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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
Multiculturalism is something that Indonesia have been proud of, Unity in
Diversity as Indonesias national motto hence in a simple case Indonesia is a nation
that is proud of its various cultures and hence it creates a better and tolerant people.
With population over 200 million of people and approximately 300 ethnic groups,
it creates a diverse culture and create a different point of view, yet people could still
work together as one, one nation and one vision.

Multiculturalism does bring advantage to most people in Indonesia, for


some it makes them work better due to various skills and various point of view in
working one or more project, it makes them easier to bond with others due the
tolerance to other ethnicity, it creates a broader knowledge for people who lived in
multicultural society. Although in other cases multiculturalism does bring problem
to the nation when one people opinion toward other could not be accepted, and
when people could just not bond with other due to different culture and different
lifestyle. However, this also brought back the main reason of living in a
multicultural society such as Indonesia, it makes people thought of the answer of
those problem, hence people could take an agreement hence that a society could be
kept in peace and kept on moving forward to a better future.

Tolerance towards other and could accept how people think about
something is one of the main key to unify opinions, multicultural society hopefully
does not give problems to a nation, multicultural society could help a nation to keep
on developing as there are a lot to be considered and there are a lot of point of view
to build a nation such as Indonesia.

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1.2 Objectives
There are six important points regarding multiculturalism education, and the
following objectives are proposed:

To respect and appreciate cultural diversity.


To promote the understanding of unique cultural and ethnic heritage.
To promote the development of culturally responsible and responsive curricula.
To facilitate acquisition of the attitudes, skills, and knowledge to function in
various cultures.

To eliminate racism and discrimination in society.


To achieve social, political, economic, and educational equity.

1.3 Writing Limitation


In this paper, the explanation will only be limited to multiculturalism in
general and in Indonesia, hence multiculturalism outside of Indonesia would not be
discussed further. Some examples of Multiculturalism and its advantages and
disadvantages will be explained further in this paper

1.4 Data Collection Method


The authors use some literature studies available in the form of Books and
Online Books and websites as the main sources of writing this paper. As so many
sources are about Multiculturalism in general

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1.5 Writing Systematics


The paper is divided into 3 chapters which will explain:

Chapter 1: Introduction

This chapter will introduce and describe the background of this paper which
includes the limitation, data collecting method, and writing systematics.

Chapter 2: Discussion

This chapter will describe the main problem which is multiculturalism.


Hence the authors will try to describe multiculturalism in Indonesia, as well as its
advantage and disadvantages

Chapter 3: Conclusion

This chapter will consist of conclusion and suggestion for the paper written
by the authors.

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CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

2.1 Definition of Multiculturalism and its implication in Indonesia

According to Standford Encyclopedia of philosophy, Multiculturalism can


be defined as a descriptive term to characterize the fact of diversity in a society.
Multicultural contributes into some assertions, such as religion, language, ethnicity,
nationality, and race. Some philosophers state that multiculturalism is part of the
political philosophy about the appropriate way to react to cultural and religious
diversity.

Other philosopher, Nur Syam stated that multiculturalism is a package of


ideas that produces a course of the availability of culture varieties in the peoples
lives. Multiculturalism can be considered as a positive act if it creates communities
that unite behind a unifying identity or philosophy, communities that emphasize
their difference. Sarah Song (2010) stated that some multiculturalists argued about
the inclusive conceptions of citizenship, justice, and democracy, which extend
special recognition and rights to cultural minority groups.

For Instance, in Indonesia, culture is known to be used as a knowledge


owned by the humans as a guidance to interpret every action to face any problems
occurred in the society. Even though Javanese, Chinese, Arabic and the other
ethnics in Indonesia have different norms and cultures, the differences in
knowledge between them do not cause any misunderstandings. It represents the
national motto of Indonesia made after the Independence Day which was known as
Bhinneka Tunggal Ika or Unity in Diversity.

