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Structural Element

Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices


CEE 541. Structural Dynamics
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Duke University
Henri P. Gavin
Fall 2016

1 Preliminaries
This document describes the formulation of stiffness and mass matrices for structural elements
such as truss bars, beams, plates, and cables(?). The formulation of each element involves the
determination of gradients of potential and kinetic energy functions with respect to a set of
coordinates defining the displacements at the ends, or nodes, of the elements. The potential
and kinetic energy of the functions are therefore written in terms of these nodal displacements
(i.e., generalized coordinates). To do so, the distribution of strains and velocities within the
element must be written in terms of nodal coordinates as well. Both of these distributions
may be derived from the distribution of internal displacements within the solid element.

1.1 Displacements

Figure 1. Displacements within a solid continuum.


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A component of a time-dependent displacement ui (x, t), (i = 1, , 3) in a solid continuum


can be expressed in terms of the displacements of a set of nodal displacements, un (t) (n =
1, , N ) and a corresponding set of shape functions in .
N
X
ui (x, t) = in (x1 , x2 , x3 ) un (t) (1)
n=1
= i (x) u(t) (2)
u(x, t) = [(x)]3N u(t) (3)

Engineering strain, axial strain ii , shear strain ij .

ui (x, t)
ii (x, t) = (4)
xi
ui (x, t) uj (x, t)
ij (x, t) = + (5)
xj xi
(6)

Displacement gradient
N
ui (x) X
= in (x1 , x2 , x3 ) un (t) (7)
xj n=1 xj
N
X
ui,j (x) = in,j (x) un (t) (8)
n=1

Strain-displacement relations
N
X
ii (x, t) = in,i (x) un (t) (9)
n=1
XN
ij (x, t) = (in,j (x) + jn,i (x)) un (t) (10)
n=1

Strain vector
T (x, t) = { 11 22 33 12 23 13 } (11)
(x, t) = [ B(x) ]6N u(t) (12)

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 3

1.2 Geometric Strain

Figure 2. Axial strain due to transverse displacement.

x: axial deformation due to transverse displacement duy without displacement in the x


direction (dux = 0).

!!!
duy
(dx + x) cos arctan = dx (13)
dx
! !!!
x duy
1+ cos arctan = 1 (14)
dx dx
!!
x duy
= csc arctan 1 (15)
dx dx

!2
x 1 duy
xx = (16)
dx 2 dx

The approximation is accurate to within -0.01% for duy /dx < 0.01, -1.0% for duy /dx < 0.20,
and to within -0.1% for duy /dx < 0.07.

Large deflection strain-displacement equations:

!2 !2
ui 1 uj 1 uk
ii = + + (17)
xi 2 xi 2 xi
1 1
= ui,i + u2j,i + u2k,i (18)
2 2
ui uj ui uj uj ui
ij = + + + (19)
xj xi xj xj xi xi
= ui,j + uj,i + ui,j uj,j + uj,i ui,i (20)

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4 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

1.3 Stress-strain relationship (isotropic elastic solid)




11

1
11



22 1 22









33 E 1 33




=
1
(21)


12

(1 + )(1 2)
2

12

1


23 23




2





1
13 13





2

Stress vector
T (x, t) = { 11 22 33 12 23 13 } (22)
= [ Se (E, ) ]66  (23)
1.4 Potential Energy and Stiffness

Consider a system comprising an assemblage of linear springs, with stiffness ki , each with an
individual stretch, di . The total potential energy in the assemblage is
1X 2
U= ki di
2 i
If displacements of the assemblage of springs is denoted by a vector u, not necessarily equal
to the stretches in each spring, then the elastic potential energy may also be written
1 T
U (u) = u Ku
2
n
1X
= ui fi
2 i=1
n n
1X X
= ui Kij uj
2 i=1 j=1
where K is the stiffness matrix with respect to the coordinates u. The stiffness matrix K
relates the elastic forces fi to the collocated displacements, ui .
f1 = K11 u1 + + K1j uj + + K1N uN
fi = Ki1 u1 + + Kij uj + + KiN uN
fN = KN 1 u1 + + KN j uj + + KN N uN
A point force fi acting on an elastic body is the gradient of the elastic potential energy U
with respect to the collocated displacement ui

fi =U
ui
The i, j term of the stiffness matrix may therefore be found from the potential energy function
U (u),

Kij = U (u) (24)
ui uj

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 5

1.5 Strain Energy and Stiffness in Linear Elastic Continua

1Z
U (u) = (x, t)T (x, t) d (25)
2 Z
1
= (x, t)T Se (E, ) (x, t) d
2 Z
1
= u(t)T B(x)T Se (E, ) B(x)u(t) d
2
1 Z h i
= u(t)T B(x)T Se (E, ) B(x) d u(t) (26)
2 N N

Elastic element stiffness matrix


U
fe = = Ke u
u Z h i
Ke = B(x)T Se (E, ) B(x) d (27)
N N

1.6 Kinetic Energy and Mass

The impulse-momentum relationship states that


Z
f dt = (mu)
d
f = (mu)
dt !
d 1 2
f = mu
dt u 2
!
d
f = T ,
dt u

where T is the kinetic energy, and is assumed to be independent of u(t).

