You are on page 1of 4

www.ijecs.

in
International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science ISSN:2319-7242
Volume - 3 Issue -9 September , 2014 Page No. 8116-8119

Hyperspectral Image Classification Using SVM


CH. Bala subramanyam, G. Naga lakshmi
Dept. of CSE, Siddhartha Institute of Science and Technology, Puttur
HOD of CSE & IT, Siddhartha Institute of Science and Technology, Puttur

ABSTRACT

HyperSpectral image classification has been used for many purposes in remote sensing, and vegetation
research, environmental monitoring and also for land cover classification. A hyperspectral image consists
of many layers in which each layer represents a specific wavelength. This paper aims to classify the
hyperspectral images to produce a thematic map accurately. Spatial information of hyperspectral images is
collected by applying morphological profile and local binary pattern. Support vector machine (SVM) is an
efficient classification algorithm for classifying the hyperspectral images. Genetic algorithm is used to
obtain the best feature subjected for image classification. The classes and thematic map are generated by
using future extraction. Experiment is carried out with AVIRIS Indian Pines and ROSIS Pavia University. This
method produces the accuracy as 93% for Indian Pines and 92% for Pavia University.

KEYWORDS
Morphological Profile, Local Binary Pattern, Hyperspectral Image, Genetic Algorithm, Support Vector
Machine

1.INTRODUCTION
Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques closing morphological transforms are used in
is obtaining the information about earths surface order to isolate bright(opening) and dark (closing)
or objects through the analysis of data collected structures in images[2]. The large dimensionality
by hyperspectral sensor. Hyperspectral imaging is of the hyperspectral images make it harder for
a spectral imaging technique and also related to classification. A lot of redundancy in the data to
multispectral imaging. Hyperspectral images are be removed[3]. The consequent ground truth
narrow spectral bands over a continuous spectral demand for supervised classification[4].According
range. Multispectral images are several images at to Hughes phenomenon the required number of
discrete narrow bands. Different types of labeled training samples for supervised
heterogeneous classes present in hyperspectral classification increases as a function of
images is one of the research issue in remote dimensionality. Unsupervised and supervised
sensing[1]. Feature extraction consists of algorithms have been developed for classification
classifying the pixels in the hyperspectral image of multispectral images .These algorithms failure
and identifying the relevant class. It differentiates to deliver high accuracy hyperspectral images.
one class from other and the process of SVM consists of feature selection and
transforming the input data into the set of extraction[5] . SVM explains the linear domain
features. Spectral spatial classification of classification, it gives the good results.
hyperspectral image is proposed the method hyperspectral domain is a non-linear.
mathematical morphology , it is used for Kernel methods provides a machine
preprocessing of hyperspectral data. Opening and learning paradigm. It coverts nonlinear methods
CH. Bala subramanyam, IJECS Volume-3 Issue-9 September 2014 Page No. 8116-8119 Page 8116
from linear ones[6],[7]. Many types of kernels like Closing the smooth sections of counters
linear, polynomial, Radial Basis Function(RBF), and removing small holes, filling gaps in the
sigmoid etc.., are available . Selection of proper counters to obtain dark structures in images. The
kernels gives proper results. The usage of SVM basic morphological operation is applied to
classifier for hyperspectral image is shown[8].The obtain morphological profile.
support vector machine with kernel trick has
been successfully used in hyperspectral image
classification[9].
For adding classification methods features
such as pixel wise, extended morphological
profile and feature extraction using genetic
algorithm is used. Spectral and spatial
information of hyperspectral data is needed for
accurate classification. Principal component
analysis is applied to hyperspectral image as a
feature extraction technique[10].
Local binary pattern is an operator for
texture classification where the pixel is consider
as a threshold for neighborhood pixels. Local
binary pattern is experimentally evaluated for Figure 2:Proposed Methodology
land cover classification. Texture characterization
approach performs well when combined with 2.2 Local Binary Patterns
grey-level variance[11].
Local Binary Patterns is effective texture
2.PROPOSED METHODOLOGY operator. The pixels by thresholding the
neighbourhood of each pixel and obtained result
2.1 Morphological Processing is a binary number.
Morphological processing is a non-linear
operation related to the shape or morphology of
features in an image. The basic operators of
morphology are dilation, erosion, opening and
closing. The fundamental operators are applied
to a hyperspectral image with a set of particular Figure 3: Concept of Local Binary Value
shape known as structuring element. The concept of local binary pattern is follows.
The work of hyperspectral data using erosion Consider a 3X3 matrix from hyperspectral image.
operator provides an output of the structuring Center pixel value is threshold for surrounding
element fits, the work of dilation gives an output pixels. The surrounding pixel value is greater than
of image where the structuring element hits the threshold, the pixel value is 0 or 1.
object in an image. The decimal value is obtained from the
Opening smoothes the counter of an binary value, it calculates the clock-wise
object and remove thin protrusions to isolate the direction. The hyperspectral data is applied to
bright structure of an image. statistical and co-occurrence features. The
statistical features are mean, variance, standard
deviation. The co-occurrence features are
skewness, kurtosis is calculated.

