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See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288798959 UAV based real time video surveillance over 4G LTE Conference Paper · December 2015 DOI: 10.1109/ICOSST.2015.7396417 CITATIONS READS 6 554 3 authors: Sameer Qazi Ali Shuja Siddiqui PAF Karachi Institute of Economics & Techno… Florida Institute of Technology 24 PUBLICATIONS 67 CITATIONS 5 PUBLICATIONS 7 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE SEE PROFILE Asim Imdad Wagan Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Karachi, P… 27 PUBLICATIONS 183 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: BioImaging View project Deep Learning View project All content following this page was uploaded by Sameer Qazi on 30 December 2015. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. UAV based Real Time Video Surveillance over 4G LTE Sameer Qazi1, Ali Shuja Siddiqui2 and Asim Imdad Wagan3 1.Department of Electrical Engineering, DHA Suffa University, Karachi, Pakistan 2. University of Texas at Arlington, Texas, USA 3. Department of Computer Science, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan s.qazi@dsu.edu.pk, alishuja@gmail.com, asim.imdad@nu.edu.pk Abstract—Constant video surveillance of remote locations in infrastructure (Figure 1). This architecture consists of several rural areas, dense urbanized dwellings and strategic military outdoor macro cells and indoor femto cells to build a closed- sites is of paramount interest to law enforcing agencies. Aerial monitoring is now made possible by using dozens of camera circuit monitoring framework for streaming real time video. mounted UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) streaming video The outdoor framework is a system of macrocells where from different vantage points to a single command and control several camera mounted UAVs, in constant flight, referred to center. In this paper, we present an architecture for closed circuit as macroUEs in this work transmit real time video to their monitoring of such sites, which may consist of multiple indoor and outdoor vantage points by using the legacy 4G LTE wireless respective macro base stations referred to as macroENBs in network cellular infrastructure in and around the buildings this work. UE refers to mobile User Equipment and ENB consisting of several outdoor macro cells and indoor femto cells refers to Enhanced Node. The topology of our network and to build a closed-circuit monitoring framework for streaming real time video. Such a framework would lead to timely action in associated terminologies are adapted from 3GPP R4-092042 crime or disaster prevention. We investigate the technical standard. Similarly, indoor framework comprises of indoor performance of such a video streaming system using the metrics UAVs or Wireless IP cameras (homeUEs) transmitting real of throughputs, loss rates and delay in relation to the physical time video to their respective indoor basestations aspects of wireless propagation; multipath propagation loss, shadowing and fading models. (HomeENBs). The video streams are concurrently sent to a command and control center over Internet. Such a framework Keywords—UAV, LTE, Wireless Propagation, Real Time Video would lead to timely action in crime or disaster prevention. Streaming, Surveillance I. INTRODUCTION Our contributions in this work are as follows: (1) Proposal of a two-tiered architecture for Real Time Building monitoring Constant aerial video surveillance of remote locations is using multi UAVs with vantage points both inside and outside required in rural areas e.g. dams, crops, farms etc for natural the building whose surveillance is to be carried out; (2) disaster prevention e.g. floods and epidemics. Similarly, it is Investigation of the technical performance metrics of such a required in dense urbanized dwellings; high rise residential multi-UAV real-time video streaming system using encoded blocks and office towers for accident and terrorism prevention. MP4 video format of real-time surveillance video; and (3) Finally it is also required for the security of strategic military Studying the effects of realistic wireless propagation scenarios and nuclear sites. Unmanned aerial monitoring is now made to study the effects of wireless signal distortion due to possible by using dozens of camera mounted UAVs multipath propagation and fading at practical UAV flying (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) such as quadcopters and speeds (typical of urban settings) and signal propagation loss unmanned gliders streaming video from different vantage (shadowing loss) through multistory building structures. We points of the location of interest to a single command and use realistic UAV flight models for macro cells, consider control center. Its application in the field of public safety handover algorithms for seamless mobility and real frequency communications has recently garnered attention