Consider a system comprising an assemblage of point masses, mi , each with an individual


velocity, vi . The total kinetic energy in the assemblage is
1X
T = mi vi2
2 i

If displacements of the assemblage of masses are defined by a generalized coordinate vector


u, not necessarily equal to the velocity coordinates, above, then the kinetic energy may also
be written
1 T
T (u) = u Mu
2
n n
1X X
= ui Mij uj
2 i=1 j=1

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6 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

where M is the constant mass matrix with respect to the generalized coordinates u. The
mass matrix M relates the inertial forces fi to the collocated accelerations, ui .

f1 = M11 u1 + + M1j uj + + M1N uN


fi = Mi1 u1 + + Mij uj + + MiN uN
fN = MN 1 u1 + + MN j uj + + MN N uN

The i, j term of the constant mass matrix may therefore be found from the kinetic energy
function T ,

Mij = T (u) = T (u) (28)
ui t uj ui uj

1.7 Inertial Energy and Mass in Deforming Continua

= 1Z
T (u) |u(x, t)|2 d (29)
2 Z
1
= u(x, t)T u(x, t) d
2 Z
1 T (x)T (x)u(t)
= u(t) d
2
1 T Z h i

= u(t) (x)T (x) d u(t) (30)
2 N N

Consistent mass matrix


T Z h i

= (x)T (x) d u(t) (31)
u N N
!
d T Z h i
(t)
fi = = (x)T (x) d u (32)
dt u N N
Z h i
M = (x)T (x) d (33)
N N

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 7

2 Bar Element Matrices

2D prismatic homogeneous isotropic truss bar.


Uniform uni-axial stress T = {xx , 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}T
Corresponding uni-axial strain T = (xx /E) {1, , , 0, 0, 0}T .
Incremental strain energy dU = 12 T  d = 21 xx xx d = 21 E2xx d

2.1 Bar Displacements

Figure 3. Truss bar element coordinates and displacements.

x x
   
ux (x, t) = 1 u1 (t) + u3 (t) (34)
L L
= x1 (x) u1 (t) + x3 (x) u3 (t) (35)
x x
   
uy (x, t) = 1 u2 (t) + u4 (t) (36)
L L
= y2 (x) u2 (t) + y4 (x) u4 (t) (37)

x x
" #
1 L
0 L
0
(x) = x x (38)
0 1 L
0 L

" #
ux (x, t)
= (x) u(t) (39)
uy (x, t)

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2.2 Bar Strain Energy and Elastic Stiffness Matrix

Strain-displacement relation

!2
ux 1 uy
xx = + (40)
x 2 x
1
= x1,x u1 + x3,x u3 + {y2,x u2 + y4,x u4 }2 (41)
2
  2
1 1 1 1 1
     
= u1 + u3 + u2 + u4 (42)
L L 2 L L
  2
1 1 1 1 1
   
= 0 0 u + u2 + u4 (43)
L L 2 L L
  2
1 1 1
 
= B u + u2 + u4 (44)
2 L L

1 1
 
B= 0 0 . (45)
L L

Strain energy and elastic stiffness

1 Z
U = xx E xx d (46)
2
Z L h i
Ke = BT E B A dx (47)
x=0
1/L2 0 1/L2

0
Z L
0 0 0 0


= EA dx (48)

x=0 1/L2 0 1/L2 0

0 0 0 0

1 0 1 0
EA 0 0 0 0

= (49)
L
1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 9

2.3 Bar Kinetic Energy and Mass Matrix

1 T Z h i

T = u (x)T (x) d u(t) (50)
2 N N
Z L h i
M = (x)T (x) A dx (51)
x=0
(1 Lx )2 (1 Lx )( Lx )

0 0
x 2
(1 L ) (1 Lx )( Lx )
Z L
0 0


= A dx (52)

x=0 ( Lx )(1 Lx ) 0 ( Lx )2 0

x x x 2
0 ( L )(1 L ) 0 (L)

2 0 1 0
1 0 2 0 1


= AL (53)
6
1 0 2 0

0 1 0 2

2.4 Bar Stiffness Matrix with Geometric Strain Effects

1 ZL
U = xx E xx A dx (54)
2 0
!2 2
EA Z L ux 1 uy
= + dx (55)
2 0 x 2 x
!2 !2 !4
EA Z L ux ux uy 1 uy
= + + dx (56)
2 0 x x x 4 x

Substitute
ux 1 1
= u1 + u3 (57)
x L L
uy 1 1
= u2 + u4 (58)
x L L
to obtain
EA 1
 
U= (u3 u1 )2 + (u3 u1 )(u4 u2 )2 (59)
2L L
So,

1 0 1 0 u1 0 0 0 0 u1
U EA 0 0 0 0
u2
EA(u3 u1 ) 0 1 0 1
u2


= + (60)
u L 1 0

1 0 u3

L2
0 0 0 0 u3


0 0 0 0 u4 0 1 0 1 u4
N
= Ke u + Kg u (61)
L

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3 Bernoulli-Euler Beam Element Matrices

2D prismatic homogeneous isotropic beam element, neglecting shear deformation and rotatory
inertia.

3.1 Bernoulli-Euler Beam Coordinates and Internal Displacements

Consider the geometry of a deformed beam. The functions ux (x) and uy (x) describe the
translation of points along the neutral axis of the beam as a function of the location along
the un-stretched neutral axis.

Figure 4. Beam element coordinates and displacements.

We will describe the deformation of the beam as a function of the end displacements (u1 , u2 , u4 , u5 )
and the end rotations (u3 , u6 ). In a dynamic context, these end displacements will change
with time.

6
X
ux (x, t) = xn (x) un (t)
n=1
X6
uy (x, t) = yn (x) un (t)
n=1

The functions xn (x) and yn (x) satisfy the boundary conditions at the end of the beam and
the differential equation describing bending of a Bernoulli-Euler beam loaded statically at
the nodal coordinates. In such beams the effects of shear deformation and rotatory inertia
are neglected. For extension of the neutral axis,

x
x1 (x) = 1
L
x
x4 (x) =
L
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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 11

and x2 = x3 = x5 = x6 = 0 along the neutral axis. For bending of the neutral axis,
2
x 3 x
  
y2 (x) = 1 3 +2
L L
 2  3 !
x x x
y3 (x) = 2 + L
L L L
 2  3
x x
y5 (x) = 3 2
L L
 2  3 !
x x
y6 (x) = + L
L L
and y1 = y4 = 0.
 x
1 L 0 0 x 0 0

 L
(x) = x
2 x
3 x x
2 x
3  x
2 x
3 
x
2 x
3  (62)
0 13 L
+2 L L
2 L
+ L
L 0 3 L
2 L
L
+ L
L

" #
ux (x, t)
= (x) u(t) (63)
uy (x, t)

These expressions are analytical solutions for the displacements of Bernoulli-Euler beams
loaded only with concentrated point loads and concentrated point moments at their ends.
Internal bending moments are linear within beams loaded only at their ends, and the beam
displacements may be expressed with cubic polynomials.