However, the social changes are also cannot be declined as the country
develops. If we take a look back on how multiculturalism grows in Indonesia, it
started with the basis foundation of Indonesia/ known as the national philosophy
Pancasila which was founded by Ir. Soekarno. Mr. Soekarno initiated the 5
principles (in Sanskrit) of Pansacila. Those 5 principles are belief in supreme God,
humanitarianism, national unity, democracy and social justice.

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Initially, the first principle which was Allah who is The Great One, was
replaced because it contradicted the conditions of Indonesia that has other
minorities, namely Hindu, Christian and Buddhist, though the majority of
Indonesians was 90% Muslims. That indicated the example action of respecting
differences of religion status in Indonesia.

2.2 When Multiculturalism Occurs in Indonesia

Indonesia seems to have gone far towards conceptualizing and actualizing


a national vision of multi-ethnic concurrence. "Solidarity in Differing qualities"
(Bhinneka Tunggal Ika) was declared the national witticism of recently autonomous
Indonesia when it served the obligations of Dutch frontier control toward the finish
of World War II. The saying, drawn from Sanskrit and ascribed to leaders of the
Majapahit Realm (a Javanese commonwealth of the fourteenth century), summons
old ties amongst Javanese and other intense Asian Kingdoms.

The conspicuous utilization of this proverb by Indonesia's two post-


Freedom pioneers, previous President Sukarno and current President Suharto, is
significant for two reasons. Initially, it denotes their initial bits of knowledge about
the political significance of supporting a differentiated multi-ethnic combination as
opposed to an American-style "mixture." Second, the proverb unsurprisingly speaks
to how Indonesian government approaches have been intended to address the
political test of social pluralism through the mass control of social thoughts
regarding a superb normal history and the harmonies introduce established on
essential yet pleasant social contrasts.

On August seventeenth 1945, Indonesia was declared as an Independent


republic with Sukarno as its first president. The recently free government acquired
from the Dutch administration few apparatuses with which to manufacture an ethnic
union aside from an essential lawful code, the managerial utilization of Malay as a
most widely used language, and an arrangement of discretionary political limits
running from the island of Sumatra in the west up to the island of New Guinea in
the west up to the island of New Guinea in the east.

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What's more, part of virtuoso in the Sukarno administration, which would


be additionally created under President Suharto, was its capacity to arrange open
approaches which connected with practically all ethnic gatherings during the time
spent building new national characters. At last these characters were drawn toward
the point of steady and uniform financial improvement. Albeit sporadic ethnic
uprisings softened out up numerous territories of the archipelago in the vicinity of
1950 and 1964, essentially every one of these episodes were persuaded by battles
for higher political status inside the new Indonesian country, not for a detachment
from it (Anderson 1983:120).

The Indonesian government diverted the progressive enthusiasm a diffuse


patriotism of its nationals in the post-Freedom period into sentiments of pride in the
famous legacy of past Javanese and other, littler provincial kingdoms. The armed
force, ruled by Javanese, was given as unordinary double part in actualizing
national guard (counting inward security) and monetary improvement. In the
meantime the administration looked to defuse between ethnic strains through a
proceeding with broad communications and state funded training program and
centered upon proficiency and aptitudes as well as on a typical stage for "good
improvement," to a great extent underlining the administration's national theory, the
Pancasila.

Regardless of his initial progressive vision and individual moxy, Sukarno


lost control over his "Old Request" government in September 1965 amid what was
marked at the time as a "prematurely ended comrade overthrow." Benedict
Anderson and Ruth McVey later reinterpreted the occasion as an inward armed
force cleanse intended to oust Sukarno whose collusions with the Indonesian
socialist gathering (PKI) wound up plainly unsatisfactory to the military and driving
Islamic gatherings. Regardless of who was in charge of the "unsuccessful upset,"
the disputable occasion was trailed by obliterating against socialist, hostile to
Chinese mobs especially on Java, Bali, and Sumatra.