Figure 1: Spacebone Hyperspectral sensor

CH. Bala subramanyam, IJECS Volume-3 Issue-9 September 2014 Page No. 8116-8119 Page 8117
Feature Formula

Mean ij 1iM 1 j N X ij / MN The Experiment carried out in two

X / MN
0.5 datasets such as , Indian Pines and Pavia
Variance
ij 1i M 1 j N ij ij
2
University taken by AVIRIS(Airborne

X / MN
Standard 2 2
1 Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) and
Deviation ij 1i M 1 j N ij ij ROSIS(Reflective Optics System Imaging
skew( x ) X /
3
1
3 Spectrometer) sensor.
Skewness 1i M 1 j N
ij ij ij ij i . The Indian Pines Dataset is an agriculture area

kurt ( x ) X /
4
1
4
recorded over Northwestern Indiana, with
Kurtosis ij 1i M 1 j N ij ij ij 145X145 pixels and spatial resolution of 20m per
Table -1 Formula for Statistical Features pixel having 220 channels.
ii . The Pavia University dataset is an urban area
2.3 Support Vector Machine recorded over the University of Pavia, Italy. The
Support Vector Machine is based on class image is composed of 610X340 pixels with spatial
separation. Samples are mapped using kernel resolution of 1.3m/pixel and a spectral range of
function to a higher feature space to linear 0.43 having 103 bands.
seperability of data. The popular kernels are
Polynomial, Linear and Radial Basis Function. At first dilation, erosion, opening and
Samples of two classes can be linearly separable closing operations are performed. Statistical
by hyper plane in high feature space. SVM features and co-occurrence are calculated by
training consists of finding optimal hyper plane using formulas. Genetic algorithm used inn
where distance between each can be maximized. majority voting for best feature is identified for
For training samples, consider a set of n points as classification. 30% training samples were used
D= for final phase of testing.
Where is 1 or -1 for class and is p-
dimensional vector. 4.RESULTS
Select two hyper planes to separate
hyperspectral data and distance between two
plane is maximum. The hyper plane should satisfy
the condition as w.x-b=0. The equation for hyper
plane for separating the margins is w.x-b=1 or
w.x-b=-1. Consider the constant for margin to
prevent data falling from one to another.
w. for 1st class and w. for 2nd
class. The distance between two hyper planes is

and is minimum.