3.2 Bernoulli-Euler Beam Strain Energy and Elastic Stiffness Matrix

In extension, the elastic potential energy in a beam is the strain energy related to the uni-
form extensional strain, xx . If the strain is small, then the extensional strain within the
cross section is equal to an extension of the neutral axis, (ux /x), plus the bending strain,
( 2 uy /x2 )y.

ux 2 uy
xx = y
x x2
6 6
X X 2
= xn (x) un (x) y un
2 yn
(64)
n=1 x n=1 x
6 6
0 00
X X
= xn (x) un yn (x) y un
n=1 n=1
X6
= Bn (x, y) un
n=1
= B(x, y) u (65)

where
1 6y 12xy 4y 6xy 1 6y 12xy 2y 6xy
 
B(x, y) = , 3 , 3, , + 3 , 2 . (66)
L L2 L L L L L2 L L L

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12 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

The elastic stiffness matrix can be found directly from the strain energy of axial strains xx .
1 Z
U = xx E xx d (67)
2
Z L Z h i
Ke = B(x, y)T E B(x, y) dA dx. (68)
x=0 A

Note that this integral involves terms such as A y 2 dA and A ydA in which the origin of the
R R

coordinate axis is placed at the centroid of the section. The integral A y 2 dA is the bending
R
R
moment of inertia for the cross section, I, and the integral A ydA is zero.

It is also important to recognize that the elastic strain energy may be evaluated separately
for extension effects and bending effects. For extension, the elastic strain energy is
1Z L
U = EA (xx )2 dx
2 x=0
6
!2
1Z L X
0
= EA xn (x) un dx
2 x=0 n=1

and the ij stiffness coefficient (for indices 1 and 4) is


6
!2
1Z L X
0
Kij = EA xn (x) un dx
ui uj 2 x=0 n=1
Z L
0 0
= EA xi (x) xj (x) dx. (69)
x=0

In bending, the elastic potential energy in a Bernoulli-Euler beam is the strain energy related
to the curvature, z .
6 6
2 uy X 2 X
00
z = = yn (x) un = yn (x) un
x2 n=1 x 2
n=1

The elastic strain energy for pure bending is


1Z L
U = EI (z )2 dx
2 x=0
6
!2
1Z L X
00
= EI yn (x) un dx
2 x=0 n=1

and the ij stiffness coefficient (for indices 2,3,5 and 6) is


6
!2
1Z L X
00
Kij = EI yn (x) un dx
ui uj 2 x=0 n=1
Z L
00 00
= EI yi (x) yj (x) dx. (70)
x=0

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 13

3.3 Bernoulli-Euler Beam Kinetic Energy and Mass Matrix

The kinetic energy of a particle within a beam is half the mass of the particle, Adx, times
its velocity, u, squared. For velocities along the direction of the neutral axis,
6
xn (x) u n ,
X
ux (x) =
n=1

The kinetic energy function and the mass matrix may be by substituting equation (62) into
equations (30) and (33).
1 T Z h i

T = u (x)T (x) d u(t) (71)
2 N N
Z L h i
M = (x)T (x) A dx (72)
x=0
It is important to recognize that kinetic energy and mass associated with extensional velocities
may be determined separately from those associated with transverse velocities. The kinetic
energy for extension of the neutral axis is
1Z L
T = A (ux )2 dx
2 x=0
6
!2
1Z L X

= A xn (x) un dx
2 x=0 n=1

and the ij mass coefficient (for indices 1 and 4) is


6
!2
1Z L
xn (x) u n
X
Mij = A dx
u i u j 2 x=0 n=1
Z L
= A xi (x) xj (x) dx. (73)
x=0

For velocities transverse to the neutral axis,


6
yn (x) u n ,
X
uy (x) =
n=1

the kinetic energy for velocity across the neutral axis is


1Z L
T = A (uy )2 dx
2 x=0
6
!2
1Z L
yn (x) u n
X
= A dx
2 x=0 n=1

and the ij mass coefficient (for indices 2,3,5 and 6) is


6
!2
1Z L
yn (x) u n
X
Mij = A dx
u i u j 2 x=0 n=1
Z L
= A yi (x) yj (x) dx. (74)
x=0

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3.4 Bernoulli-Euler Stiffness Matrix with Geometric Strain Effects