The social blasts of 1965 brought about the passing of a huge number of
Indonesians and Chinese. The pressures which started these assaults regularly have
been followed to Sukarno's financial approaches, which brought about

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hyperinflation, expanded hardship for the normal resident, and billions of dollars of
remote obligation for the country. Besides, the ethic seethe which was gone to on
those of Chinese plunge was filled by the unbalanced Chinese control of the
country's business endeavors and riches - assets whereupon political pioneers in
Java depended, and keep on depending. For Suharto's progression to the
administration to succeed, he frantically required both genuine monetary increases
for the dominant part and an intend to kill combustible talks about ethnic, religious,
political, and riches contrasts among the country's nationals.

2.3 Where or at What Condition Multiculturalism Occurs in Indonesia

In life, we often found differences, especially when we put the context on


our beloved country, Indonesia. The concept of multiculturalism has long
dominated people's lives. This is related to the people of Indonesia who have many
tribes, religions, and races. Thus, the concept of multicultural society becomes a
relevant topic to be examined because it is in accordance with the motto of
Indonesia, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika. Multicultural societies here are more viewed as
a society that has equality in acting in the country despite different ethnic, racial,
and religion. More precisely, multicultural societies are not merely the concept of
ethnic diversity or tribal cultures that characterize plural societies, but emphasize
cultural diversity in equality.

In a multicultural life, humans are naturally created as creatures who are


given harmony value. The differences that manifest both physically and mentally.
Often cultural differences create tension of relationships among community
members. The reality must be acknowledged with open, logical, and mature attitude
because of the difference we must consider a grace, where plurality can teach us
tolerance, cooperation, and adult thinking. There are some factors that causing
multicultural societies in Indonesia:

1. History of Indonesia Factors. Indonesia is a country with abundant natural


resources especially in spices. So many foreign countries want to colonize such
as Portuguese, Dutch, English, and Japanese. Thus they stay for long periods

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of time and some even marry Indonesians. This condition adds to the richness
of culture and race in Indonesia.
2. Foreign Culture Influence Factors. Globalization is an important process in the
spread of culture in the world community, especially Indonesia with its
democratic system becomes an open country. With such openness, the
community is easy to accept the culture that comes from outside although often
the occurrence of foreign cultural conflicts with local culture. The entry of
foreign culture is one of the factors enriching the culture and make the
community into a multicultural society.
3. Geographical Factors. Besides the spice-rich country, Indonesia also has a
strategic geographical position that is between two continents and two oceans
so that Indonesia serve as an international trade route. Because as a trade route,
many foreign countries come to Indonesia with the aim of trading such as
China, India, Arab, and European countries. This condition adds to the culture
that enters Indonesia and the creation of a multicultural society.
4. Physical and geological factors. When viewed from the structure of Indonesia
geology lies between the different three plates of Asia, Australia, and the
Pacific. This condition makes Indonesia a island-island country and has several
geological types such as: Asiatic type, transitional type, and Australis type.
With island-islands, people's lives vary according to the condition of each
island. The people who are on the small island will experience natural resource
difficulties, and the big island has plenty of natural resources. This makes the
culture of each island different.
5. Different Climate Factors In addition to having various islands in Indonesia
that affect the culture of society, the climate also greatly affect the culture in
Indonesia such as: people who are in the mountains with a cool climate to form
a friendly society culture. While people who are on the beach that has a hot
climate to form a person's emotional control more quickly angered.

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2.4 The Object of Multiculturalism in Indonesia

Multiculturalism is something that is most discussed in Indonesia, with a


very large country and thousands of islands it makes Indonesia as one of the most
diverse country in the world. With 1340 and counting number of tribes hence it
resulted Indonesia various culture and lifestyle.

Subjects who contributes to multiculturalism mainly are when people from


other province move into another province, such as people from Kalimantan Region
move into the capital of Indonesia which is Jakarta, from Bali and moving into
Jakarta, it creates this multicultural society in an area, hence it would create a much
better people in some cases. Other than cultural differences, in Indonesia itelf have
some several religion beliefs that people could accept.

