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CEE 541. Structural Dynamics

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Duke University

Henri P. Gavin

Fall 2016

1 Preliminaries

This document describes the formulation of stiffness and mass matrices for structural elements

such as truss bars, beams, plates, and cables(?). The formulation of each element involves the

determination of gradients of potential and kinetic energy functions with respect to a set of

coordinates defining the displacements at the ends, or nodes, of the elements. The potential

and kinetic energy of the functions are therefore written in terms of these nodal displacements

(i.e., generalized coordinates). To do so, the distribution of strains and velocities within the

element must be written in terms of nodal coordinates as well. Both of these distributions

may be derived from the distribution of internal displacements within the solid element.

1.1 Displacements

2 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

can be expressed in terms of the displacements of a set of nodal displacements, un (t) (n =

1, , N ) and a corresponding set of shape functions in .

N

X

ui (x, t) = in (x1 , x2 , x3 ) un (t) (1)

n=1

= i (x) u(t) (2)

u(x, t) = [(x)]3N u(t) (3)

ui (x, t)

ii (x, t) = (4)

xi

ui (x, t) uj (x, t)

ij (x, t) = + (5)

xj xi

(6)

Displacement gradient

N

ui (x) X

= in (x1 , x2 , x3 ) un (t) (7)

xj n=1 xj

N

X

ui,j (x) = in,j (x) un (t) (8)

n=1

Strain-displacement relations

N

X

ii (x, t) = in,i (x) un (t) (9)

n=1

XN

ij (x, t) = (in,j (x) + jn,i (x)) un (t) (10)

n=1

Strain vector

T (x, t) = { 11 22 33 12 23 13 } (11)

(x, t) = [ B(x) ]6N u(t) (12)

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 3

direction (dux = 0).

!!!

duy

(dx + x) cos arctan = dx (13)

dx

! !!!

x duy

1+ cos arctan = 1 (14)

dx dx

!!

x duy

= csc arctan 1 (15)

dx dx

!2

x 1 duy

xx = (16)

dx 2 dx

The approximation is accurate to within -0.01% for duy /dx < 0.01, -1.0% for duy /dx < 0.20,

and to within -0.1% for duy /dx < 0.07.

!2 !2

ui 1 uj 1 uk

ii = + + (17)

xi 2 xi 2 xi

1 1

= ui,i + u2j,i + u2k,i (18)

2 2

ui uj ui uj uj ui

ij = + + + (19)

xj xi xj xj xi xi

= ui,j + uj,i + ui,j uj,j + uj,i ui,i (20)

4 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

11

1

11

22 1 22

33 E 1 33

=

1

(21)

12

(1 + )(1 2)

2

12

1

23 23

2

1

13 13

2

Stress vector

T (x, t) = { 11 22 33 12 23 13 } (22)

= [ Se (E, ) ]66 (23)

1.4 Potential Energy and Stiffness

Consider a system comprising an assemblage of linear springs, with stiffness ki , each with an

individual stretch, di . The total potential energy in the assemblage is

1X 2

U= ki di

2 i

If displacements of the assemblage of springs is denoted by a vector u, not necessarily equal

to the stretches in each spring, then the elastic potential energy may also be written

1 T

U (u) = u Ku

2

n

1X

= ui fi

2 i=1

n n

1X X

= ui Kij uj

2 i=1 j=1

where K is the stiffness matrix with respect to the coordinates u. The stiffness matrix K

relates the elastic forces fi to the collocated displacements, ui .

f1 = K11 u1 + + K1j uj + + K1N uN

fi = Ki1 u1 + + Kij uj + + KiN uN

fN = KN 1 u1 + + KN j uj + + KN N uN

A point force fi acting on an elastic body is the gradient of the elastic potential energy U

with respect to the collocated displacement ui

fi =U

ui

The i, j term of the stiffness matrix may therefore be found from the potential energy function

U (u),

Kij = U (u) (24)

ui uj

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 5

1Z

U (u) = (x, t)T (x, t) d (25)

2 Z

1

= (x, t)T Se (E, ) (x, t) d

2 Z

1

= u(t)T B(x)T Se (E, ) B(x)u(t) d

2

1 Z h i

= u(t)T B(x)T Se (E, ) B(x) d u(t) (26)

2 N N

U

fe = = Ke u

u Z h i

Ke = B(x)T Se (E, ) B(x) d (27)

N N

Z

f dt = (mu)

d

f = (mu)

dt !

d 1 2

f = mu

dt u 2

!

d

f = T ,

dt u

velocity, vi . The total kinetic energy in the assemblage is

1X

T = mi vi2

2 i

u, not necessarily equal to the velocity coordinates, above, then the kinetic energy may also

be written

1 T

T (u) = u Mu

2

n n

1X X

= ui Mij uj

2 i=1 j=1

6 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

where M is the constant mass matrix with respect to the generalized coordinates u. The

mass matrix M relates the inertial forces fi to the collocated accelerations, ui .