The axial strain in a Bernoulli-Euler beam including the geometric strain is


!2
ux 2 uy 1 uy
xx = 2
y+ (75)
x x 2 x

The potential energy with geometric strain effects is


Z L Z
1
U = xx E xx dA dx (76)
2 x=0 A
2 !2
ux 2 uy
Z L
1 1 uy
Z 
= E 2
y+ dx (77)
2 0 A x x 2 x
Z L
1 1
Z  
= E u2x,x 2ux,x uy,xx y + ux,x u2y,x + u2y,xx y 2 uy,xx u2y,x y + u4y,x dAdx (78)
2 0 A 4

y 2 dA = I and neglect u4y,x so that


R R
Note that A ydA = 0 and A

1 ZL   1Z L   Z L  
U = EA u2x,x dx + EI u2y,xx dx + EA ux,x u2y,x dx . (79)
2 0 2 0 0

Substitute
6
0
X
uy,x = yn (x) un (80)
n=1
6
00
X
uy,xx = yn (x) un (81)
n=1
6
X
0 N
ux,x = xn un = (82)
n=1 EA

and differentiate with respect to ui and uj to obtain,


Z L Z L Z L
0 0 00 00 0 0
Kij = EA xi xj dx + EI yi (x)yj (x) dx + N yi (x)yj (x) dx (83)
0 0 0

so that,
N
K = Ke + Kg (84)
L

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 15

3.5 Bernoulli-Euler Beam Element Stiffness and Mass Matrices

For prismatic homogeneous isotropic beams, substituting the expressions for the functions
xn and yn into equations (69) - (74), or substituting equation (66) into equation (68) and
(62) to equation (72) results in element stiffness matrices Ke , M, and Kg .


EA
L
0 0 EA
L
0 0



12EI 6EI
0 12EI 6EI

L3 L2 L3 L2




4EI
6EI 2EI


L
0 L2 L


Ke =


(85)

EA

L
0 0


sym

12EI
6EI

L3 L 2




4EI
L

140 0 0 70 0 0



156 22L 0 54 13L





4L2 2
3L


0 13L
AL
M = (86)

420



140 0 0



sym

156 22L





4L2

0 0 0 0 0 0



6 L L
0 56

5 10 10




2L2 L 2
0 10 L30


15
N
Kg = (87)

L



0 0 0


sym

6 L
10

5




2
2L
15

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16 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

4 Timoshenko Beam Element Matrices


2D prismatic homogeneous isotropic beam element, including shear deformation and rotatory
inertia

Consider again the geometry of a deformed beam. When shear deformations are included
sections that are originally perpendicular to the neutral axis may not be perpendicular to
the neutral axis after deformation. The functions ux (x) and uy (x) describe the translation of

Figure 5. Deformation of beam element including shear deformation.

points along the neutral axis of the beam as a function of the location along the un-stretched
neutral axis. If the beam is not slender (length/depth < 5), then shear strains will contribute
significantly to the strain energy within the beam. The deformed shape of slender beams is
different from the deformed shape of stocky beams.

The beam carries a bending moment M (x) related to axial strain xx and a shear force, S
related to shear strain xy . The potential energy has a bending strain component and a shear
strain component.
1Z T
U =  d
2 Z
1 1Z
= xx xx d + xy xy d
2 2
1 Z L Z M (x)y M (x)y 1 Z L Z SQ(y) SQ(y)
= dA dx + dA dx
2 0 A I EI 2 0 A Ib(y) GIb(y)
1 Z L M (x)2 Z 2 1 Z L S 2 Z Q(y)2
= y dA dx + dA dx
2 0 EI 2 A 2 0 GI 2 A b(y)2
1 Z L M (x)2 1 Z L S2
= dx + dx (88)
2 0 EI 2 0 G(A/)
where the shear area coefficient reduces the cross section area to account for the non-uniform
distribution of shear stresses in the cross section,
A Z Q(y)2
= 2 dA .
I A b(y)2
For solid rectangular sections = 6/5 and for solid circular sections = 10/9 [2, 3, 4, 5, 8].

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 17

4.1 Timoshenko Beam Coordinates and Internal Displacements


(including shear deformation effects)

The transverse deformation of a beam with shear and bending strains may be separated into
a portion related to shear deformation and a portion related to bending deformation,

uy (x, t) = u(b)y (x) + u(s)y (x) (89)

where
x x
   
EIu00(b)y (x) = M (x) = M1 1 + M2 (90)
L L
1
G(A/)u0(s)y (x) = S(x) = (M1 + M2 ) (91)
L

It can be shown that the following shape functions satisfy the Timoshenko beam equations
(equations (89), (90) and (91)) for transverse displacements.
" #
1 x 2 x 3 x
     
y2 (x) = 13 +2 + 1
1+ L L L
"  2  3  2 ! #
L x x x 1 x x
y3 (x) = 2 + +
1+ L L L 2 L L
"   #
x 2
 3
1 x x
y5 (x) = 3 2 +
1+ L L L
"    2 ! #
L x 2 x 3 1 x x
 
y6 (x) = +
1+ L L 2 L L

The term gives the relative importance of the shear deformations to the bending deforma-
tions,  2
12EI r
= 2
= 24(1 + ) , (92)
G(A/)L L
q
where r is the radius of gyration of the cross section, r = I/A, is Poissons ratio. Shear
deformation effects are significant for beams which have a length-to-depth ratio less than 5.
To neglect shear deformation, set = 0. These displacement functions are exact for frame
elements with constant shear forces S and linearly varying bending moment distributions,
M (x), in which the strain energy has both a shear stress component and a normal stress
component,
6
!2 6
!2
1Z L X
00 1Z L X
0
U= EI (b)yn (x)un dx + G(A/) (s)yn (x)un dx (93)
2 0 n=1 2 0 n=1

where the bending and shear components of the shape functions, (b)yn (x) and (s)yn (x) are:

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18 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

"  #
1 x 2 x 3
  
(b)y2 (x) = 13 +2
1+ L L
x
 
(s)y2 (x) = 1
1+" L
 2  3  2 ! #
L x x x 1 x x
(b)y3 (x) = 2 + + 2
1+ L L L 2 L L
L 1 x
 
(s)y3 (x) =
1 + "2 L
 2  3 #
1 x x
(b)y5 (x) = 3 2
1+ L L
x
 
(s)y5 (x) =
1 + "L
 2  3  2 ! #
L x x 1 x
(b)y6 (x) = + +
1+ L L 2 L
L 1x
 
(s)y6 (x) =
1+ 2L

4.2 Timoshenko Beam Element Stiffness Matrices

The geometric stiffness matrix for a Timoshenko beam element may be derived as was done
with the Bernoulli-Euler beam element from the potential energy of linear and geometric
strain,
Z L
0 0
Kij = EA xi (x)xj (x) dx
0
Z L
00 00
+ EI (b)yi (x)(b)yj (x) dx
0
Z L
0 0
+ G(A/) (s)yi (x)(s)yj (x) dx
0
Z L
0 0
+ N yi (x)yj (x) dx (94)
0

where the displacement shape functions (x) are provided in section 4.1.