Multiculturalism mostly creates tolerance between people in Indonesia, in


an example when people from Java travels outside to Papua region they could
tolerate that because there are some Papua people that lives in Java island hence
people are more used to multiculturalism or culture differences.

Other things that contributes into multiculturalism in Indonesia is that when


Indonesia was occupied by several countries and when people from outside travels
to do transactions there are some of them that stays, such as people from Arabic
Countries, India, China or even Holland stayed here to marry women or just lived
here due to better climate. These also contributes to difference of culture in
Indonesia, while most of them have become one with Indonesias culture, some still
stays to their roots such as the Chinese and Indians, they still do some of their
culture in their own places. There are a lot of aspects that contributes to
multiculturalism in Indonesia, it makes Indonesia a very special country since most
of them could tolerate with each other without having any fight between them.

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2.5 How Multiculturalism Occurs

The social and cultural conditions of the nation and state of


Indonesia are very diverse. Indonesia is a vast country with a large
population and with a very diverse culture. Approximately 250 million people
spread across more than 13,000 islands. Indonesian territory is composed
of 33 provinces, 440 districts / municipalities, 5,263 sub-districts,
and 62806 villages, there are dozens of ethnic groups with different customs,
and more than 660local languages used by the Indonesian population. A number
of 293 419 units of education (SD / MI,SMP / MTs, SMA / MA) in Indonesia
spread in various regions, recognized that to build a nation
with diverse customs and culture spread over a vast
territory and scattered requires a strategy and effort systematic to do so.

Before the national framework is established, every different area in


Indonesia experience separate political and economic histories. The national motto
of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity in Diversity) refers to the diverse composition of
this country. This motto also shows that, in spite of the multicultural community,
there is a true sense of unity in the minds and hearts of Indonesian society.

2.6 Multiculturalism Factors in Indonesia


a. History

Indonesia is one of the countries with enormous natural resources especially when
it comes to spices. This attracts a lot of foreign countries such as Portuguese,
Netherlands, England and Japan to colonize the nation. Hence, living for a long
period of time in Indonesia was a normal thing for these countries, increasing the
richness of culture and races in Indonesia.

b. Foreign Impact

Globalization is an important, significant phase that needs to happen within any


kind of civilization. It becomes the first significant process for culture to spread
within the society throughout the world including Indonesia. Supported by its
democracy as its system, Indonesia becomes one of the most open nation when it

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comes to accepting new culture from out of the country even though at times it
might induce a clash and shock in culture-wise in between foreign culture and local-
or traditional culture. The infiltration of the foreign culture would then interfere the
existing society by creating a more multicultural society.

c. Geography

Beside of being rich for its spices, Indonesia also has a strategic geographical
location. It is placed in between two continents and two oceans, making Indonesia
familiar to international track for trade. Being an international track for trade has
led Indonesia to interact with a lot of countries such as China, India and Arab
countries. This typical condition would then add an even more numerous number
of cultures coming to Indonesia.

d. Physical and Geological Aspect

If we take an even closer look to geological structure of Indonesia, Indonesia sits


on three different tectonic slabs which are Asia, Australia and Pacific slab. This
condition has turned Indonesia into an archipelago country- a country with
numerous islands that has three geological type such as Asiatic, mediate and
Australia type. Separated by islands, the way of living in one island would be
different to another depending on its condition within the island. This various needs
within each island would increase the significance of commuting or migration in
order to fit personal needs of each individual, making them an agent for crafting the
various culture web within the nation.

2.7 The Correlation Between Multiculturalism and Human Behavior

According to Margaret Mead (1901-1978) culture can defined as the


behaviors learned from the people / any particular societies. Values, symbols,
interpretations and perspectives are the factors that divide people with their own
characteristics, not material objects and any visible aspects that can be seen. People
in one culture usually interpret the meaning of symbols, things and behavior in the
same way (Bank, 1993: 8) as cited by Kawuryan (2009) and the possibility of
people to interpret it differently for the same behavior can be considered.