Figure 5 : Result for AVIRIS Indian Pines dataset


X2

X1

Figure4. Hyper plane separation

3. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
CH. Bala subramanyam, IJECS Volume-3 Issue-9 September 2014 Page No. 8116-8119 Page 8118
Stand
Dil Ero Clo
Class Ope Me ard Kurt Skew
ati sio sin Variance
Name
on n
ning
g
an Devia
tion
osis ness REFERENCES
70. 71. 69.2 69. 71. 75.9
Alfalfa 60.92 62.54 64.65
98 56 3 71 78 6
92. 93. 84.1 91. 92. 84.1
[1] Shwetank, Jain Kamal & Bhatia K.J,(2010) Review
Cornnot 80.98 86.96 97.85
76
80.
97
82.
2
75.5
94
79.
43
83.
2
75.1
of Crop Identification and Classification using
Cornmin 70.56 73.65 72.98
72 68 56 53 74 6 Hyperspectral Image Processing System,
91. 93. 90.4 79. 93. 86.9
Corn
86 54 7 52 66
82.99 92.19
1
83.65 International Journal of Computer Science and
Grasspas 96. 97. 91.7 95. 97. 95.1
ture 52 15 5 29 8
90.18 94.25
2
92.75 Communication, vo1.1 , no.1, pp.253-258,2002
Grasstre
es
98.
9
98.
63
97.2
3
90.
74
97.
64
98.43 98.96
96.1
5
97.74 [2] J. Benediksson, j.Palmason and J.Chanussot, (2005)
Grasspas 62. 95. 54.1 53. 66.
55.98 58.74
75.9
55.78 Classification of Hyperspectral data from urban areas
ture 7 79 2 14 53 2
Hay
86. 89. 84.9 85. 87.
76.25 75.79
78.9
88.92
based on extended morphological
59 34 2 41 42 5
79. 82. 81.7 82. 81. 70.4 profile.IEEETrans.Geosci. Remotesens ., vo1.43, no.3,
Oats 61.82 82.96 90.85
91 18 3 59 53 1
Soybean 50. 59. 54.9 52. 57. 40.7
pp480-491.
70.63 55.95 58.74
not 94 87 7 4 76 6 [3] F.Melgani and L.Bruzzone ,(2004) Classification of
71. 82. 75.6 76. 83. 78.6
Soymint 81.58 87.95 87.52
99 97 4 35 92 8 Hyperspectral remote sensing images with support
69. 74. 70.0 75. 76. 69.8
Soyclean
42 48 9 12 54
59.6 65.74
7
66.74 vector machines IEEE Transactions on Geo science
72. 78. 76.5 82. 79. 71.4
Wheat
84 56 2 18 12
66.86 69.33
9
81.74 and Remote Sens., vo1.42, no.8,pp 1778 -1790.
Woods
79.
25
84.
63
82.4
1
85.
15
83.
19
82.91 86.77
72.9
6
77.89 [4] Y.Tarbalka, M.Fauvel, J.Channusot and
Trees
76. 80. 67.8 69. 81.
73.54 77.56
88.9
72.18 J.Benediktsson, (2010) SVM and MRF based method
81 84 8 34 29 3
Steel
66. 71. 56.3 68. 73.
52.52 76.32
82.6
88.9
for accurate classification of hyperspectral images,
72 96 8 75 85 8
Overall IEEE Geo science Remote sensing Lett., vo1.3 no.7,
78. 83. 75.8 77. 81. 77.7
Accuracy
(%)
06 63 1 32 76
72.86 77.85
5
79.93
pp.736-740.
Table-2 : Accuracy table for Various classes in AVIRIS [5] G. Breim, J.Benediksson and J.Sveinsson, (2002)
Indian Pines Dataset using SVM(%) Multiple classifiers applied to multisource remote
sensing data IEEE Geo science Remote sensing
Dil Ero
Stand vo1.40, no.10,pp.2291-2299.
Ope Closi Mea Vari ard Kurto Skewn
Class Name ati sio
ning ng n ance Deviat sis ess [6] B.Scholkopf , A.Smola ,(2002) Learning with
on n
ion
Kernels-Support Vector Machines, Regularization ,
75. 76. 75.8 78.2 81.2 76.5
Alfalfa
23 3 5 5 4 2
77.58 62.89 61.3
Optimization and Beyond, MIT press series.
89. 90. 89.9 87.2 89.5 83.4
Meadow
56 25 6 3 6 5
85.27 88.98 85.96 [7]G. Campus Valls, J.L.Rojo-Alvarez and M.
Gravel
59.
3
61.
56
62.5
8
65.4
5
75.8
5
67.2 69.75 52.74 79.36 Martinez-Romon, (2007) Kernel Methods in
Trees
65. 67. 68.9 63.4 75.8 78.5
79.85 54.3 58.32 Bioengineering ,Signal and Image Processing, Idea
69 85 6 5 7 8
82.
83. 82.8 87.8 93.5 88.9
Group Publishing, Hershey ,P.A.
Sheets 95 89.74 80.25 82.63
4
69 9 5 4 6 [8] Farid Melgani, Lorenzo Brozzone, (2004)
91. 85. 87.4 82.4 86.4 87.2
Bare soil
58 9 1 7 3 3
89.57 91.2 91.78 Classification of hyperspectral remote sensing
Bitumen
97.
96
89.
54
90.7
4
86.5
6
89.2
1
87.4
1
84.12 85.64 84.1 images with support vector machines IEEE Trans.
Bricks
78. 80. 81.4 79.8 82.7 82.4
81.23 62.17 68.33 Geo science Remote Sensing , vo1.42, no.8,pp.1778-
54 23 5 5 8 5
Shadow
50. 55. 60.7 60.8
76.2
65.5
74.92 45.95 66.54
1790.
96 89 4 5 2
Overall [9] G. Campus valls, L.Bruzzone , (2005) Kernel
76. 76. 77.8 76.8 83.4 79.7
Accuracy
(%)
86 80 4 8 1 0
81.34 69.35 75.37
based method for hyperspectral image classification.
Table 3 : Accuracy table for ROSIS Pavia university IEEE Transcation on Geo science Remote Sens.vo1.43,
using SVM(%) no.6,pp.1351-1362.
[10] Andrey Bicalho Santos, Arnaldo de Albuquerque
5.CONCLUSION
araujo, David Menotti, (2013) IEEE Journal of
Hyperspectral sensors collects images in large
selected topics in applied earth observations and
number of spectral channels. Spectral signature for
remote sensing vo1.6, No.3.
every spatial location gives more information about
[11] M.Musica ,R.Q.Feitossa., M.L.F.Vellosob,
an image provides differentiate between materials
T.Novackc, G.A.O.P. Costa, (2012) Texture
and objects. Morphological profile and local binary
Characterization in Remote Sensing Imagery using
pattern techniques given high classification accuracies
Binary Coding Techniques. Proceedings of the 4th
for hyperspectral data. Genetic Algorithm is used for
GEOBIA , -Rio de janeiro-Brazil.p.437.
selecting best features among different features.
Support Vector Machine is used for classifying the
various types of classes present in the dataset.
Proposed method produces accuracy as 93% for
Indian Pines and 92% for Pavia University.

CH. Bala subramanyam, IJECS Volume-3 Issue-9 September 2014 Page No. 8116-8119 Page 8119