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David E. Nye ,Electrifying America: Social
Meanings of a New Technology
MIT1992
1880-1900


1032
70




21

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( Samuel Insull)

190740%192070%
193080%90%

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IT

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,,

PC C/S


8/50
- 8
-

Internet IFaPs
/
(IP, HTML, HTTP)


, , ,

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-
3



IT

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IDC4
26%1722013
442

2010167.312009
92.2381.4%2012600

2015
7500,2015
15%

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15

SaaS: Software as a Service


Web

PaaS: Platform as a Service

///

Iaas: Infrastructure as a Service

///

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CPU+GPU





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DSA

Software as a Service

Metering
High Volume

Transactions J2EE

Platform as a Service

18
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IaaS


OS




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20%
20% 30% 10% 60%

VM 1 30%

VM n
10%


Server 1 Server 2 Server n Server 5%~10%
VM 2



60% 10%
60% 10% 10% 60% 70% 70%
1:5~1:10
VM 1 VM 1
10% 60%


Server1 Server2 Server1 Server2 Server VM 2 Server VM 2


60

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IaaS

CPU 5-10%<36%
50%
<100
12%
20%

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SDK

VMWARE XEN KVM

OS OS OS

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DSA

Software as a Service

Metering
High Volume

Transactions J2EE Ajax

Platform as a Service

25
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PaaS-





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CUDA GPU

CPU CUDA GPU


Several sequential cores Hundreds of parallel cores

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146X 36X 18X 50X 100X

Medical Molecular Video Matlab Astrophysic


Imaging Dynamics Transcoding Computing s
U of Utah U of Illinois, Elemental Tech AccelerEyes RIKEN
Urbana

149X 47X 20X 130X 30X

Financial Linear Algebra 3D Quantum Gene


Simulation Universidad Ultrasound Chemistry Sequencing
Oxford Jaime Techniscan U of Illinois, U of Maryland
Urbana


53Tesla GPU
#1 : Tianhe-1A #3 : Nebulae #4 : Tsubame 2.0
7168 Tesla GPUs 2.5 PFLOPS 4650 Tesla GPUs 1.2 4224 Tesla GPUs 1.194
PFLOPS PFLOPS



CPUGPU


Tianhe-1A

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BPA BPA
BPA PSASP



..


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SDK
SDK



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IaaSPaaS

1 2 3 4

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PaaS-












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DSA

Software as a Service

Metering
High Volume

Transactions J2EE Ajax

Platform as a Service

35
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SaaS-
SaaS

SaaS




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SaaS-

DSA X V X Site Site

X V V

X X X J2EEAjax

X V V

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DSA















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IT

IT

IT

InsideOutside

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InsideOutside

Intel inside
iPad iPhone, Outside (
Inside(


Inside),
outside).
PC
Application Store)

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-
D5000

200 150

1 1

50/ 200/

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1


1 2

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IT

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Decentralize
C S C U-INS
U

(LAN or WAN)

C S C





SOA
IT20-
SaaSPaaSIaaS
LAN, WAN

Terminal Terminal



Mainframe

IBM


Time
1960 1975 1990 2005 2020
Consolidate


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