CC BY-NC-ND H.P. Gavin


Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 19

4.3 Timoshenko Beam Element Stiffness and Mass Matrices,


(including shear deformation effects but not rotatory inertia)

For prismatic homogeneous isotropic beams, substituting the previous expressions for the
functions xn (x) and (b)yn (x), and (s)yn (x) into equation (94) and (72), results in the
Timoshenko element elastic stiffness matrices Ke , mass matrix M, and geometric stiffness
matrix Kg EA
EA

L
0 0 L
0 0



12 EI 6 EI 12 EI 6 EI

1+ L3 1+ L2
0 1+ L3 1+ L2



4+ EI 6 EI 2 EI
1+


1+ L
0 L2 1+ L


Ke = (95)



EA

L
0 0



sym

12 EI 6 EI
1+

1+ L3 2
L




4+ EI
1+ L

280 0 0 140 0 0


312 + 588 + 2802 (44 + 77 + 352 )L 0 108 + 252 + 1752 (26 + 63 + 352 )L



(8 + 14 + 72 )L2 0 (26 + 63 + 352 )L 2
(6 + 14 + 7 )L 2
AL
M =
(96)
840

280 0 0

sym
312 + 588 + 2802 (44 + 77 + 352 )L



(8 + 14 + 72 )L2

0 0 0 0 0 0



6/5+2+2 L/10 6/522 L/10

(1+)2 (1+)2
0 (1+)2 (1+)2





2L2 /15+L2 /6+L2 2 /12 L/10 L2 /30L2 /6L2 2 /12
0

(1+)2 (1+)2 (1+)2

N
Kg = (97)


L

0 0 0



sym

6/5+2+2 L/10
(1+)2 2

(1+)


2 2 2 2
2L /15+L /6+L /12

(1+)2

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20 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

4.4 Timoshenko Beam Element Mass Matrix


(including rotatory inertia but not shear deformation effects)

Consider again the geometry of a deformed beam with linearly-varying axial beam displace-
ments outside of the neutral axis. The functions ux (x, y) and uy (x, y) now describe the

Figure 6. Deformation of beam element showing axial-direction displacements ux (x, y, t) outside


the neutral axis.

translation of points anywhere within the beam, as a function of the location within the
beam. We will again describe these displacements in terms of a set of shape functions,
xn (x, y) and yn (x), and the end displacements u1 , , u6 .
6
X
ux (x, y, t) = xn (x, y) un (t)
n=1
X6
uy (x, t) = yn (x) un (t)
n=1

The shape functions for transverse displacements yn (x) are the same as the shape functions
yn (x) used previously. The shape functions for axial displacements along the neutral axis,
x1 (x, y) and x4 (x, y) are also the same as the shape functions x1 (x) and x4 (x) used
previously. To account for axial displacements outside of the neutral axis, four new shape
functions are derived from the assumption that plane sections remain plane, ux (x, y) =
u0(b)y (x)y.
 !
x x 2 y

0
x2 (x, y) = y2 y= 6
L L L
 2 !
0 x x
x3 (x, y) = y3 y= 1 + 4 3 y
L L
 2 !
0 x x y
x5 (x, y) = y5 y= 6 +
L L L
 2 !
0 x x
x6 (x, y) = y6 y= 2 3 y
L L

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 21

Because yn , x1 and x4 are unchanged, the stiffness matrix is also unchanged. The kinetic
energy of the beam, including axial and transverse effects is now,
6
!2 6
!2
1 Z L Z h/2 1Z L
xn (x, y) u n yn (x) u n
X X
T = b(y) dy dx + A dx
2 x=0 y=h/2 n=1 2 x=0 n=1

and the mass matrix coefficients are found from



Mij = T (u)
u i u j

Evaluating equation (28) using the new shape functions x2 , x3 , x5 , and x6 , results in a
mass matrix incorporating rotatory inertia.

1 1

0 0 0 0
3 6


13 6 r2 11 1 r2 9 6 r2 13 2
1 r
+ L + 0 420 L+

35 5 L2 210 10 L 70 5 L2 10 L




1 2 2 13 1 r2
L2


105
+ 15
r 0 420
L + 10 L
0

M = AL


(98)

1

sym 3
0 0




13 6 r2 11 2
1 r
+ 210 L+

35 5 L2 10 L




1 2 2
105
L2 + 15
r

Beam element mass matrices including the effects of shear deformation on rotatory inertia
are more complicated. Refer to p 295 of Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis, by J.S.
Przemieniecki (Dover Pub., 1985).

