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2 RF

(RF)






(signal)

Analog:
AF(Audio Frequency), VF(Video Freq.), RF(Radio Frequency)
Digital
s(t ) Asin(2ft )



C
(C;)
f
2
i( z, t ) I cos(wt z)
w
u

(signal)

RF



(loss)




RF(attenuator)
(gain)(loss)


8








(bandwidth)

(
)

>>


--

--

4.8v5v


v 1 0
F120bps
first harmonic(F1) Y1
t 0
t F1=10Hz 20bps

F1, F2, F3
Y
2

t F2=30Hz 60bps
40Hz t 0

20 Y 3

() t
t F3=50Hz
100bps
0
Y 4


t Y4 = Y1 + Y2 + Y3
t0
(radio spectrum)
RF

VLF(3KHz~30KHz):
()
LF(30KHz~300KHz)

MF(300KHz~3MHz):
LOSAM(535KHz~1605MHz)
HF(3MHz~30MHz):
Amateur radio (Ham radio), Citizens band (HK CB: 26.96~27.41MHz),
VHF(30MHz~300MHz)
VHFFM
UHF(300MHz~3GHz): LOS
UHF
SHF(3GHz~30GHz)
LOS
EHF(30GHz~300GHz):

()





(ground wave)



(ground wave propagation)
:
(sky wave propagation)
:
(line-of-sight)
:

(W, watts)
()

P=W/t=VQ/t=VI

50mW500W
FCC2.4 GHzWLAN
4 watts
(signal)
(signal)
dB = 10 log10 (Po/Pi)

Power gain = 20 dB (Power gain = 100)

Pin =1 mW Pout=100 mW

Pin =1 mW Pout =2 mW
Amplifier

Power gain = 3 dB (Power gain = 2)


(signal)
dB = 10 log10 (Po/Pi)
(signal)

Pw
PdBm =10log( )
1mW
(signal)

Pw
PdBm =10log( 1mW )
(signal)
: Pw
PdBW =10log( 1W )
4W ? dBW
Pw
20mW ? dBm PdBm =10log( 1mW )
20mV, 75 ? dBmV Vi
PdBmV =20log( 1mV )
:

4W
4W :10 log =6 dBW
1W
20mW
20mW : 10 log =13 dBm
1mW
20mV
20mV :20 log =26 dBmV
1mV
(signal)
dB = 10 log10 (Po/Pi)

Power gain = 10

Pin =1 mW Pout =1 mW*10 =10 mW

Pin =0 dBm Pout =0dBm+10 dB=10 dBm


Amplifier

Power gain = 10 dB

Pin =10 dBm Power gain = 3 dB Pout =?


123

Pin , min (dBm) 174(dBm) NF(dB) 10log B SNR min (dB)

:FM SNR min 10 dBB 100 kHz


NF 8 dB ,Pin,mim(Sensitivity)
?
Ans:
Pin,min 174 NF 10log B+SNR min
174 8 10log100 *103 10
106

Ans : Sensitivity Pin,min 106 dBm


dBi
dBi
(isotropic antenna)

Distributed circuit model

a
bC
L:
2 b
C ,L ln( ), a=1.27 mm,
ln(b / a) 2 a
b=4.3 mm, r 2.1(Teflon), =o ,
Z o ?
Impedance matching with a
transmission line

Z L Z0
A line is matched when the load impedance
is equal to the characteristic impedance
::

Vr
: reflection coefficient
Vin
Vin : incident voltage wave
Vr : reflection voltage wave


:
VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
()
Vmax 1 Vr
VSWR : reflection coefficient
Vmin 1 Vin
Vin : incident voltage wave
VSWR1 Vr : reflection voltage wave

Usual RequestVSWR2.0
Reflection Coefficient, 1/3
=(VSWR-1)/(VSWR+1)
VSWR:

VSWR Meter
()
VSWR
VSWR (voltage standing wave ratio)RF

(intentional radiator)(return loss)
(Standing wave)

VSWR1:1
2.4GHzVSWR1.5:1
2.0:1 2:189%
10-11%

!
!
(Return Loss)
Return Loss
WLAN
50
50
Return Loss : ( RL) 20 log
Vr
: reflection coefficient
Vin
Vin : incident voltage wave
Vr : reflection voltage wave