fi = Mi1 u1 + + Mij uj + + MiN uN

fN = MN 1 u1 + + MN j uj + + MN N uN

The i, j term of the constant mass matrix may therefore be found from the kinetic energy

function T ,

Mij = T (u) = T (u) (28)

ui t uj ui uj

= 1Z

T (u) |u(x, t)|2 d (29)

2 Z

1

= u(x, t)T u(x, t) d

2 Z

1 T (x)T (x)u(t)

= u(t) d

2

1 T Z h i

= u(t) (x)T (x) d u(t) (30)

2 N N

T Z h i

= (x)T (x) d u(t) (31)

u N N

!

d T Z h i

(t)

fi = = (x)T (x) d u (32)

dt u N N

Z h i

M = (x)T (x) d (33)

N N

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 7

Uniform uni-axial stress T = {xx , 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}T

Corresponding uni-axial strain T = (xx /E) {1, , , 0, 0, 0}T .

Incremental strain energy dU = 12 T d = 21 xx xx d = 21 E2xx d

x x

ux (x, t) = 1 u1 (t) + u3 (t) (34)

L L

= x1 (x) u1 (t) + x3 (x) u3 (t) (35)

x x

uy (x, t) = 1 u2 (t) + u4 (t) (36)

L L

= y2 (x) u2 (t) + y4 (x) u4 (t) (37)

x x

" #

1 L

0 L

0

(x) = x x (38)

0 1 L

0 L

" #

ux (x, t)

= (x) u(t) (39)

uy (x, t)

8 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

Strain-displacement relation

!2

ux 1 uy

xx = + (40)

x 2 x

1

= x1,x u1 + x3,x u3 + {y2,x u2 + y4,x u4 }2 (41)

2

2

1 1 1 1 1

= u1 + u3 + u2 + u4 (42)

L L 2 L L

2

1 1 1 1 1

= 0 0 u + u2 + u4 (43)

L L 2 L L

2

1 1 1

= B u + u2 + u4 (44)

2 L L

1 1

B= 0 0 . (45)

L L

1 Z

U = xx E xx d (46)

2

Z L h i

Ke = BT E B A dx (47)

x=0

1/L2 0 1/L2

0

Z L

0 0 0 0

= EA dx (48)

x=0 1/L2 0 1/L2 0

0 0 0 0

1 0 1 0

EA 0 0 0 0

= (49)

L

1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 9

1 T Z h i

T = u (x)T (x) d u(t) (50)

2 N N

Z L h i

M = (x)T (x) A dx (51)

x=0

(1 Lx )2 (1 Lx )( Lx )

0 0

x 2

(1 L ) (1 Lx )( Lx )

Z L

0 0

= A dx (52)

x=0 ( Lx )(1 Lx ) 0 ( Lx )2 0

x x x 2

0 ( L )(1 L ) 0 (L)

2 0 1 0

1 0 2 0 1

= AL (53)

6

1 0 2 0

0 1 0 2

1 ZL

U = xx E xx A dx (54)

2 0

!2 2

EA Z L ux 1 uy

= + dx (55)

2 0 x 2 x

!2 !2 !4

EA Z L ux ux uy 1 uy

= + + dx (56)

2 0 x x x 4 x

Substitute

ux 1 1

= u1 + u3 (57)

x L L

uy 1 1

= u2 + u4 (58)

x L L

to obtain

EA 1

U= (u3 u1 )2 + (u3 u1 )(u4 u2 )2 (59)

2L L

So,

1 0 1 0 u1 0 0 0 0 u1

U EA 0 0 0 0

u2

EA(u3 u1 ) 0 1 0 1

u2

= + (60)

u L 1 0

1 0 u3

L2

0 0 0 0 u3

0 0 0 0 u4 0 1 0 1 u4

N

= Ke u + Kg u (61)

L

10 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

2D prismatic homogeneous isotropic beam element, neglecting shear deformation and rotatory

inertia.

Consider the geometry of a deformed beam. The functions ux (x) and uy (x) describe the

translation of points along the neutral axis of the beam as a function of the location along

the un-stretched neutral axis.

We will describe the deformation of the beam as a function of the end displacements (u1 , u2 , u4 , u5 )

and the end rotations (u3 , u6 ). In a dynamic context, these end displacements will change

with time.

6

X

ux (x, t) = xn (x) un (t)

n=1

X6

uy (x, t) = yn (x) un (t)

n=1

The functions xn (x) and yn (x) satisfy the boundary conditions at the end of the beam and

the differential equation describing bending of a Bernoulli-Euler beam loaded statically at

the nodal coordinates. In such beams the effects of shear deformation and rotatory inertia

are neglected. For extension of the neutral axis,

x

x1 (x) = 1

L

x

x4 (x) =

L

CC BY-NC-ND H.P. Gavin

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 11

and x2 = x3 = x5 = x6 = 0 along the neutral axis. For bending of the neutral axis,

2

x 3 x

y2 (x) = 1 3 +2

L L

2 3 !

x x x

y3 (x) = 2 + L

L L L

2 3

x x

y5 (x) = 3 2

L L

2 3 !

x x

y6 (x) = + L

L L

and y1 = y4 = 0.

x

1 L 0 0 x 0 0

L

(x) = x

2 x

3 x x

2 x

3 x

2 x

3

x

2 x

3 (62)

0 13 L

+2 L L

2 L

+ L

L 0 3 L

2 L

L

+ L

L

" #

ux (x, t)

= (x) u(t) (63)

uy (x, t)

These expressions are analytical solutions for the displacements of Bernoulli-Euler beams

loaded only with concentrated point loads and concentrated point moments at their ends.

