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You are on page 1of 52

Dr. A. C. Nerves

U.P. Electrical & Electronics Engineering Institute

1

Illuminance

In photometry, illuminance is the total luminous flux incident

on a surface, per unit area. It is a measure of how much the

incident light illuminates the surface, wavelength-weighted by

the luminosity function to correlate with human brightness

perception.

In SI derived units these are measured in lux (lx) or lumens

per square metre (lmm2). In the CGS system, the unit of

illuminance is the phot, which is equal to 10000 lux. The foot-

candle is a non-metric unit of illuminance that is used in

photography.

A lux meter measures illuminances in work environments.

2

Illuminance

Measuring Units Light Level - Illuminance

Illuminance is measured in foot candles (ftcd, fc, fcd) (or lux in the metric

SI system). A foot candle is actually one lumen of light density per square

foot,one lux is one lumen per square meter.

1 lux = 1 lumen / sq meter = 0.0001 phot = 0.0929 foot candle (ftcd, fcd)

3

Illuminance

Common Light Levels Outdoor

Common light levels outdoor at day and night can be found in the table

below:

Illumination

Condition

(ftcd) (lux)

Sunlight 10,000 107,527

Full Daylight 1,000 10,752

Overcast Day 100 1,075

Very Dark Day 10 107

Twilight 1 10.8

Deep Twilight .1 1.08

Full Moon .01 .108

Quarter Moon .001 .0108

Starlight .0001 .0011

Overcast Night .00001 .0001

4

Illuminance

Common and Recommended Light Levels Indoor

The outdoor light level is approximately 10,000 lux on a clear day. In the

building, in the area closest to windows, the light level may be reduced to

approximately 1,000 lux. In the middle area its may be as low as 25 - 50

lux. Additional lighting equipment is often necessary to compensate the

low levels.

Earlier it was common with light levels in the range 100 - 300 lux for

normal activities. Today the light level is more common in the range 500 -

1000 lux - depending on activity. For precision and detailed works, the

light level may even approach 1500 - 2000 lux.

The table below is a guidance for recommended light level in different

work spaces:

5

Illuminance

Illumination

Activity

(lux, lumen/m2)

Public areas with dark surroundings 20 - 50

Simple orientation for short visits 50 - 100

Working areas where visual tasks are only occasionally

100 - 150

performed

Warehouses, Homes, Theaters, Archives 150

Easy Office Work, Classes 250

Normal Office Work, PC Work, Study Library, Groceries,

500

Show Rooms, Laboratories

1,000

Operation Theatres

2000 - 5000

size for prolonged periods of time

10000 - 20000

contrast and small size

6

7

Lumen Method

Specifications often require the lighting professional to know or

design for average uniform horizontal illuminance.

To do this with the Inverse Square Law for a large number of points

would be tedious and expensive.

A second set of calculations would have to be made to determine

the interreflected components.

Lumen method:

used in calculating the illuminance that represents the average

of all points on the work-plane in an interior.

used to calculate the number of luminaires required for a

uniform or general lighting layout.

uniform = (1) no more than 20% variation in illuminance, (2)

symmetrical lighting layout that meets the spacing criterion.

8

Lumen Method

Definition of illuminance:

Luminous Flux

Illuminanc e

Area

If area is in ft2, the illuminance is in fc (lm/ft2).

If area is in m2, the illuminance is in lux (lm/m2)

Since not all lamp lumens will reach the work-plane due to losses in

the luminaire and at the room surfaces,

Lamp Lumens Coefficient of Utilization

Initial Illuminanc e

Area

9

Lumen Method

To account for the estimated depreciation in lamp lumens, the

estimated losses from dirt collection on the luminaire surfaces

(including lamps), etc.