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22 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

5 Coordinate Transformations for Bars and Beams


5.1 Beam Element Stiffness Matrix in Local Coordinates, K
3EI 3EI 6EI 12EI
L3
L2
L2
L3


EI 3EI 3EI 4EI 6EI
L
L2
L
L
L2

EI 2EI 6EI
L
L
L2


3EI 3EI 6EI 12EI
L3
L2
L2
L3


EA






N1





L

0 0 EA
L 0 0





u1





















12EI 6EI
12EI 6EI

V1 0 u2





L3 L2 L3 L2
























4EI
6EI 2EI

M1 0 u3





L L2 L









=




EA

N2 0 0 u4



















L























sym









12EI
6EI

V2 u5





L3 L2


























4EI
M2 u6






L

f = K u

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 23

5.2 Beam Element Stiffness Matrix in Global Coordinates, K

Geometric relationship between u and u: u = T u


u1 = u1 cos + u2 sin u2 = u1 sin + u2 cos u3 = u3
where
c s 0 x2 x1
c = cos =

s c 0 0




L
0 0 1


T=




c s 0



0 s c 0

y2 y1
s = sin =
L

0 0 1

The stiffness matrix in global coordinates is K = TT K T

EA 2 EA
EA EA

2
L c L cs L c L cs
12EI 2 12EI
+ L3 s L3 cs L2 s L3 s + L3 cs 6EI
6EI 12EI 2 12EI
L2 s






EA 2
EA EA

2
L s L cs L s



+ 12EI
L3 c
2 6EI
L2 c + 12EI 12EI 2
L3 cs L3 c
6EI
L2 c






4EI 6EI
6EI 2EI

L2 s L2 c


L L

K=





EA 2 EA
L c L cs



+ 12EI 2
12EI 6EI

L3 s L3 cs L2 s






sym


EA 2
L s



12EI 2
6EI


+ L3 c L2 c






4EI
L

f =Ku

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24 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

5.3 Beam Element Consistent Mass Matrix in Local Coordinates, M








N1







140 0 0 70 0 0





u1





















u2

V1 156 22L 0 54 13L

































4L2 13L 3L2 u3

M1 0








AL








=


420


u4

N2 140 0 0

































sym









u5

V2 156 22L
































u6

4L2

M2






f = M u

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 25

5.4 Beam Element Consistent Mass Matrix in Global Coordinates, M

Geometric relationship between u and u: u = T u

u1 = u1 cos + u2 sin u2 = u1 sin + u2 cos u3 = u3

where
c s 0 x2 x1
c = cos =

s c 0 0




L
0 0 1


T=




c s 0



0 s c 0

y2 y1
s = sin =
L

0 0 1

The consistent mass matrix in global coordinates is M = TT M T



140c2 16cs 22sL 70c2 16cs 13sL
+15s2 +54s2



140s2 70s2


22cL 16cs 13cL




+156c2 +54c2


4L2 13sL 13cL 2
3L


AL
M=


420





140c2 16cs 22sL
+156s2


sym

140s2 22cL



+156c2




2
4L

f =Mu

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26 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

6 2D Plane-Stress and Plane-Strain Rectangular Element Matrices


2D, isotropic, homogeneous element, with uniform thickness h.

Approximate element stiffness and mass matrices based on assumed distribution of internal
displacements.

6.1 2D Rectangular Element Coordinates and Internal Displacements

Consider the geometry of a rectangle with edges aligned with a Cartesian coordinate system.
(0 x a, 0 y b) The functions ux (x, y, t) and uy (x, y, t) describe the in-plane
displacements as a function of the location within the element.

Figure 7. 2D rectangular element coordinates and displacements.

Internal displacements are assumed to vary linearly within the element.


x xy y
ux (x, y, t) = c1 + c2 + c3 + c4
a ab b
x xy y
uy (x, y, t) = c5 + c6 + c7 + c8
a ab b
CC BY-NC-ND H.P. Gavin
Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 27

The eight coefficients c1 , , c8 may be found uniquely from matching the displacement
coordinates at the corners.

ux (a, b) = u1 , uy (a, b) = u2
ux (0, b) = u3 , uy (0, b) = u4
ux (0, 0) = u5 , uy (0, 0) = u6
ux (a, 0) = u7 , uy (a, 0) = u8

resulting in internal displacements

ux (x, y, t) = xy u1 (t) + (1 x)y u3 (t) + (1 x)(1 y) u5 (t) + x(1 y) u7 (t) (99)


uy (x, y, t) = xy u2 (t) + (1 x)y u4 (t) + (1 x)(1 y) u6 (t) + x(1 y) u8 (t) (100)

where x = x/a (0 x 1) and y = y/b (0 y 1) so that


" #
xy 0 (1 x)y 0 (1 x)(1 y) 0 x(1 y) 0
(x, y) =
0 xy 0 (1 x)y 0 (1 x)(1 y) 0 x(1 y)
(101)
and " #
ux (x, y, t)
= (x, y) u(t) (102)
uy (x, y, t)

Strain-displacement relations

ux 1 ux
xx = =
x a x
uy 1 uy
yy = =
y b y
ux uy 1 ux 1 uy
xy = + = +
y x b y a x
so that

u1


u2

u3

y/a (1 y)/a (1 y)/a

 y/a 0 0 0 0
xx

u4
yy = 0 x/b 0 (1 x)/b 0 (1 x)/b 0 x/b

u5


xy x/b y/a (1 x)/b y/a (1 x)/b (1 y)/a x/b (1 y)/a
u6




u7

u8
or
(x, y, t) = B(x, y) u(t)

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28 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

6.2 Stress-Strain relationships

6.2.1 Plane-Stress

In-plane behavior of thin plates, zz = xz = yz = 0


For plane-stress elasticity, the stress-strain relationship simplifies to

1 0 
xx E xx
yy = 1 0 (103)
yy

1 2 1
xy 0 0 2
(1 ) xy
or
= Sp  (104)

6.2.2 Plane-Strain

In-plane behavior of continua, zz = xz = yz = 0


For plane-strain elasticity, the stress-strain relationship simplifies to

1 0 
xx E xx
yy = 1 0 yy
(105)
(1 + )(1 2) 1

xy 0 0 2
xy
or
= Sp  (106)

6.3 2D Rectangular Element Strain Energy and Elastic Stiffness Matrix

1Z
V = (x, y, t)T (x, y, t) h dx dy (107)
2 A
1 T
Z h i
= u(t) B(x, y)T Se (E, ) B(x, y) h dx dy u(t) (108)
2 A 88