of the band (2.1 GHz) of communication of wireless nodes on board researchers [1-2]. UAV under the 4G LTE standards. Finally, the work is In this paper, we present a two tiered architecture for closed validated by simulations carried out in Network Simulator-3 circuit aerial monitoring of such sites, which may consist of (version 3.23) [3]. multiple indoor and outdoor vantage points by using the The organization of this paper is as follows: Section II reviews recently deployed 4G LTE wireless network cellular related work in this field; Sections III and IV present brief Figure 1. Two tiered Building Surveillance System comprising of both Macro and Femto Cells. tutorial of the different types of wireless propagation models placement as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization for signal propagation on wireless hops and mobility models problem for maximum network connectivity, load balancing used for the UAVs. Section V describes the simulation and data transmission rates. However, the paper considers parameters used in this work; Section VI presents the UAVs are relay points in the sky for mobile nodes on ground Performance Evaluation and Section VII finally concludes the that cannot reach each other without the UAVs. In this paper paper. we do not address the problem of nodes on the ground and consider all nodes to be airborne. II. RELATED WORK Becmezci et al. [4] identified the potential of Flying Adhoc III. WIRELESS PROPAGATION MODELS USED Networks (FANETs) in modern day applications their recent Unlike wired signal propagation which varies proportionally survey paper. Many researchers have assumed simplistic LoS as per distance according to a deterministic model, wireless propagation models in their research due to the high flying signal propagation has to undergo other challenges as well, altitudes of UAVs; however, recently Eckert et al. [5] have namely shadowing and multi-path propagation. Under Line of identified new propagation models for newer class of Sight (LoS) signal propagation, the Friis propagation model is application possible with Aerial Adhoc Networks such as used as shown below by Equation 1: inter-paraglider communication. Sahingoz [6-7] has recently published two papers on research challenges of mobile Pt Gt Gr λ2 networking using multiple co-ordinating UAVs and posed Pr (d ) = (1) (4πd ) 2 many interesting question on routing protocol suitability, quality of service and UAV path planning; but does not Pr ( d ) = Received power at distance d address the topic of propagation models. This paper is also a Pt = Transmit power step in these directions to answer some of these open Gt G r = Transmit and Receive Antenna Gains questions in a simulated environment with real propagation models and routing protocol performance evaluation. Haibo et al. [8] have addressed the Aerial Adhoc Networks nodes However, when receiver and transmitter have no clear line of where sight, such as when wireless signal has to pass through α is the tuning parameter (α = 1 makes the system memoryless obstacles (such as walls) it is referred to as shadowing loss. If not typical of flight patterns), s, θ and p are average values of the wireless signals sees intermittent reception of Line of Sight Signal and reflected versions of signals from other obstacles it speed, direction and pitch; s x −1 , θ x −1 and p x −1 are Gaussian n n n is referred to as multipath propagation or fading. Here rapid Random variables for randomness in new values selected constructive and destructive interference between the LoS and reflected versions of the signal cause rapid fluctuations in Table 2 shows the parameters used in our simulation to received signal strength. simulate the macroUE flights. A. Shadowing Loss Table 2. Gauss Markov Model Parameters to simulate The indoor wireless propagation model included in ns-3 mobility of macroUEs includes Hybrid Buildings Propagation model. This model combines Hata model, COST231, ITU-R P.1411 model (short TIME STEP 0.5 SECONDS range communications) and ITU-R P.1238 (indoor communications) model to evaluate the path loss under ALPHA 0.85 different scenarios, The parameters used to model shadowing MEAN VELOCITY VARIABLE 1-10 M/S loss are depicted in Table 1. MEAN DIRECTION UNIFORM RV (MIN=0, MAX=6.28) Table 1. Building Propagation Model Parameters MEAN PITCH UNIFORM RV (MIN=0.05, MAX=0.05) THRESHOLD FROM LOS TO NLOS 200 M NORMAL VELOCITY GAUSSIAN RV (MEAN=0, VARIANCE=0, BOUND=0) INTERNAL WALL LOSS 5 DB NORMAL DIRECTION GAUSSIAN RV (MEAN=0, VAR=0.2, BOUND=0.4) STANDARD DEV OF THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION TO CALCULATE 7 SHADOWING DUE TO EXTERNAL WALLS NORMAL PITCH GAUSSIAN RV(MEAN=0, VAR =0.02, BOUND=0.04) STANDARD DEV OF THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION TO CALCULATE 8 SHADOWING FOR MACROUES STANDARD DEV OF THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION TO CALCULATE 5 In this work we assume that