Lamp Lumens CU LLF

Maintained Illuminanc e

Area

LLF = Light Loss factor

If the lamp lumens is taken as taken as the total rated lamp lumens

in the luminaire, and the area becomes the area per luminaire,

Maintained Illuminanc e

Area per Luminiare

10

Lumen Method

If the desire illuminace is known, the area per luminaire (and hence

the spacing between luminaires) to produce this illuminance may be

obtained by:

Lamp Lumens per Luminaire CU LLF

Area per Luminaire

Maintained Illuminanc e

approximate the above area. If the total number of luminaires is

desired,

Total Room Area

Total Number of Luminaires

Area per Luminaire

11

Lumen Method

Limitations:

The illuminance computed is an average value that will be

representative only if the luminaires are spaced to obtain

reasonably uniform illuminance.

The calculation of the of the coefficients of utilization is based on

empty interiors having surfaces that exhibit perfectly diffuse

reflection.

The average value of illuminance determined this way may vary

considerably from that obtained by averaging discrete values of

illuminance at several points.

Calculated illuminace values may differ from measured values

due to luminaire input data, assumed room and system

parameters and mathematical modelling of the lighting system.

12

Light Loss Factors

Light loss factors adjust lighting calculations from controlled

laboratory to actual field conditions; they account for differences in

lamp lumen output, luminaire output and surface reflectances

between the two conditions.

Light loss factors:

1. Recoverable factors those that can be changed by regular

maintenance such as cleaning and relamping luminaires and

cleaning or painting room surfaces.

2. Nonrecoverable factors those attributed to equipment and

site conditions and cannot be changed with normal

maintenance.

Light loss factors are multiplicative; Total Light Loss Factor (LLF) =

product of all factors.

13

Light Loss Factors

Light Loss Factors:

Nonrecoverable Recoverable

Temperature Factor Lamp Lumen Depreciation

Factor

Line Voltage Factor Lamp Burnout Factor

Ballast Factor Luminaire Dirt Depreciation

Factor

Lamp Position (Tilt) Factor Room Surface Dirt

Depreciation Factor

Equipment Operating Factor

Luminaire Surface

Depreciation Factor

14

Light Loss Factors

Temperature Factor

Variations in temperature, above or below those normally

encountered in interiors, have little effect on the light output of

incandescent and high intensity discharge lamp luminaires but have

an effect on light output of fluorescent luminaires.

The designer needs to know the highest or lowest temperature

expected and have data showing the variation in light output vs

ambient temperature for the specific luminaire to be used, and the

application (mounting) conditions and the effect of heat transfer (if

applicable).

15

Light Loss Factors

Line Voltage Factor

Light output change due to voltage change:

16

Light Loss Factors

Ballast Factor

Lumen output of fluorescent lamps depends on the ballast used

to drive the lamps.

Lumen output from lamps on commercial ballasts generally

differs from the rated lumen output used for photometric test

data.

The ballast factor is the fractional flux of a fluorescent lamp(s)

operated on a ballast compared to the flux when operated on

the standard (reference) ballasting specified for rating lamp

lumens.

17

Light Loss Factors

Equipment Operating Factor

Lumen output of high intensity discharge lamps depends on the

ballast, the lamp operating position and the effect of reflected

power. These effects are collectively incorporated in the

equipment operating factor.

The equipment operating factor is the fractional flux of an HID

lamp-ballast-luminaire combination, in a given operating

position, compared to the flux of the lamp-luminaire combination

operating in the position for rating the lamp lumens and using

the standard (reference) ballasting specified for rating lamp

lumens.

18

Light Loss Factors

Lamp Position (Tilt) Factor

For HID lamps, the lamp position factor is the fractional flux of

an HID lamp in a given operating position compared to the flux

when the lamp is operated in the position at which the lamp

lumens are rated.

This factor is determined at constant lamp wattage and

comprises part of the equipment operating factor.

For metal halide lamps:

19

Light Loss Factors

Lumainaire Surface Depreciation Factor

Luminaire surface depreciation results from adverse changes in

metal, paint and plastic components which result in reduced

light output.

Information about lamp lumen depreciation is available from

manufacturers tables and graphs for lumen depreciation and

mortality of the chosen lamp.