Elastic element stiffness matrix


Z h i
Ke = B(x, y)T Se (E, ) B(x, y) h dx dy (109)
A 88

6.4 2D Rectangular Element Kinetic Energy and Mass Matrix

= 1Z
T (u) |u(x, y, t)|2 h dx dy (110)
2 A
1 TZ h i

= u(t) (x, y)T (x, y) h dx dy u(t) (111)
2 A 88

Consistent mass matrix


Z h i
M = (x, y)T (x, y) h dx dy (112)
A 88

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 29

6.5 2D Rectangular Plane-Stress and Plane-Strain Element Stiffness and Mass Matrices

6.5.1 Plane-Stress stiffness matrix

Eh
Ke = 12(1 2 )


4c + kA kB 4c + kA /2 kC 2c kA /2 kB 2c kA kC


kB 4/c + kD kC 2/c kD kB 2/c kD /2 kC 4/c + kD /2



4c + kA /2 kC 4c + kA kB 2c kA kC 2c kA /2 kB



kC 2/c kD kB 4/c + kD kC 4/c + kD /2 kB 2/c kD /2



2c kA /2 kB 2c kA kC 4c + kA kB 4c + kA /2 kC



kB 2/c kD /2 kC 4/c + kD /2 kB 4/c + kD kC 2/c kD



2c kA kC 2c kA /2 kB 4c + kA /2 kC 4c + kA kB

kC 4/c + kD /2 kB 2/c kD /2 kC 2/c kD kB 4/c + kD

where c = b/a and


kA = (2/c)(1 )
kB = (3/2)(1 + )
kC = (3/2)(1 3)
kD = (2c)(1 )

6.5.2 Plane-Strain stiffness matrix

Eh
Ke = 12(1+)(12)

kA + kB 3/2 kA + kB /2 6 3/2 kA /2 kB /2 3/2 kA /2 kB 3/2 6



3/2 kC + kD 3/2 6 kC /2 kD 3/2 kC /2 kD /2 6 3/2 kC + kD /2


kA + kB /2 3/2 6 kA + kB 3/2 kA /2 kB 6 3/2 kA /2 kB /2 3/2

6 3/2 kC /2 kD 3/2 kC + kD 3/2 6 kC + kD /2 3/2 kC /2 kD /2


kA /2 kB /2 3/2 kA /2 kB 3/2 6 kA + kB 3/2 kA + kB /2 6 3/2

3/2 kC /2 kD /2 6 3/2 kC + kD /2 3/2 kC + kD 3/2 6 kC /2 kD



kA /2 kB 6 3/2 kA /2 kB /2 3/2 kA + kB /2 3/2 6 k A + kB 3/2
3/2 6 kC + kD /2 3/2 kC /2 kD /2 6 3/2 kC /2 kD 3/2 kC + kD

where c = b/a and


kA = (4c)(1 )
kB = (2/c)(1 2)
kC = (4/c)(1 )
kD = (2c)(1 2)

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30 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

6.5.3 Mass matrix

The element mass matrix for the plane-stress and plane-strain elements is the same.

4 0 2 0 1 0 2 0


0 4 0 2 0 1 0 2

2 0 4 0 2 0 1 0



abh 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 1
M =


(113)
36
1 0 2 0 4 0 2 0

0 1 0 2 0 4 0 2




2 0 1 0 2 0 4 0

0 2 0 1 0 2 0 4

Note, again, that these element stiffness matrices are approximations based on an assumed
distribution of internal displacements.

7 Element damping matrices


Damping in vibrating structures can arise from diverse linear and nonlinear phenomena.

If the structure is in a fluid (liquid or gas), the motion of the structure is resisted by the
fluid viscosity. At low speeds (low Reynolds numbers), this damping effect can be taken
to be linear in the velocity, and the damping forces are proportional to the total rate of
displacement (not the rate of deformation). If the fluid is flowing past the structure at high
flow rates (high Reynolds numbers), the motion of the structure can interact with the flowing
medium. This interaction affects the dynamics (natural frequencies and damping ratios) of
the coupled structure-fluid system. Potentially, at certain flow speeds, the motion of the
structure can increase the transfer of energy from the flow into the structure, giving rise to
an aero-elastic instabililty.

Damping can also arise within structural systems from friction forces internal to the structure
(the micro-slip within joints and connections) inherent material viscoelasticity, and inelas-
tic material behavior. In many structural systems, a type of damping in which damping
stresses are proportional to strain and in-phase with strain-rate are assumed. Such so-called
complex-stiffness damping or structural damping is commonly used to model the damp-
ing in soils. Fundamentally, this kind of damping is neither elastic nor viscous. The force-
displacement behavior does not follow the same path in loading and unloading, behavior
but instead follows a butterfly shaped path. Nevertheless, this type of damping is com-
monly linearized as linear viscous damping, in which forces are proportional to the rate of
deformation.

In materials in which stress depends on strain and strain rate, a Voigt viscoelasticity model
may be assumed, in which stress is proportional to both strain  and strain-rate ,
= [ Se (E, ) ]  + [ Sv () ] 

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Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 31

The internal virtual work of real viscous stresses Sv  moving through virtual strains  is
Z
=
W (u) (x, t)T (x, t) d (114)
Z
= t)T Sv () (x, t) d
(x,
Z
= T B(x)T Sv () B(x)u(t) d
u(t)

Z h i
T
= u(t) B(x)T Sv () B(x) d u(t) (115)
N N

Given a material viscous damping matrix, Sv , a structural element damping matrix can be
determined for any type of structural element, through the integral in equation (115), as has
been done for stiffness and mass element matrices earlier in this document. In doing so, it
may be assumed that the internal element displacements ui (x, t) (and the matrices [] and
[B]) are unaffected by the presence of damping, though this is not strictly true. Further,
the parameters in Sv () are often dependent of the frequency of the strain and the strain
amplitude. Damping behavior that is amplitude-dependent is outside the domain of linear
analysis.

