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WHAT IS COMPOSITE MATERIAL?

A solid material that results when two or more different substances.


Each with its own characteristics, are combined to create a new substance whose
properties are superior to those of the original components in a specific
application.
The term composite more specifically refers to a structural material (such as
plastic) within which a fibrous material (such as silicon carbide) is embedded.
Examples :
a) Wood - Plastic Composite
b) Fiber - Reinforced Polymer
c) Glass - Reinforced Plastic
d) Aluminum Composite - Panel
e) Glass Fiber - Reinforced Concrete
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What is wood plastic composites?


a. Made of wood fiber and plastic

Plastic

Wood fiber
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CONTD
b. Contain other lignocelluloses and/or
inorganic filler materials.

Lignocellulosic
Inorganic Filler Sillica
Bioethanol Initiative
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CONTD
Very promising and sustainable green material that is produced for
its ability to be durable without containing toxic chemicals.
called as Natural Fiber plastic composites (NFPCs), which may
contain other cellulose-based fiber fillers such as pulp fibers, peanut
hulls, bamboo, straw, etc

Peanut Hulls
Pulp Fibers Bamboo Straw
(wood powder)
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Uses in WPCs

Outdoor Deck Floor Pergola Park Benches


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Railings Door Frame Wall Panel


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Fences Planter Boxes Window Blinds


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Dustbin Molding & Trim


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CHARACTERISTICS
Fastest growing sector of plastics industry.
Volume processors must produce faster,
better, cheaper.
Weather ability and life cycle costs are major
factors.
Formulation variations that increase wood
content offer expansion into other uses.
Environmentally safe and efficient.
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ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF


WPCS
No Advantages Disadvantages
1. Do not corrode and are highly Materials continue the lifespan of
resistant to rot, decay, and marine used and discarded materials.
borer attack, though they do absorb
water into the wood fibers embedded
within the material
2. Good workability Lack of need for paint(grey & earth
tones)
3. Can be shaped using conventional
woodworking tools
4. Sustainable material
5. Ability of the material to be molded to
meet almost any desired shape
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MANUFACTURING PROCESS WPCS


1) EXTRUDER

To achieve required extradite the palletized


compound is fed into extruder through gravity
filling bunker. It is heated and melted to uniform
flow mass inside the cylinder of the extruder.
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2) Extrussion Process

Then melt flow is transferred and pressed


through the slit of the die. This is done by a
screw rotation inside the extruder cylinder
generated by v-motor.
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3) Cooling section

Uniform cooling around/along the outlet of extrusion die is


considered to be very important factor of the extrusion
process. Cooling equipment comprises water tank furnished
with auxiliary sizing facilities. Extruded blank is pulled by the
tractor through the water and cooled. While passing under
water along the cooling tank the extruded profile is
subjected to shrinkage due to temperature drop.
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CONTD
4) Tractor Puller

Tractor (puller) is a caterpiller-type machine, that pulls


the extruded blank through water tank, pushing it further
on downstream to cutter and handling table. The tractor
pulls the extruded profile with uniform speed, without
allowing it to slip.
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5) Cutter

Cutter is a device that fixes the extruded profile and cut it to


desired length by means of thermal knife.
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6) Handling Table

To cut the profile to desired length the blank is placed along


the handling table, following the cutter. Cut piece is
overturned to finished profile collector.
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Introduction fibre reinforced polymer


Composite materials made of a polymer
matrix reinforced with fibres.
Fibers usually fiberglass or carbon.
Polymer is usually a vinyl or polyester
thermosetting plastic.
Used in aerospace,automotive and
construction industries.
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Contd
very strong and light fiber-reinforced
polymer which contains carbon fibers
The composite may contain other fibers, such
as Kevlar, aluminium, or glass fibers, as well as
carbon fiber
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advantages
STRONG
ELASTIC
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disadvantages
WEAK WHEN PERPENDICULAR
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What is glass reinforced plastic


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The term of GRP,what is common through the industry,


refers to plastic that has been reinforced with glass fiber.