Vr Vr2 / Z 0 Pr P P
2
Return Loss : ( RL) 10 log r 10 log in ,
Vin Vin / Z 0 Pin Pin Pr
((dB))
Return Loss()

Return Loss : ( RL) 20 log
Vr
: reflection coefficient()
Vin
Vin : incident voltage wave()
Vr : reflection voltage wave ()

2
Vr Vr
Return loss=-20log -10log

Vi Vi
Vr 2 / Z 0
10 log 2
Z 0

Vi / Z 0
P V / Z 0
2 Pr P
-10log

10 log in , (dB)
Pi Pr
Pin RL Pin
RL=10 log log
Pr 10 Pr
RL
Pin Pr 1
10 10
; RL
, RL(dB)
Pr Pin 10
10
Return Loss (RL) 20log
Pr
=1 RL 0dB; 1 100%()
Pin
1 Pr 1
= RL 3.01dB; 0.301
50%50%
2 P in 10
1 P 1
= RL 6.02dB; r 0.602
25% 25%
2 Pin 10
1 P 1
= RL 10dB; r 10%10%
3 Pin 10
Pr
=0 RL dB; 0 0%()
Pin
Return Loss
VSWRReturn loss
Zin Z 0 80 50
Zin =80 0.23
Zin Z 0 80 50

Forward (Pi) : 10W

50 ohms 80
ohms 9.5 W
Reverse (Pr) : 0.5W

Vr Vr2 / Z 0Pr 0.5


2
0.236
Vin Vin / Z 0Pin 10 Usual RequestVSWR2.0
1 1 0.236
VSWR 1.576 Reflection Coefficient=(VSWR-1)/(VSWR+1)
1 1 0.236
Return LossRL=-20log or RL=-10log(Pr/Pi)

Pr P
Return Loss : ( RL) 10log 10log in , ((dB))
Pin Pr

Return Loss=-10log(0.5/10) = 13dB


Another Example Vmax 1
VSWR (1 )
Vmin 1
Zin =100
Zin Z 0
?
Zin Z 0 Forward(Pi) :10W

50 ohms 100
ohms ?W
Reverse(Pr) :?W

Return Loss-20log(1/3) = ?dB


VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)

Vr Vr2 / Z 0 Pr
Pr ? Pin Usual RequestVSWR2.0
Vin Vin2 / Z 0 Pin
Reflection Coefficient=(VSWR-1)/(VSWR+1)
1
VSWR ? Return Loss RL=-20log or RL=-10log(Pr/Pi)
1
Scattering parameters

v1 f v2 f
v1b 1 2 v 2b

part 1 part 2

V1f port 1
V2f port 2
V1b port 1
V2b port2
Scattering parameters(S-)
v1 f v2 f
v1b 1 2 v 2b

part 1 part 2

v1b v2 b
s11 v2 f 0 s22 v1 f 0
v1 f v2 f
v2b v1b
s21 v2 f 0 s12 v1 f 0
v1 f v2 f
Scattering parameters
v1 f v2 f
v1b 1 2 v 2b

part 1 part 2
0

-5

v1b s11v1 f s12v2 f


-10

-15

-20

v2b s21v1 f s22v2 f


-25

-30
0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1

v1b s11 s12 v1 f


v s v
2b 21 s 22 2 f
S-parameter measured by VNA

Vector network analyzer (VNA)()


S-parameter measured by VNA

Vector network analyzer (VNA)()


?
(S/N)(SNR)

SNR


A A
A B
B B

N2 S2
N1 N1

S1



S1>S2
AB> AB
(intentional radiator) EIRP

-15mW

30mW
-5mW

Gt=10dBi

Pt=10mW
EIRP=100mW

EIRP (Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power):


FCC


EIRP: Effective isotropic radiation power
EIRP
EIRP PG
t t (W), Pt : transmitter output power

G t : gain of the transmitter antenna


30mW15mW5mW
10mW10dBi
EIRP100 mW (10mW*10=100 mW)
EIRP PG
So t t
(W/m 2
) : radiated power density
4 R 2
4 R 2