7.1 Rayleigh damping matrices for structural systems

In an assembled model for a structural system, a damping matrix that is proportional to


systems mass and stiffness matrices is called a Rayleigh damping matrix.

Cs = Ms + Ks
n 21

21 n1 1
RT Cs R =
...
=
...
+ ...
(116)

2N nN 1 n 2N
where n 2j is an eigen-value (squared natural frequency) and the columns of R are mass-
normalized eigen-vectors (modal vectors) of the generalized eigen-problem

[Ks n 2j Ms ]rj = 0 . (117)

From equations (116) it can be seen that the damping ratios satisfy
1
j = + nj
2 nj 2
and the Rayleigh damping coefficients ( and ) can be determined so that the damping
ratios j have desired values at two frequencies. The damping ratios modeled by Rayleigh
damping can get very large for low and high frequencies. Rayleigh damping grows to as
0 and increases linearly with for large values of . Note that the Rayleigh damping
matrix has the same banded form as the mass and stiffness matrices. In other words, with
Rayleigh damping, internal damping forces are applied only between coordinates that are
connected by structural elements.

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32 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

7.2 Caughey damping matrices for structural systems

The Caughey damping matrix is a generalization of the Rayleigh damping matrix. Caughey
damping matrices can involve more than two parameters and can therefore be used to provide
a desired amount of damping over a range of frequencies. The Caughey damping matrix for
an assembled model for a structural system is

j=n
X2
Cs = Ms j (M1
s Ks )
j

j=n1

where the index range limits n1 and n2 can be positive or negative, as long as n1 < n2 . As
with the Rayleigh damping matrixl, the Caughey damping matrix may also be diagonalized
by the real eigen-vector matrix R. The coefficients j are related to the damping ratios, k ,
by
1 1 j=n
X2
k = j k2j
2 k j=n1

The coefficeints j may be selected so that a set of specified damping ratios k are obtained
at a corresponding set of frequencies k . If n1 = 0 and n2 = 1, then the Caughey damp-
ing matrix is the same as the Rayleigh damping matrix. For other values of n1 and n2 the
Caughey damping matrix loses the banded structure of the Rayleigh damping matrix, imply-
ing the presence of damping forces between coordinates that are not connected by structural
elements.

Structural systems with classical damping have real-valued modes rj that depend only on
the systems mass and stiffness matrices (equation (117)), and can be analyzed as a sys-
tem of uncoupled second-order ordinary differential equations. The responses of the system
coordinates can be approximated via a modal expansion of a select subset of modes. The
convenience of the application of modal-superpostion to the transient response analysis of
structures is the primary motivation

7.3 Rayleigh damping matrices for structural elements

An element Rayleigh damping matrix may be easily computed from the elements mass and
stiffness matrix C = M+K and assembled into a damping matrix for the structural system
Cs . The element damping is presumed to increases linearly with the mass and the stiffness of
the element; larger elements will have greater mass, stiffness, and damping. System damping
matrices assembled from such element damping matrices will have the same banding as the
mass and stiffness matrices; internal damping forces will occur only between coordinates
connected by a structural element. However, such an assembled damping matrix will not be
diagonizeable by the real eigenvectors of the structrual system mass matrix Ms and stiffness
matrx Ks .

CC BY-NC-ND H.P. Gavin


Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 33

7.4 Linear viscous Damping elements

Some structures incorporate components designed to provide supplemental damping. These


supplemental damping components can dissipate energy through viscosity, friction, or inelas-
tic deformation. In a linear viscous damping element (a dash-pot), damping forces are linear
in the velocity across the nodes of the element and the forces act along a line between the
two nodes of the element. The element node damping forces fd are related to the element
node velocities vd through the damping coefficeint cd
" # " #" #
fd1 cd cd vd1
=
fd2 cd cd vd2

The damping matrix for a linear viscous damper connecting a node at (x1 , y1 ) to a node at
(x2 , y2 ) is found from the element coordinate transformation,
" #T " #" #
c s 0 0 0 0 cd cd c s 0 0 0 0
C66 =
0 0 0 c s 0 cd cd 0 0 0 c s 0

where c = (x2 x1 )/L and s = (y2 y1 )/L. Structural systems with supplemental damping
components generally have non-classical system damping matrices.

References
[1] Clough, Ray W., and Penzien, Joseph, Dynamics of Structures, 2nd ed. (revised), Com-
puters and Structures, 2003.

[2] Cowper, G.R., Shear Coefficient in Timoshenko Beam Theory, J. Appl. Mech.,
33(2)(1966):335-346

[3] Dong, S.B, Alpdogan, C., and Taciroglu, E. Much ado about shear correction factors in
Timoshenko beam theory, Int. J. Solids & Structures, 47(2010):1651-1655.

[4] Gruttman, F., and Wagner, W., Shear correction factors in Timoshenkos beam theory
for arbitrary shaped cross-sections, Comp. Mech. 27(2001):199-207.

[5] Kaneko, T., An experimental study of the Timoshenkos shear coefficient for flexurally
vibrating beams, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 11 (1978): 1979-1988;

[6] Paz, Mario, Structural Dynamics Theory and Computation, Chapman & Hall, 2000.

[7] Przemieniecki, J.S., Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis, Dover, 1985. ?

[8] Rosinger, H.E., and Ritchie, I.G., On Timoshenkos correction for shear in vibrating
isotropic beams, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 10 (1977): 14611466.

CC BY-NC-ND H.P. Gavin