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(2009-06-09)(2009-07-03)

1. (Angle of Arrival, AOA)

(Directional Antenna)
(Active Tag) 1 2D

1. AOA

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2 AOA

xm x1 r1 cos 1
y = y r sin (1)
m 1 1 1

xm x2 r2 cos 2
y = y r sin (2)
m 2 2 2

( x1 , y1 )( x2 , y2 ) 1 2 (1)(2)
( xm , ym )

2. AOA

AOAAOA
(Angular Resolution)
(Multi-path)

AOA

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2. (Time of Arrival, TOA)

3 3
i(i=1, 2, 3) ri

ri = (t i t 0 )c (3)

t0 ti
c

(r1 , r2 , r3 )
( xm , y m )

r12 = ( x1 xm ) 2 + ( y1 ym ) 2 (4)

r22 = ( x2 xm ) 2 + ( y2 ym ) 2 (5)

r32 = ( x3 xm ) 2 + ( y3 ym ) 2 (6)

3. 3

r1 < r2 < r3 x1 =0, y1 =0 (5)(4)

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r22 r12 = x 22 2 x 2 x m + y 22 2 y 2 y m (7)

(6)(4)

r32 r12 = x32 2 x3 x m + y 32 2 y 3 y m (8)

(7)(8)

x2 y 2 xm 1 k 22 r22 + r12
= (9)
x3 y3 y m 2 k 32 r32 + r12

k i2 = xi2 + y i2 (10)

(9)

Hx=b (11)

Hx b

x2 y2 xm 1 k 2 r2 + r1
2 2 2

H=
x = b = (12)
x3 y3 ym 2 k 32 r32 + r12

x = H 1b (13)

TOA ri

TOA TOA
(3 108 m sec) TOA
1 300

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3. (Time Difference of Arrival; TDOA)

(Time Difference of Arrival, TDOA)


4
1 2 1 3TDOA

4.

4 1 2 TAG

r21 = r2 r1
(14)
= (t2 t0 )c (t1 t0 )c = (t2 t1 )c

t 0 TOA TDOA t0
(7) TDOA r21

r22 r12 = x 22 2 x 2 x m + y 22 2 y 2 y m (7)

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(r21 + r1 ) 2 = k 22 2 x 2 x m 2 y 2 y m + r12 (15)

1
x2 xm y2 ym = r21r1 + ( r212 k22 ) (16)
2

(6)

r32 = ( x3 xm ) 2 + ( y3 ym ) 2 (6)

1
x3 xm y3 ym = r31r1 + ( r312 k32 ) (17)
2

Hx = r1c + d (18)

Hxc d

x2 y2 xm r21 1 k 2 r21
2 2
H= x = c = , d = 2 2 2
x3 y3 ym r31 k3 r31

x = r1H 1c + H 1d (19)

4.


TOA

(Free Space propagation model)

Pr Gt Gr 2
= (20)
Pt (4d )2

6 http://grc.yzu.edu.tw/

Pt (dB) Pr (dB) Gt G r
d

(Received Signal
Strength Indicator, RSSI)

Pr
RSSI = 10 log( ) (21)
Pref

Pref 1mW

RSSI
7
(Link Quality Index, LQI)
IEEE802.15.4LQI

8
7 8 LQI RSSI
LQI

7. RSSI [1]

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8. LQI [1]

[1] Blumenthal, J., Grossmann, R., Golatowski, F.; Timmermann, D., Weighted
centroid localization in Zigbee-based sensor networks, 2007 IEEE International
Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing, WISP.

8 http://grc.yzu.edu.tw/