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E.B Taylor (1832 - 1917) stated that figuring a culture as a mix complexity
of knowledge, beliefs, art, moral, laws, customs, and the potential and other habits
gained by the humans as the person in a society as cited by Kawuryan (2009).
According to Claude Levi-Strauss, culture should be viewed in a context of
communication theory as a whole symbol system (language, friendship, economy,
myths and art) that in some possible levels to maintain communication (Cremers,
1997: 147). Moreover, culture will always be correlated with the people in societies.

There are 7 cultural elements according to Koentjaraningrat (2000: 2),


including religion systems and ceremonies, society systems and organizations,
knowledge system, language, art, profession, and technology and tools systems. In
this case, Indonesia has gone far to embrace multiculturalism, such as
conceptualizing and implementing a national vision of multi-ethnic coexistence.

Indonesias population with a total number of almost 280 million people


compromising approximately 300 ethnic groups who spoke an estimated 650 local
languages were spread out in over 6000 inhabited islands. From those certain facts,
we can see that the values of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika are revealed on how all people
in Indonesia with their different cultures, respect their differences in languages,
governments systems, be tolerant of other peoples religions, and the others.

They are all unified with one official language which is Bahasa Indonesia,
the activities of conducting same ceremony which is the annual Independence Day
ceremony, doing great things to represent Indonesia in the world. Without those
activities, multiculturalism will not be reflected in Indonesia. Behaviors play a
significant role to shape multiculturalism to good or bad ways.

2.8 Multiculturalism in Assimilating Many Cultures


Multiculturalism is an extraordinary social model, since it advances peace
and amicability. At the point when individuals are compelled to acclimatize to a
culture, it makes them feel disdain, and they are probably going to keep up their
social legacy in a stealthy way. In a general public where multiculturalism is
grasped, all individuals are urged to hone their societies in the open. This permits
individuals from an assortment of societies to become acquainted with each other,
and what really matters to them. Over the long haul this prompts a more noteworthy

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comprehension, and peace and concordance in the group. Is multiculturalism a


superior social model than digestion? Really digestion is the most ideal approach.
How about we take a gander at the Workers from the 30s as far as possible up to
the 70s, Greater part of them were of European better than average, they needed to
acclimatize and wind up noticeably American, and they did. By the second era of
European Foreigners they knew how to communicate in English fluidly, and
embraced the American lifestyle. By the third or fourth era you couldn't reveal to
them separated from anybody else. Now for Advanced Workers. They are not of
European not too bad, and they come here by the thousands consistently. The U.S
has officially taken in 33% of Mexico's populace and the numbers are ceaselessly
growing. Majority of them couldn't care less to learn English, or acclimatize. They
anticipate that the U.S will absorb to them. In a couple, more eras California,
Arizona, and so forth will be Mexican commanded. The U.S is taking in third world
Workers in mass numbers, greater part of them bring with them their third world
attitude, wrongdoing, ailments, and so forth. Take a gander at the U.K for example
with their enormous populace of Muslims. The Muslims are pushing Sharia Law.
In specific parts of the U.K Sharia is the law. Unless you are Muslim, it is an
exceptionally risky place to be. In a couple, more eras the U.K alongside Sweden,
and other European Nations that have taken in mass quantities of Muslims. Will
end up noticeably Muslim Nations. Be careful U.S, we are heading in that same
course.

As I would like to think, we ought to stop all third world Migration, and
begin bringing in more White Europeans. In another 50-100 years, Whites will
either be a little minority or near eradication, and I don't need that to happen. Europe
ought to be for Europeans, America for Americans, Asia for Asians, and Africa for
Africans. This Multicultural trial is coming up short.

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2.9 Indonesias Multiculturalism in Uniting Groups with Differences

Multiculturalism is a term used to describe ones view of the diversity of


life in the world, or cultural policies that emphasize acceptance of diversity, and the
multiculturalism that exists in the life of society concerning values, systems,
cultures, customs, and Politics that they profess.