20

Light Loss Factors

Luminaire Dirt Depreciation (LDD) Factor

The accumulation of dirt on luminaires results in a loss in light

output, and therefore a loss on the work-plane.

The LDD factor is determined as follows:

1. Luminaire maintenance category is selected from

manufacturerss data or by using the Figure 9-7.

21

Light Loss Factors

22

Light Loss Factors

23

Light Loss Factors

24

Light Loss Factors

LDD determination procedure:

2. The atmosphere (one of five degrees of dirt conditions) in

which the luminaire will operate is found.

that generated by work done in the surrounding atmosphere.

Adhesive dirt cling to luminaire surfaces by its stickiness

Attracted dirt held by electrostatic force

Inert dirt vary in accumulation from nothing on vertical

surfaces to as much as a horizontal surface can hold.

25

Light Loss Factors

26

Light Loss Factors

27

Light Loss Factors

LDD determination procedure:

3. From the appropriate luminaire maintenance category curve in

Fig. 9-10, the applicable dirt condition curve and the proper

elapsed time in months of the planned cleaning cycle, the LDD

is found.

28

Light Loss Factors

29

Light Loss Factor

An alternative to Fig. 9-10 is to use the curve-fitted equation:

A (t B )

LDD e

where constants A and B are found from Fig. 9-11, based on the

luminaire maintenance category and the atmosphere condition

involved, and t is time in decimal years.

30

Light Loss Factors

Room Surface Dirt Depreciation (RSDD) Factor

The accumulation of dirt on room surfaces reduces the amount of

luminous flux reflected and interreflected to the work-plane.

Procedure

1. Find the expected dirt depreciation using the Area Atmosphere

determined using Fig. 9-8 or 9-9 as guides, the time between

cleaning and curves in Fig. 9-12. For example, if the atmosphere

is dirty and room surfaces are cleaned every 24 months, the

expected dirt depreciation would be approximately 30%.

cleanliness and time, one can also use

At 0.53

% Dirt depreciation 1001 e

31

Light Loss Factors

32

Light Loss Factors

Procedure

2. Knowing the expected dirt depreciation, the type of luminaire

distribution and the room cavity ratio, determine the the RSDD

factor from Fig. 9-12. For example, for a dirt depreciation of

30%, a direct luminaire and a Room Cavity Ratio (RCR) of 4,

the RSDD would be 0.92.

If lamps are not replaced promptly after burnout, the average

illuminance will decrease proportionately.

Quantity of lamp burnouts is determined by the quality of the

lighting services program incorporated in the initial design & the

quality of the physical performance of the program.

LBO Factor = ratio of the lamp remaining lighted to the total, for the

maximum number of burnouts permitted 33

Light Loss Factors

Total Light Loss Factor (LLF) = product of all the contributing

factors.

If LLF is excessive, it may be desirable to reselect the luminaire.

34

Cavity Ratios

The zonal cavity method subdivides an interior space into three

cavities:

1. Floor cavity space beneath the work plane

2. Ceiling cavity space above the luminaires

3. Room cavity extends from the work plane to the work plane

35

Cavity Ratios

In the Zonal Cavity Method for calculating average maintained

illuminance, the effects of room proportions, luminaire suspension

length, and work-plane height upon the coefficient of utilization are

respectively accounted for by the Room Cavity Ratio (RCR), Ceiling

Cavity Ratio (CCR) and Floor Cavity Ratio (FCR).

Cavity Ratio

Room Length Room Width

where h = hRC for the RCR

= hCC for the CCR

= hFC for the FCR

Note that

hCC hFC

CCR RCR FCR RCR

hRC hRC

36

Cavity Ratios

Each CR is essentially the ratio of the amount of vertical surface

area in the cavity to the amount of horizontal surface area.

Horizontal surface area = 2LW {L=room length, W=room width}

Vertical surface area = 2H(L+W) {H=cavity height}

Ratio = H(L+W)/LW {< 1, except for tall, narrow rooms}

Multiplier 5 is used to obtain whole numbers greater than 1 for most

rooms.

