for life began. Falk won, but was ever after a
vegetarian.
Now that is not what the businessman means when he speaks of the struggle for life. It is an inaccurate phrase which he has
picked up in order to give dignity to something essentially trivial. Ask him how many men he has known in his class of life
who has died of hunger. Ask him what happened to his friends after they had been ruined. Everybody knows that a
businessman who has been ruined is better off so far as material comforts are concerned than a man who has never been rich
enough to have the chance of being ruined. What people mean, therefore, by the struggle for life is really the struggle for
success. What people fear when they engage in the struggle is not that they will fail to get their breakfast next morning but that
they will fail to outshine their neighbor.
1. Why do American businessmen presumably feel unhappy?
2. How do they misinterpret struggle for life?
3. What does struggle for life actually mean in the paragraph?
4. What is the difference between struggle for life and struggle for success?
5. Have you got a personal definition of success and happiness? (Not more than 5 to 6 sentences).
6. Make a precis.
25. It has become a national habit to curse the state for anything that happens in our lives. If there is a breakdown of electcity
Or traffic jam on the road, it is our favorite pastime to start finding fault with the state. We do not realize how danger is this.
By casting doubts on the existence or efficacy of state in solving daily life problems, we are playing in the hands of terrorists.
Because their main objective is to make people realize that the state has become a failure. Our media also sometimes cannot
maintain the fine balance between criticism and despondency. Pakistan is not a failed slate. The people of Pakistan are aware
that they have political, cultural and social issues that we have to sort out. But nobody should think that the people of Pakistan
are not capacitated to do the job. With the help of our strong faith in Allah, our capacities and by building our institutions, we
would steer Pakistan out of these hard times. The best example of this resolve can be seen in the operation Zarb-e-Azab when
the valiant armed forces of Pakistan backed by the civilian support, reduced the number of terrorist attacks iii Pakistan. And
Pakistan is on the way to progress and prosperity.
Questions:
1. What is our favorite pastime in an unusual situation?
2. What is the inherent danger in cursing the state?
3. What is the narrative of the terrorists?
4. How would Pakistan come out of these hard times?
5. Suggest some other ways to make Pakistan strong.
6. Make a prcis
26. As we survey the whole course of mans development from the earliest times to the present and from the moss primitive and
simple so the most complex way of living, we are strongly impressed by the fact that whatever men have lived together there
has been some group interest in education. As the group becomes more complex than this interest grows, institutions definitely
charged with the task of teaching are created. Thus the school comes into existence and an educational system evolves.
But so far as we know from the meager records which have been left, early man had only a very simple education system. Most
of the children learning was picked up as he associated with this parents and other members of the family, tribe, clan, or larger
group. lie learned to fish and to prepare his food, to fight his enemies and so take care of his simple and elementary needs, In
short, he learnt to survive on the world in which he found himself.
As the life of group became more complex, certain number of the groups took it upon themselves to become thoroughly
familiar with the traditions and die customs and devoted most of their time to teaching of the young. At first, this teaching was
done wherever the teacher and a group of learners cared together. But laser specified places for teaching and learning were set
up. These were the first schools.
Questions:
1. How can we say that even the earliest man had interest in education?
2. How and when was the first education institution established?
3. What kind of educational system did the early men have?
4. Trace the development of educational system?
5. Suggest a suitable title for the passage?
6. Make a prcis of the passage