Internal bending moments are linear within beams loaded only at their ends, and the beam

displacements may be expressed with cubic polynomials.

In extension, the elastic potential energy in a beam is the strain energy related to the uni-

form extensional strain, xx . If the strain is small, then the extensional strain within the

cross section is equal to an extension of the neutral axis, (ux /x), plus the bending strain,

( 2 uy /x2 )y.

ux 2 uy

xx = y

x x2

6 6

X X 2

= xn (x) un (x) y un

2 yn

(64)

n=1 x n=1 x

6 6

0 00

X X

= xn (x) un yn (x) y un

n=1 n=1

X6

= Bn (x, y) un

n=1

= B(x, y) u (65)

where

1 6y 12xy 4y 6xy 1 6y 12xy 2y 6xy

B(x, y) = , 3 , 3, , + 3 , 2 . (66)

L L2 L L L L L2 L L L

12 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

The elastic stiffness matrix can be found directly from the strain energy of axial strains xx .

1 Z

U = xx E xx d (67)

2

Z L Z h i

Ke = B(x, y)T E B(x, y) dA dx. (68)

x=0 A

Note that this integral involves terms such as A y 2 dA and A ydA in which the origin of the

R R

coordinate axis is placed at the centroid of the section. The integral A y 2 dA is the bending

R

R

moment of inertia for the cross section, I, and the integral A ydA is zero.

It is also important to recognize that the elastic strain energy may be evaluated separately

for extension effects and bending effects. For extension, the elastic strain energy is

1Z L

U = EA (xx )2 dx

2 x=0

6

!2

1Z L X

0

= EA xn (x) un dx

2 x=0 n=1

6

!2

1Z L X

0

Kij = EA xn (x) un dx

ui uj 2 x=0 n=1

Z L

0 0

= EA xi (x) xj (x) dx. (69)

x=0

In bending, the elastic potential energy in a Bernoulli-Euler beam is the strain energy related

to the curvature, z .

6 6

2 uy X 2 X

00

z = = yn (x) un = yn (x) un

x2 n=1 x 2

n=1

1Z L

U = EI (z )2 dx

2 x=0

6

!2

1Z L X

00

= EI yn (x) un dx

2 x=0 n=1

6

!2

1Z L X

00

Kij = EI yn (x) un dx

ui uj 2 x=0 n=1

Z L

00 00

= EI yi (x) yj (x) dx. (70)

x=0

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 13

The kinetic energy of a particle within a beam is half the mass of the particle, Adx, times

its velocity, u, squared. For velocities along the direction of the neutral axis,

6

xn (x) u n ,

X

ux (x) =

n=1

The kinetic energy function and the mass matrix may be by substituting equation (62) into

equations (30) and (33).

1 T Z h i

T = u (x)T (x) d u(t) (71)

2 N N

Z L h i

M = (x)T (x) A dx (72)

x=0

It is important to recognize that kinetic energy and mass associated with extensional velocities

may be determined separately from those associated with transverse velocities. The kinetic

energy for extension of the neutral axis is

1Z L

T = A (ux )2 dx

2 x=0

6

!2

1Z L X

= A xn (x) un dx

2 x=0 n=1

6

!2

1Z L

xn (x) u n

X

Mij = A dx

u i u j 2 x=0 n=1

Z L

= A xi (x) xj (x) dx. (73)

x=0

6

yn (x) u n ,

X

uy (x) =

n=1

1Z L

T = A (uy )2 dx

2 x=0

6

!2

1Z L

yn (x) u n

X

= A dx

2 x=0 n=1

6

!2

1Z L

yn (x) u n

X

Mij = A dx

u i u j 2 x=0 n=1

Z L

= A yi (x) yj (x) dx. (74)

x=0

14 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

!2

ux 2 uy 1 uy

xx = 2

y+ (75)

x x 2 x

Z L Z

1

U = xx E xx dA dx (76)

2 x=0 A

2 !2

ux 2 uy

Z L

1 1 uy

Z

= E 2

y+ dx (77)

2 0 A x x 2 x

Z L

1 1

Z

= E u2x,x 2ux,x uy,xx y + ux,x u2y,x + u2y,xx y 2 uy,xx u2y,x y + u4y,x dAdx (78)

2 0 A 4

R R

Note that A ydA = 0 and A

1 ZL 1Z L Z L

U = EA u2x,x dx + EI u2y,xx dx + EA ux,x u2y,x dx . (79)

2 0 2 0 0

Substitute

6

0

X

uy,x = yn (x) un (80)

n=1

6

00

X

uy,xx = yn (x) un (81)

n=1

6

X

0 N

ux,x = xn un = (82)

n=1 EA

Z L Z L Z L

0 0 00 00 0 0

Kij = EA xi xj dx + EI yi (x)yj (x) dx + N yi (x)yj (x) dx (83)

0 0 0

so that,

N

K = Ke + Kg (84)

L

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 15

For prismatic homogeneous isotropic beams, substituting the expressions for the functions

xn and yn into equations (69) - (74), or substituting equation (66) into equation (68) and

(62) to equation (72) results in element stiffness matrices Ke , M, and Kg .