Indonesian society is a society with a very complex level of diversity.


Society with a variety of diversity known as multicultural society. When we
recognize society as a collection of people who have lived and worked together for
so long that they are able to organize themselves and think about themselves as a
whole with certain limits, then the concept of society if combined with multicurtural
has a very broad meaning and a deep understanding is needed to understand what
the multicultural community really is.

Multicultural can be interpreted as a diversity or a difference to a culture


with another culture. So that, multicultural society can be defined as a group of
people who live and live settled in a place that has its own culture and distinctive
characteristics that are able to distinguish between one society with another society.
Each society will produce its own culture which will be a characteristic for the
community.

From this came the term multiculturalism. Many definitions of


multiculturalism, among them are essentially world-views that can then be
translated into cultural policies-emphasizing acceptance of the diversity, plurality,
and multicultural reality embodied in the life of society. Multiculturalism can also
be understood as a worldview which is then manifested in "politics of recognition"
as what Azyumardi Azra stated in 2007. Lawrence Blum also reveals that
multiculturalism includes an understanding, appreciation and assessment of one's
culture, as well as respect and curiosity about another's ethnic culture. Various
notions of multiculturalism can be concluded that the core of multiculturalism is
about acceptance and respect for a culture, both the culture itself and the culture of
others. Everyone is emphasized to respect and honor every culture that exists in

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society. Whatever the form of a culture must be acceptable to everyone without


discriminating between one culture and another.

Basically, the multiculturalism that is formed in Indonesia is the result of


the wide and varied socio-cultural and geographic conditions. According to
geographical conditions, Indonesia has many islands where each island is inhabited
by a group of people forming a society. From the community formed a culture of
society itself. Obviosuly, this affects the existence of a very large and diverse
culture.

In the concept of multiculturalism, there is a close relationship to the


formation of a society based on Bhinneka Tunggal Ika and realize a national culture
that becomes unifying for the nation of Indonesia. However, in practice there are
still many obstacles that prevent the formation of multiculturalism in society.

2.10 Multiculturalism Advantages

People tends to think in the same way, acts the same way, do something the
same way as their culture. Culture develops people to become who they are, since
culture itself is basically repeated things that most people in an area do, or called
habit of people in an area. If people are living in a single culture area, it means that
those single cultured people could only see what is good and what is wrong based
on one perspective only. Hence multiculturalism could develop people and broaden
the thought of people towards things.

One of the advantages of having a multi-cultural society is that in basic


things such as education. With multi-cultural society, education in an area would
broaden its curriculum hence that there would be much more knowledge toward the
student, one example is that subjects such as history would accommodate a broader
perspective of history depending on each culture, as if in Indonesia students would
likely to study history of kingdoms around Indonesia hence students would see a
much larger perspective of the world history. At school students, would also learn
how to respect other and how to treat other people, people with other culture tends
to do different things differently, multiculturalism teaches students that people are

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unique, people would eat and drink differently hence student would understand that
and could respect people.

Other advantages are that people living in multiculturalism could work with
others better, in a professional world people need to have the skills to work with
everyone, by having a multicultural society in life, people tend to respect other
people better rather than having a single cultural society in the area the people
living. Other things are that in completing an assignment, with a multicultural
society background people tend to think from more than one perspective hence it
will result in a better finish.

Multiculturalism tends to give people a wider perspective of thinking, a


better amount of ideas and a much diverse lifestyle. In a globalized world like in
the present time multiculturalism does bring a lot of advantage hence people who
could not keep up with multiculturalism usually are outdated and close minded.

2.11 Multiculturalism Disadvantages

Besides advantages there are numerous disadvantages to a multicultural


society. A healthy society is one that works toward common goals and common
ideals. Different cultures have different values, principles and outlooks on life. The
values of these different cultures can differ wildly leading to tension within a
society.