ERP (dB) = EIRP (dB)+2.15 dB


TRP : total rediation power ()(CTIA)
TIS : total isotropic sensitivity ()(CTIA)
3.1(Total Radiated Power, TRP)
(Transmitter)

RF
3D

15
=0180

264
3D

(isotropic)360

(directional antenna)

(omni-directional antenna)
360(dipole)


()

E()H()
Dipoles and multiple dipoles
Dipoles

One dipole multiple dipoles


Received Power1mW Received Power 4 mW

GAIN= 10log(4mW/1mW) = 6 dBd=6 + 2.15 dBi = 8.15 dBi

uku@stttelkom.ac.id

3dB3dB
10dB
10dB

1intentional radiator5mW
16dBi (10+3+3)EIRP
5*10*2*2 = 200mW
2LANPi=17dBm
EIRPPf=26dBmintentional radiator
26-17=9dBPi=50mWPf=50*2*2*2 mW
UHF RFID
3dB3dB

EIRP= 30 + 6 = 36 dBm
Pt = 30 dBm

Pt = 1 W Gt = 6 dBi

EIRP= Pt*Gt=4 W

Gt = 4
Suppose cable loss = 0,connector loss =0)
UHF RFID
Circular Polarization antenna, 6dBi

Fig. 34 Geometric configuration of the optimized PQHA.


65
Common UHF Reader Antennas

Fig. 4 A Broadband Microstrip Patch Antenna Fed Fig. 5 A Universal UHF RFID Reader Antenna [2].
Through Vias Connected to a 3dB Quadrature Branch Line
Coupler for Worldwide UHF RFID Reader Applications [1].

[1] E. Mireles and S. K. Sharma, A Broadband Microstrip Patch Antenna Fed Through Vias Connected to a 3dB
Quadrature Branch Line Coupler for Worldwide UHF RFID Reader Applications, IEEE International
Symposium on Antennas and Propagation, July 2011, pp. 529-532.
[2] Z. N. Chen and X. Qing, A Universal UHF RFID Reader Antenna, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory
and Techniques, Vol. 57, No 5, May 2009. 66
Resonant-type PQHA Design
Integrate PQHA with quadrature-phase feeding system

70
6

Z
70
Y X

Ground
6
3
2 1.6
80
Unit: mm
Fig. 34 Geometric configuration of the optimized PQHA. Fig. 35 Photograph of the manufactured PQHA.

67
Resonant-type PQHA Design
Simulation and Measurements Fig. 2 The axial ratio of the antenna system.
6
Simulation
Bandwidth : 700-987 MHz (34.1%) 5 Measurement

0
4

AR (dB)
5
Return Loss (dB)

3
10
2
15
1
20
0
25 Simulation
0.8 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1
Measurement Frequency (GHz)
30 10
Simulation
0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2
Measurement
Frequency (GHz)
Gain (dBic)

Fig. 1 The return loss of the entire system. 5

-5 68
0.8 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1
Fig. 2 The Peak Gain of the antenna system. Frequency (GHz)
(WIFI-Link)
Omni 12dBi Antenna :
360
1500~2000
N type N type

Low Loss Cable



Technical information
Frequency2400 - 2500MHz
Gain12 dBi
PolarizationVertical
Beamwidth deg vertical & horizontalHorz.360Vert.7
VSWR1.51
Impedance50 Ohm
Dimensions
LengthH1500
Weight850 g
ConnectorN-type / female

Beam width
(Main beam)(side lobe)
Beam width: (HPBW: half
power beam width)
FNBWfirst null bandwidth
Beam width





120

360


N-typeRF
SMA (sub-miniature)RF
BNC10Base2
TNCBNC
pigtail
N-type
SMA (sub-miniature)
BNC
TNC
(pigtail)


RF

RFRFRF

RFRF


A. AP
B. pigtail
C.
D. RF
E.
Reference :
(1) D.K. Cheng, Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics
1993, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. ,
Ch.8: Transmission line.

(2) D.K. Cheng, Fundamentals of Engineering Electromagnetics


1993, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. ,
Ch.10: Antenna.