EA

L

0 0 EA

L

0 0

12EI 6EI

0 12EI 6EI

L3 L2 L3 L2

4EI

6EI 2EI

L

0 L2 L

Ke =

(85)

EA

L

0 0

sym

12EI

6EI

L3 L 2

4EI

L

140 0 0 70 0 0

156 22L 0 54 13L

4L2 2

3L

0 13L

AL

M = (86)

420

140 0 0

sym

156 22L

4L2

0 0 0 0 0 0

6 L L

0 56

5 10 10

2L2 L 2

0 10 L30

15

N

Kg = (87)

L

0 0 0

sym

6 L

10

5

2

2L

15

16 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

2D prismatic homogeneous isotropic beam element, including shear deformation and rotatory

inertia

Consider again the geometry of a deformed beam. When shear deformations are included

sections that are originally perpendicular to the neutral axis may not be perpendicular to

the neutral axis after deformation. The functions ux (x) and uy (x) describe the translation of

points along the neutral axis of the beam as a function of the location along the un-stretched

neutral axis. If the beam is not slender (length/depth < 5), then shear strains will contribute

significantly to the strain energy within the beam. The deformed shape of slender beams is

different from the deformed shape of stocky beams.

The beam carries a bending moment M (x) related to axial strain xx and a shear force, S

related to shear strain xy . The potential energy has a bending strain component and a shear

strain component.

1Z T

U = d

2 Z

1 1Z

= xx xx d + xy xy d

2 2

1 Z L Z M (x)y M (x)y 1 Z L Z SQ(y) SQ(y)

= dA dx + dA dx

2 0 A I EI 2 0 A Ib(y) GIb(y)

1 Z L M (x)2 Z 2 1 Z L S 2 Z Q(y)2

= y dA dx + dA dx

2 0 EI 2 A 2 0 GI 2 A b(y)2

1 Z L M (x)2 1 Z L S2

= dx + dx (88)

2 0 EI 2 0 G(A/)

where the shear area coefficient reduces the cross section area to account for the non-uniform

distribution of shear stresses in the cross section,

A Z Q(y)2

= 2 dA .

I A b(y)2

For solid rectangular sections = 6/5 and for solid circular sections = 10/9 [2, 3, 4, 5, 8].

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 17

(including shear deformation effects)

The transverse deformation of a beam with shear and bending strains may be separated into

a portion related to shear deformation and a portion related to bending deformation,

where

x x

EIu00(b)y (x) = M (x) = M1 1 + M2 (90)

L L

1

G(A/)u0(s)y (x) = S(x) = (M1 + M2 ) (91)

L

It can be shown that the following shape functions satisfy the Timoshenko beam equations

(equations (89), (90) and (91)) for transverse displacements.

" #

1 x 2 x 3 x

y2 (x) = 13 +2 + 1

1+ L L L

" 2 3 2 ! #

L x x x 1 x x

y3 (x) = 2 + +

1+ L L L 2 L L

" #

x 2

3

1 x x

y5 (x) = 3 2 +

1+ L L L

" 2 ! #

L x 2 x 3 1 x x

y6 (x) = +

1+ L L 2 L L

The term gives the relative importance of the shear deformations to the bending deforma-

tions, 2

12EI r

= 2

= 24(1 + ) , (92)

G(A/)L L

q

where r is the radius of gyration of the cross section, r = I/A, is Poissons ratio. Shear

deformation effects are significant for beams which have a length-to-depth ratio less than 5.

To neglect shear deformation, set = 0. These displacement functions are exact for frame

elements with constant shear forces S and linearly varying bending moment distributions,

M (x), in which the strain energy has both a shear stress component and a normal stress

component,

6

!2 6

!2

1Z L X

00 1Z L X

0

U= EI (b)yn (x)un dx + G(A/) (s)yn (x)un dx (93)

2 0 n=1 2 0 n=1

where the bending and shear components of the shape functions, (b)yn (x) and (s)yn (x) are:

18 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

" #

1 x 2 x 3

(b)y2 (x) = 13 +2

1+ L L

x

(s)y2 (x) = 1

1+" L

2 3 2 ! #

L x x x 1 x x

(b)y3 (x) = 2 + + 2

1+ L L L 2 L L

L 1 x

(s)y3 (x) =

1 + "2 L

2 3 #

1 x x

(b)y5 (x) = 3 2

1+ L L

x

(s)y5 (x) =

1 + "L

2 3 2 ! #

L x x 1 x

(b)y6 (x) = + +

1+ L L 2 L

L 1x

(s)y6 (x) =

1+ 2L

The geometric stiffness matrix for a Timoshenko beam element may be derived as was done

with the Bernoulli-Euler beam element from the potential energy of linear and geometric

strain,

Z L

0 0

Kij = EA xi (x)xj (x) dx

0

Z L

00 00

+ EI (b)yi (x)(b)yj (x) dx

0

Z L

0 0

+ G(A/) (s)yi (x)(s)yj (x) dx

0

Z L

0 0

+ N yi (x)yj (x) dx (94)

0

where the displacement shape functions (x) are provided in section 4.1.