While racial discrimination is decreased, the cultural identity of one culture


or country could also diminish because of the influence of outside intervention. A
culture might also be dependent of another culture for the formation of their
tradition and society. Dominance in the multicultural world could also mean the
phasing out of once-defined cultures existing throughout history. New ways of
thinking and thought processes could also have a great influence on different
cultures, which could have many driven away from their traditional beliefs.
Disadvantage on education Children from ethnic minorities or immigrant
families would take time in getting accustomed to a new environment. This may
get reflected in their academic performance, when compared with that of the local

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children. While the negative effect of multiculturalism on professional life could


be Difficulties in organizing multicultural workface. Although largely it is a benefit,
managing a multicultural workforce can be very demanding. Prejudices of
employees may work against the people belonging to a minority. Encouraging
cooperation among all the coworkers, especially in collaborating as a team, can be
a task.

Another disadvantage of multiculturalism is the Risk of social conflicts and


elements, the possibility of a social conflict occurs due to differences in religious
beliefs and practices, ethnic rituals, or certain ways of life that may cause a rift
between two or more groups. However, in those countries that have adopted
multiculturalism as an integrative policy, it has been noticed that conflicts arose
mainly during financial crisis and due to lack of social programs. Living in a
multicultural society, even a cosmopolitan city for that matter, may inculcate a fear
among individuals or minority groups, that they would lose their original ethnic
identities or lifestyle. Being influenced by other cultures or foreign belief systems,
at times create a protectionist tendency among the citizens.

2.12 Multiculturalism in the Future


Throughout the arguments mentioned above, multiculturalism would be a
salient option as a tool for democracy and worthy of serious considerations by
policymakers in Indonesia. In this case, tolerance would become the most crucial
value that needs to be planted in each individual in the nation. By letting the
multiculturalism in the nation grows, this would lead to a homogeneity or
heterogeneity of the society, economic contribution, and a wider mindset.

Multiculturalism would definitely change the most crucial consideration


especially when it comes to making policy, which would evolve around the idea
that minority rights, liberal democracy and human rights could comfortably coexist
and it would surely be possible to become a fixed point in both domestic
constitutions and international law. Hence, the biggest task for the nation in order
to overcome the predicted future of multiculturalism is to fully explore how civic
integration policies can work comfortably together with multiculturalism for it is a
crucial step.

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CHAPTER III

CONCLUSION

As we have explained in the discussion chapter, the condition of


multiculturalism is really seen in Indonesia. Multiculturalism in Indonesia mostly
is involving in the aspects of politics and religion that every citizen in Indonesia has
the same right despite of their races, sexes, races, religion beliefs or even ages.

There some advantages and disadvantages of culturalism which are


implemented in Indonesia namely, multiculturalism could develop people and
broaden the thought of people towards things, having a multi-cultural society is that
in basic things such as education and people living in multiculturalism could work
with others better, in a professional world people need to have the skills to work
with everyone, by having a multicultural society in life, people tend to respect other
people better rather than having a single cultural society in the area the people
living. Besides advantages there are numerous disadvantages to a multicultural
society. Different cultures have different values, principles and outlooks on life.
The values of these different cultures can differ wildly leading to tension within a
society. Another disadvantage of multiculturalism is the Risk of social conflicts and
elements, the possibility of a social conflict occurs due to differences in religious
beliefs and practices, ethnic rituals, or certain ways of life that may cause a rift
between two or more groups.

Throughout the arguments mentioned above, multiculturalism would be a


salient option as a tool for democracy and worthy of serious considerations by
policymakers in Indonesia. Multiculturalism would definitely change the most
crucial consideration especially when it comes to making policy, which would
evolve around the idea that minority rights, liberal democracy and human rights
could comfortably coexist and it would surely be possible to become a fixed point
in both domestic constitutions and international law.

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CHAPTER IV

REFERENCES

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https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-
quarterly/multiculturalism-some-lessons-indonesia
Song, Sarah, "Multiculturalism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of
Philosophy (Spring 2017 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL =
<https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2017/entries/multiculturalism/>.
Culture and Commitment: a Study of the Generation Gap. Margaret Mead.
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