Polyester
Carbon fiber
fiber

Glass
fiber

REINFORCEMENT- many
reinforcement can be used for
plastic material
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Characteristics of glass reinforced


plastic
lightweight
extremely strong
robust material
the material is typically far less brittle
the raw materials are much less expensive
it can be easily formed using molding processes.
Common uses of fiberglass include automobiles, baths, hot tubs,
water tanks, roofing, pipes, cladding, casts and external door skins.
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Application of glass reinforced


plastic
House building
Glass reinforced plastics are also used in the house building
market for the production of

i.e roofing laminate, door surrounds, over-door canopies,


window canopies and dormers, chimneys, heads with
keystones and sills

panels can be constructed with the appropriate insulation


which reduces heat loss.
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Piping
GRP and GRE pipe systems can be used for a
variety of applications, above and under the
ground.
Firewater systems
Cooling water systems
Drinking water systems
Waste water systems/Sewage systems
Gas systems
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Method of fabrication
Pultrusion
is a continuous process for manufacture of
composite materials with constant cross-
section
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Hand lay-up
Hand lay-up is a simple method for composite production

A mold must be used for hand lay-up parts unless the

composite is to be joined directly to another structure.


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Centrifugal casting
Centrifugal casting consists of producing
castings by causing molten metal to solidify in
rotating moulds.

The speed of the rotation and metal pouring rate


vary with the alloy and size and shape being
cast.
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Aluminium composite panel


introduction
is a revolutionary and versatile new
decorative building material
used in interior and exteriors.
as curtain walls, paneling and cladding applications.

is a high quality decorative building.

composites can be divide into many types


such as column,beam,floor and so on.
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Introduction cont

composed of a
polyethylene core surface of the manufactured in
sandwiched panel is covered thickness of 1mm to
between two with a protective 6 mm and width of
sheets of peel-off-foil. 1200 to 1600 mm.
aluminum.
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characteristics

Light weight, the intensity is high, easy to maintain, cut


bend, arch and install. The panel average weight is 3.5 -
5.5 kg/sqm

Extremely good for the weathering resistance, acidity, alkaline


resistance, thermal insulation, acoustic insulation and damping.
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Cont
The surface is dust proof treated, smooth and flat and
easy to maintain., just use neutral cleaner and water can
totally renew the panel.

The aluminum surface is tough, the core PE panel is


flexible, therefore the panel has high impact resistance.

Fireproof and noise absorptive can absorbs noise and


the aluminum resists fire.
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Cont

Light weight
the intensity is high
Extremely good for the weathering resistance
easy to maintain
surface is dust proof, smooth, flat and easy to maintain. just use
neutral cleaner and water can totally renew the panel.
Fireproof
The panel average weight is 3.5 - 5.5 kg/sqm
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GLASS FIBRE REINFORCE CONCRETE


Reinforcing fibers will stretch more than concrete under loading. Therefore, the
composite system of fiber reinforced concrete is assumed to work as if it were
unreinforced until it reaches its "first crack strength." It is from this point that the
fiber reinforcing takes over and holds the concrete together.
the maximum load carrying capacity is controlled by fibers pulling out of the
composite because fiber reinforcing does not have a deformed surface like larger
steel reinforcing bars.
This condition limits performance to a point far less than the yield strength of the
fiber itself because some fibers are more "slippery" than others when used as
reinforcing and will affect the toughness of the concrete product.
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PROPERTIES
Toughness is based on the total energy absorbed prior to compete failure
:-
> Type of fibers used.
Volume percent of fiber.
Aspect ratio (the length of a fiber divided by its diameter).
Orientation of the fibers in the matrix
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MATERIAL
Basically, the materials always used in fiber reinforcing including :
Acrylic
asbestos
cotton,
Glass
nylon
polythene
rockwool and steel.
Natural fibers are subject to alkali attack and are also determined to have
little value. Nylon is currently making an appearance in slab-on-grade
technology.
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Advantages of glass fiber reinforced


concrete
Light Weight
Strength
Ease of Work
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Disadvantages of glass fiber reinforced


concrete
> much more expensive
> high ratio of concrete to sand
> low water-to-cement ratio
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