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 19

(including shear deformation effects but not rotatory inertia)

For prismatic homogeneous isotropic beams, substituting the previous expressions for the

functions xn (x) and (b)yn (x), and (s)yn (x) into equation (94) and (72), results in the

Timoshenko element elastic stiffness matrices Ke , mass matrix M, and geometric stiffness

matrix Kg EA

EA

L

0 0 L

0 0

12 EI 6 EI 12 EI 6 EI

1+ L3 1+ L2

0 1+ L3 1+ L2

4+ EI 6 EI 2 EI

1+

1+ L

0 L2 1+ L

Ke = (95)

EA

L

0 0

sym

12 EI 6 EI

1+

1+ L3 2

L

4+ EI

1+ L

280 0 0 140 0 0

312 + 588 + 2802 (44 + 77 + 352 )L 0 108 + 252 + 1752 (26 + 63 + 352 )L

(8 + 14 + 72 )L2 0 (26 + 63 + 352 )L 2

(6 + 14 + 7 )L 2

AL

M =

(96)

840

280 0 0

sym

312 + 588 + 2802 (44 + 77 + 352 )L

(8 + 14 + 72 )L2

0 0 0 0 0 0

6/5+2+2 L/10 6/522 L/10

(1+)2 (1+)2

0 (1+)2 (1+)2

2L2 /15+L2 /6+L2 2 /12 L/10 L2 /30L2 /6L2 2 /12

0

(1+)2 (1+)2 (1+)2

N

Kg = (97)

L

0 0 0

sym

6/5+2+2 L/10

(1+)2 2

(1+)

2 2 2 2

2L /15+L /6+L /12

(1+)2

20 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

(including rotatory inertia but not shear deformation effects)

Consider again the geometry of a deformed beam with linearly-varying axial beam displace-

ments outside of the neutral axis. The functions ux (x, y) and uy (x, y) now describe the

the neutral axis.

translation of points anywhere within the beam, as a function of the location within the

beam. We will again describe these displacements in terms of a set of shape functions,

xn (x, y) and yn (x), and the end displacements u1 , , u6 .

6

X

ux (x, y, t) = xn (x, y) un (t)

n=1

X6

uy (x, t) = yn (x) un (t)

n=1

The shape functions for transverse displacements yn (x) are the same as the shape functions

yn (x) used previously. The shape functions for axial displacements along the neutral axis,

x1 (x, y) and x4 (x, y) are also the same as the shape functions x1 (x) and x4 (x) used

previously. To account for axial displacements outside of the neutral axis, four new shape

functions are derived from the assumption that plane sections remain plane, ux (x, y) =

u0(b)y (x)y.

!

x x 2 y

0

x2 (x, y) = y2 y= 6

L L L

2 !

0 x x

x3 (x, y) = y3 y= 1 + 4 3 y

L L

2 !

0 x x y

x5 (x, y) = y5 y= 6 +

L L L

2 !

0 x x

x6 (x, y) = y6 y= 2 3 y

L L

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 21

Because yn , x1 and x4 are unchanged, the stiffness matrix is also unchanged. The kinetic

energy of the beam, including axial and transverse effects is now,

6

!2 6

!2

1 Z L Z h/2 1Z L

xn (x, y) u n yn (x) u n

X X

T = b(y) dy dx + A dx

2 x=0 y=h/2 n=1 2 x=0 n=1

Mij = T (u)

u i u j

Evaluating equation (28) using the new shape functions x2 , x3 , x5 , and x6 , results in a

mass matrix incorporating rotatory inertia.

1 1

0 0 0 0

3 6

13 6 r2 11 1 r2 9 6 r2 13 2

1 r

+ L + 0 420 L+

35 5 L2 210 10 L 70 5 L2 10 L

1 2 2 13 1 r2

L2

105

+ 15

r 0 420

L + 10 L

0

M = AL

(98)

1

sym 3

0 0

13 6 r2 11 2

1 r

+ 210 L+

35 5 L2 10 L

1 2 2

105

L2 + 15

r

Beam element mass matrices including the effects of shear deformation on rotatory inertia

are more complicated. Refer to p 295 of Theory of Matrix Structural Analysis, by J.S.

Przemieniecki (Dover Pub., 1985).