homeUEs are either fixed SHADOWING FOR HOMEUES wireless IP cameras fitted discreetly into rooms or miniature UAVs which adopts a stationary resting position on a window B. Multipath Propagation Models and Fading sill or cabinet to evade detection. Hence, we consider all Trace based fading models are incorporated in ns-3 to simulate homeUEs as stationary in this study connected with their fading at different speeds. We use the same model in this basestations (access points). Connectivity to the remote hosts work. For details the user can refer to ns-3 documentation. is via the legacy internet connection of internet hosts inside the building albeit over a secure connection. MacroUEs on the IV. GAUSS MARKOV MOBILITY MODEL FOR MACROUES other hand are considered mobile and may reconnect with We use the Gauss-Markov mobility model in this work other macroENBs based on handover like in regular cellular previously introduced by D. Broyles et al. [9] and J. Rohrer et networks. Handover algorithms of macroUEs is based on the al. [10] to model the flight pattern of an actual real world maximum received signal from the Macrocell basestations. macrocell UAV (referred to as macroUE in this work). The model updates speed, direction and pitch variables. The speed V. SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT AND PARAMETERS and direction variable dictate the new speed and direction in The simulations are carried out using NS-3 version 3.23 the x-y plane, and the third variable of pitch determines the which is the most updated stable version of Network angle about the azimuth (or motion along z-axis); the Simulator as of now. The network topology is as per 3GPP equations are given below (2-4): R4-092042 as outlined in Figure 1 considering both macro and femtocells. s n = αs n−1 +(1 − α ) s + (1 − α 2 ) s xn −1 (2) The parameters are described in complete detail in Table 3 θ n= αθ n−1+(1 − α )θ + (1 − α 2 )θ x n −1 (3) shown below. p n = αp n −1 +(1 − α ) p + (1 − α ) p xn −1 2 (4) Table 3. Simulation parameters as per 3GPP R4-092042 specification APARTMENTS/ROOMS 4 FLOORS 4 FEMTOCELLS 2-8 MACROENB SITES 1-3 AREA MARGIN FACTOR 0.5 MACROUE DENSITY (NUMBER PER SQ METER) 0.00002 HOMEENB DEPLOYMENT RATIO 0.2 HOMEENB ACTIVATION RATIO 0.5 Figure 2. Two tiered Building Surveillance System comprising of both Macro HOMEUES TO HOMEENB RATIO 1 and Femto Cells. The units of x and y axis are in meters MACROUES/HOMEUES 10-20 / 2-10 MACROENB /HOMEENB TX POWER 46 / 20 DBM MACROENB DLEARFCN / HOMEENB DLEARFCN 100 MACROENB ULEARFCN / HOMEENB ULEARFCN 18100 HOMEENB BANDWIDTH (IN TERMS OF RESOURCE 100 BLOCKS RBS) MACROENB BANDWIDTH (IN TERMS OF RESOURCE 100 BLOCKS RBS) NUMBERS OF BEARERS PER UE 1 Figure 3. Impact of number of Macrocells and mobility on Throughput of MacroUEs SRS PERIODICITY 80 SCHEDULER PROPORTIONAL FAIR VI. PEFORMANCE EVALUATION Figure 2 shows an example radio environment map depicting the femto-cells inside a typical building and a large 3-sector macro-cell outside. In this figure, the building footprint dimensions are of the electrical engineering laboratories block building of the DHA Suffa University and the number of floors are varied from one to three to determine the performance of homeUEs. Similarly, the number of macro cells are varied from one to three the determine the effect on Figure 4. Impact of number of Femtocells and building size on Throughput of throughput when the mobility of the macroUEs (onboard HomeUEs UAVs) are varied. We obtained four short MPEG-4 encoded videos of the in Aerial UAV based building surveillance networks in a surveillance recordings of of the buildings and used a trace simulated environment but with realistic propagation and based simulation to stream these videos using the Evalvid mobility models encountered in real world UAV based server-client application for ns-3 developed by GERCOM environments. This research area is fairly new only maturing Group [11]. However, two modification were made by us; in over the last 5 years and this work has tried to answer some of the original GERCOM code the video is streamed from remote the unanswered research questions and open challenges posed hosts to the macroUEs/homeUES and macroUEs used a by previous researchers. As future work, we can consider random waypoint mobility model. In our situation, the videos other propagation environments and presence of both real time are streamed from the macroUE/homeUE to a remote host and non-real time traffic [12]. and the macroUEs use the Gauss-Markov model as explained earlier. REFERENCES A. Impact of number of Macrocells and mobility on [1] A. Merwaday, A. and I. 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CONCLUSION on routing protocols in MANETS”, in 2013 IEEE Malaysia International Conference on Communications (MICC) 2013 In this paper, we have investigated the effects on network performance in terms of data throughputs that can be possible View publication stats