CR

A2 A2

is also the floor area; P1 = work-plane perimeter; h = cavity height.

37

Effective Cavity Reflectances

In zonal cavity procedure: Replace the original 3-cavity space by its

room cavity only.

If we can find effective reflectances for the 2 boundary planes

between the room cavity and the ceiling and floor cavities, there is

no need to retain the latter cavities in our calculations.

Effective cavity reflectance = ratio of the total flux out of the cavity

opening to the total flux into the cavity opening.

38

Effective Cavity Reflectances

Fig. 9-39 provides a means of converting the combination of wall

and ceiling or floor and wall reflectances into a single Effective

Ceiling Cavity Reflectance (CC) and a single Effective Floor Cavity

Reflectance (FC).

For surface-mounted and recessed luminaires, CCR = 0 and the

ceiling reflectance may be used as CC.

39

Effective Cavity Reflectances

40

Effective Cavity Reflectances

A rectangular cavity consists of 4 walls, each having a reflectance of

W, and a base of reflectance B (ceiling or floor).

The effective reflectance eff of this cavity is the ratio of flux

reflected out, divided by the flux entering the cavity through its

opening.

If the reflectances are assume to be perfectly diffuse and the flux is

assumed to enter the cavity in a perfectly diffuse way, it is possible

to calculate the effective cavity reflectance using flux transfer

theory. The result is

41

Effective Cavity Reflectances

2 AB AB

B W 2

1 f ) f B f W 1 f 2

eff AW AW

A 2 A

1 B W B 1 f W 1 2 B 1 f

AW AW

AB, AW = areas of the cavity base and walls, respectively

B, W = reflectance of the cavity base and walls, respectively

f = form factor between the cavity opening and the cavity base

2 1 2

ln 1

x 2

1 y

y

1 x

2 1 2

tan

1 y

2 2 1 2

f

2 1 x y

1 x2

xy

212 x

x 1 y tan 1

1 2

1 1

y tan (y ) x tan (y )

1 y2

42

Effective Cavity Reflectances

y = cavity length cavity depth

y = cavity width cavity depth

Arc tangents are expressed in radians

The effective cavity reflectance of non-rectangular cavities can be

approximated by the following formula:

eff

As As

1

Ao Ao

Ao = area of the cavity opening

As = area of the cavity surfaces

= reflectance of the cavity surfaces

43

Effective Cavity Reflectances

If the ceiling surface reflectance is not the same for all parts of the

ceiling, use an area-weighted average. Thus, if a ceiling has several

sections 1, 2, 3,...

1A1 2 A 2 3 A 3

A1 A 2 A 3

hemispherical dome where all parts of the ceiling are exposed to all

other parts of the ceiling.

44

Luminaire Coefficients of

Utilization

Absorption of light in a luminaire is accounted for in the

computation of CU for that particular luminare.

Fig. 9-62 is a tabulation of CUs for representative luminaire types.

These CUs are for Effective Floor Cavity Reflectance of 20%.

Correction multipliers are given in Fig. 9-40 for other FC.

45

Luminaire Coefficients of

Utilization

46

47

Spacing Criterion (SC)

Spacing Criterion = ratio of the maximum spacing between

luminaires to the mounting height of the luminaires above the work

plane which is likely to give reasonable uniformity of horizontal

illuminance throughout the space.

SC is simply a guide and not a specification

Layouts for determining SC:

S1 S2

S1/2 S2/2

1 2 1 2

P Q S2/2

S2

Layout A R

3 4

P Layout B 48

Spacing Criterion

Layout A: S1 is set so that the illuminances at P, due to source 1,

and at Q, due to both sources, are equal.

Layout B: S2 is set so that the illuminances at P, due to source 1,

and at R, due to all four sources, are equal.

SC = S/MH where MH = mounting height and S = smallest of S1

and S2.

For the lumen method to be valid, the calculated maximum spacing

can not be exceeded.

49

50

51

END.

52

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