22 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

5.1 Beam Element Stiffness Matrix in Local Coordinates, K

3EI 3EI 6EI 12EI

L3

L2

L2

L3

EI 3EI 3EI 4EI 6EI

L

L2

L

L

L2

EI 2EI 6EI

L

L

L2

3EI 3EI 6EI 12EI

L3

L2

L2

L3

EA

N1

L

0 0 EA

L 0 0

u1

12EI 6EI

12EI 6EI

V1 0 u2

L3 L2 L3 L2

4EI

6EI 2EI

M1 0 u3

L L2 L

=

EA

N2 0 0 u4

L

sym

12EI

6EI

V2 u5

L3 L2

4EI

M2 u6

L

f = K u

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 23

u1 = u1 cos + u2 sin u2 = u1 sin + u2 cos u3 = u3

where

c s 0 x2 x1

c = cos =

s c 0 0

L

0 0 1

T=

c s 0

0 s c 0

y2 y1

s = sin =

L

0 0 1

EA 2 EA

EA EA

2

L c L cs L c L cs

12EI 2 12EI

+ L3 s L3 cs L2 s L3 s + L3 cs 6EI

6EI 12EI 2 12EI

L2 s

EA 2

EA EA

2

L s L cs L s

+ 12EI

L3 c

2 6EI

L2 c + 12EI 12EI 2

L3 cs L3 c

6EI

L2 c

4EI 6EI

6EI 2EI

L2 s L2 c

L L

K=

EA 2 EA

L c L cs

+ 12EI 2

12EI 6EI

L3 s L3 cs L2 s

sym

EA 2

L s

12EI 2

6EI

+ L3 c L2 c

4EI

L

f =Ku

24 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

N1

140 0 0 70 0 0

u1

u2

V1 156 22L 0 54 13L

4L2 13L 3L2 u3

M1 0

AL

=

420

u4

N2 140 0 0

sym

u5

V2 156 22L

u6

4L2

M2

f = M u

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 25

where

c s 0 x2 x1

c = cos =

s c 0 0

L

0 0 1

T=

c s 0

0 s c 0

y2 y1

s = sin =

L

0 0 1

140c2 16cs 22sL 70c2 16cs 13sL

+15s2 +54s2

140s2 70s2

22cL 16cs 13cL

+156c2 +54c2

4L2 13sL 13cL 2

3L

AL

M=

420

140c2 16cs 22sL

+156s2

sym

140s2 22cL

+156c2

2

4L

f =Mu

26 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

2D, isotropic, homogeneous element, with uniform thickness h.

Approximate element stiffness and mass matrices based on assumed distribution of internal

displacements.

Consider the geometry of a rectangle with edges aligned with a Cartesian coordinate system.

(0 x a, 0 y b) The functions ux (x, y, t) and uy (x, y, t) describe the in-plane

displacements as a function of the location within the element.

x xy y

ux (x, y, t) = c1 + c2 + c3 + c4

a ab b

x xy y

uy (x, y, t) = c5 + c6 + c7 + c8

a ab b

CC BY-NC-ND H.P. Gavin

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 27

The eight coefficients c1 , , c8 may be found uniquely from matching the displacement

coordinates at the corners.

ux (a, b) = u1 , uy (a, b) = u2

ux (0, b) = u3 , uy (0, b) = u4

ux (0, 0) = u5 , uy (0, 0) = u6

ux (a, 0) = u7 , uy (a, 0) = u8

uy (x, y, t) = xy u2 (t) + (1 x)y u4 (t) + (1 x)(1 y) u6 (t) + x(1 y) u8 (t) (100)

" #

xy 0 (1 x)y 0 (1 x)(1 y) 0 x(1 y) 0

(x, y) =

0 xy 0 (1 x)y 0 (1 x)(1 y) 0 x(1 y)

(101)

and " #

ux (x, y, t)

= (x, y) u(t) (102)

uy (x, y, t)

Strain-displacement relations

ux 1 ux

xx = =

x a x

uy 1 uy

yy = =

y b y

ux uy 1 ux 1 uy

xy = + = +

y x b y a x

so that

u1

u2

u3

y/a (1 y)/a (1 y)/a

y/a 0 0 0 0

xx

u4

yy = 0 x/b 0 (1 x)/b 0 (1 x)/b 0 x/b

u5

xy x/b y/a (1 x)/b y/a (1 x)/b (1 y)/a x/b (1 y)/a

u6

u7

u8

or

(x, y, t) = B(x, y) u(t)

28 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

6.2.1 Plane-Stress

For plane-stress elasticity, the stress-strain relationship simplifies to

1 0

xx E xx

yy = 1 0 (103)

yy

1 2 1

xy 0 0 2

(1 ) xy

or

= Sp (104)

6.2.2 Plane-Strain

For plane-strain elasticity, the stress-strain relationship simplifies to

1 0

xx E xx

yy = 1 0 yy

(105)

(1 + )(1 2) 1

xy 0 0 2

xy

or

= Sp (106)

1Z

V = (x, y, t)T (x, y, t) h dx dy (107)

2 A

1 T

Z h i

= u(t) B(x, y)T Se (E, ) B(x, y) h dx dy u(t) (108)

2 A 88

Z h i

Ke = B(x, y)T Se (E, ) B(x, y) h dx dy (109)

A 88

= 1Z

T (u) |u(x, y, t)|2 h dx dy (110)

2 A

1 TZ h i

= u(t) (x, y)T (x, y) h dx dy u(t) (111)

2 A 88

Z h i

M = (x, y)T (x, y) h dx dy (112)

A 88

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 29

6.5 2D Rectangular Plane-Stress and Plane-Strain Element Stiffness and Mass Matrices

Eh

Ke = 12(1 2 )

4c + kA kB 4c + kA /2 kC 2c kA /2 kB 2c kA kC

kB 4/c + kD kC 2/c kD kB 2/c kD /2 kC 4/c + kD /2

4c + kA /2 kC 4c + kA kB 2c kA kC 2c kA /2 kB

kC 2/c kD kB 4/c + kD kC 4/c + kD /2 kB 2/c kD /2

2c kA /2 kB 2c kA kC 4c + kA kB 4c + kA /2 kC

kB 2/c kD /2 kC 4/c + kD /2 kB 4/c + kD kC 2/c kD

2c kA kC 2c kA /2 kB 4c + kA /2 kC 4c + kA kB

kC 4/c + kD /2 kB 2/c kD /2 kC 2/c kD kB 4/c + kD

kA = (2/c)(1 )

kB = (3/2)(1 + )

kC = (3/2)(1 3)

kD = (2c)(1 )

Eh

Ke = 12(1+)(12)

3/2 kC + kD 3/2 6 kC /2 kD 3/2 kC /2 kD /2 6 3/2 kC + kD /2

kA + kB /2 3/2 6 kA + kB 3/2 kA /2 kB 6 3/2 kA /2 kB /2 3/2

6 3/2 kC /2 kD 3/2 kC + kD 3/2 6 kC + kD /2 3/2 kC /2 kD /2

kA /2 kB /2 3/2 kA /2 kB 3/2 6 kA + kB 3/2 kA + kB /2 6 3/2

3/2 kC /2 kD /2 6 3/2 kC + kD /2 3/2 kC + kD 3/2 6 kC /2 kD

kA /2 kB 6 3/2 kA /2 kB /2 3/2 kA + kB /2 3/2 6 k A + kB 3/2

3/2 6 kC + kD /2 3/2 kC /2 kD /2 6 3/2 kC /2 kD 3/2 kC + kD

kA = (4c)(1 )

kB = (2/c)(1 2)

kC = (4/c)(1 )

kD = (2c)(1 2)

30 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

The element mass matrix for the plane-stress and plane-strain elements is the same.

4 0 2 0 1 0 2 0

0 4 0 2 0 1 0 2

2 0 4 0 2 0 1 0

abh 0 2 0 4 0 2 0 1

M =

(113)

36

1 0 2 0 4 0 2 0

0 1 0 2 0 4 0 2

2 0 1 0 2 0 4 0

0 2 0 1 0 2 0 4

Note, again, that these element stiffness matrices are approximations based on an assumed

distribution of internal displacements.

Damping in vibrating structures can arise from diverse linear and nonlinear phenomena.

If the structure is in a fluid (liquid or gas), the motion of the structure is resisted by the

fluid viscosity. At low speeds (low Reynolds numbers), this damping effect can be taken

to be linear in the velocity, and the damping forces are proportional to the total rate of

displacement (not the rate of deformation). If the fluid is flowing past the structure at high

flow rates (high Reynolds numbers), the motion of the structure can interact with the flowing

medium. This interaction affects the dynamics (natural frequencies and damping ratios) of

the coupled structure-fluid system. Potentially, at certain flow speeds, the motion of the

structure can increase the transfer of energy from the flow into the structure, giving rise to

an aero-elastic instabililty.

Damping can also arise within structural systems from friction forces internal to the structure

(the micro-slip within joints and connections) inherent material viscoelasticity, and inelas-

tic material behavior. In many structural systems, a type of damping in which damping

stresses are proportional to strain and in-phase with strain-rate are assumed. Such so-called

complex-stiffness damping or structural damping is commonly used to model the damp-

ing in soils. Fundamentally, this kind of damping is neither elastic nor viscous. The force-

displacement behavior does not follow the same path in loading and unloading, behavior

but instead follows a butterfly shaped path. Nevertheless, this type of damping is com-

monly linearized as linear viscous damping, in which forces are proportional to the rate of

deformation.

In materials in which stress depends on strain and strain rate, a Voigt viscoelasticity model

may be assumed, in which stress is proportional to both strain and strain-rate ,

= [ Se (E, ) ] + [ Sv () ]

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 31

The internal virtual work of real viscous stresses Sv moving through virtual strains is

Z

=

W (u) (x, t)T (x, t) d (114)

Z

= t)T Sv () (x, t) d

(x,

Z

= T B(x)T Sv () B(x)u(t) d

u(t)

Z h i

T

= u(t) B(x)T Sv () B(x) d u(t) (115)

N N

Given a material viscous damping matrix, Sv , a structural element damping matrix can be

determined for any type of structural element, through the integral in equation (115), as has

been done for stiffness and mass element matrices earlier in this document. In doing so, it

may be assumed that the internal element displacements ui (x, t) (and the matrices [] and

[B]) are unaffected by the presence of damping, though this is not strictly true. Further,

the parameters in Sv () are often dependent of the frequency of the strain and the strain

amplitude. Damping behavior that is amplitude-dependent is outside the domain of linear

analysis.

systems mass and stiffness matrices is called a Rayleigh damping matrix.

Cs = Ms + Ks

n 21

21 n1 1

RT Cs R =

...

=

...

+ ...

(116)

2N nN 1 n 2N

where n 2j is an eigen-value (squared natural frequency) and the columns of R are mass-

normalized eigen-vectors (modal vectors) of the generalized eigen-problem

From equations (116) it can be seen that the damping ratios satisfy

1

j = + nj

2 nj 2

and the Rayleigh damping coefficients ( and ) can be determined so that the damping

ratios j have desired values at two frequencies. The damping ratios modeled by Rayleigh

damping can get very large for low and high frequencies. Rayleigh damping grows to as

0 and increases linearly with for large values of . Note that the Rayleigh damping

matrix has the same banded form as the mass and stiffness matrices. In other words, with

Rayleigh damping, internal damping forces are applied only between coordinates that are

connected by structural elements.

32 CEE 541. Structural Dynamics Duke University Fall 2016 H.P. Gavin

The Caughey damping matrix is a generalization of the Rayleigh damping matrix. Caughey

damping matrices can involve more than two parameters and can therefore be used to provide

a desired amount of damping over a range of frequencies. The Caughey damping matrix for

an assembled model for a structural system is

j=n

X2

Cs = Ms j (M1

s Ks )

j

j=n1

where the index range limits n1 and n2 can be positive or negative, as long as n1 < n2 . As

with the Rayleigh damping matrixl, the Caughey damping matrix may also be diagonalized

by the real eigen-vector matrix R. The coefficients j are related to the damping ratios, k ,

by

1 1 j=n

X2

k = j k2j

2 k j=n1

The coefficeints j may be selected so that a set of specified damping ratios k are obtained

at a corresponding set of frequencies k . If n1 = 0 and n2 = 1, then the Caughey damp-

ing matrix is the same as the Rayleigh damping matrix. For other values of n1 and n2 the

Caughey damping matrix loses the banded structure of the Rayleigh damping matrix, imply-

ing the presence of damping forces between coordinates that are not connected by structural

elements.

Structural systems with classical damping have real-valued modes rj that depend only on

the systems mass and stiffness matrices (equation (117)), and can be analyzed as a sys-

tem of uncoupled second-order ordinary differential equations. The responses of the system

coordinates can be approximated via a modal expansion of a select subset of modes. The

convenience of the application of modal-superpostion to the transient response analysis of

structures is the primary motivation

An element Rayleigh damping matrix may be easily computed from the elements mass and

stiffness matrix C = M+K and assembled into a damping matrix for the structural system

Cs . The element damping is presumed to increases linearly with the mass and the stiffness of

the element; larger elements will have greater mass, stiffness, and damping. System damping

matrices assembled from such element damping matrices will have the same banding as the

mass and stiffness matrices; internal damping forces will occur only between coordinates

connected by a structural element. However, such an assembled damping matrix will not be

diagonizeable by the real eigenvectors of the structrual system mass matrix Ms and stiffness

matrx Ks .

Structural Element Stiffness, Mass, and Damping Matrices 33

supplemental damping components can dissipate energy through viscosity, friction, or inelas-

tic deformation. In a linear viscous damping element (a dash-pot), damping forces are linear

in the velocity across the nodes of the element and the forces act along a line between the

two nodes of the element. The element node damping forces fd are related to the element

node velocities vd through the damping coefficeint cd

" # " #" #

fd1 cd cd vd1

=

fd2 cd cd vd2

The damping matrix for a linear viscous damper connecting a node at (x1 , y1 ) to a node at

(x2 , y2 ) is found from the element coordinate transformation,

" #T " #" #

c s 0 0 0 0 cd cd c s 0 0 0 0

C66 =

0 0 0 c s 0 cd cd 0 0 0 c s 0

where c = (x2 x1 )/L and s = (y2 y1 )/L. Structural systems with supplemental damping

components generally have non-classical system damping matrices.

References

[1] Clough, Ray W., and Penzien, Joseph, Dynamics of Structures, 2nd ed. (revised), Com-

puters and Structures, 2003.

[2] Cowper, G.R., Shear Coefficient in Timoshenko Beam Theory, J. Appl. Mech.,

33(2)(1966):335-346

[3] Dong, S.B, Alpdogan, C., and Taciroglu, E. Much ado about shear correction factors in

Timoshenko beam theory, Int. J. Solids & Structures, 47(2010):1651-1655.

[4] Gruttman, F., and Wagner, W., Shear correction factors in Timoshenkos beam theory

for arbitrary shaped cross-sections, Comp. Mech. 27(2001):199-207.

[5] Kaneko, T., An experimental study of the Timoshenkos shear coefficient for flexurally

vibrating beams, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 11 (1978): 1979-1988;

[6] Paz, Mario, Structural Dynamics Theory and Computation, Chapman & Hall, 2000.

[8] Rosinger, H.E., and Ritchie, I.G., On Timoshenkos correction for shear in vibrating

isotropic beams, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 10 (1977): 14611466.

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