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Mini Unit Assignment

Buoyancy and Boats - Grade 2


Gemma Oxley, Kassidy DeZutter, Julia Schmidlin
Table of Contents

Components: Page Number:


1.Overview / Rationale..............3
2.Essential Question...5
2.Program of Study Outcomes Achieved.......6
4.Assessment- Formative/Summative Overview.......8
5.Lesson Plan 1......9
a) Worksheet...16
b) Formative Checklist/ Rationale.17/18
c) Rationale of Teaching Strategies20
d) Classroom management strategies..20
6. Lesson Plan 2...21
a) Worksheet......27/28
b) Formative Checklist /Rationale.29/30
c) Rationale of Teaching Strategies31
d) Classroom management strategies..31
7.Lesson Plan 332
a) Worksheet...........38
b) Formative Checklist / Rationale39/40
c) Rationale of Teaching Strategies41
d) Classroom management strategies..42
8.Assessment FOR, AS, and OF LEARNING.....43
9. Summative Task...45
a) Worksheet ...47/48

10.Summative Rubric...........................................49
11.Summative Rationale.50
12.Reflection/Rationale52
13.References...54

Overview/Rationale:
The Buoyancy unit is relevant and exciting for students as it fosters curiosity, allows students to

engage with materials and experiments, and develop their problem solving skills. An

assumption is that most students will have some understanding of the concept of floating from

taking swimming lessons or toys in the bath when they were younger. Students are able to have a

hands-on experience exploring various materials, which will encourage them to be active in their

learning. Students apply their learning to the construction of an effective watercraft, which

develops their problem solving skills and provides them with opportunities for innovation and

exploration. There are several areas throughout this unit where students will work individually as

well as in groups. This will give students the opportunity to develop their interpersonal and

collaboration skills, which are two essential components that students will continue to use

throughout their education. The knowledge and skills developed in this unit will provide students

with a basis of understanding for future science units such as density, mass, volume, and how

matter relates. Lessons on volume, mass, and density are merely extensions from the unit of

buoyancy, which emphasizes how this unit can be considered as an ongoing learning process. In

our study of effective materials we also engage with an art project within our one science lesson

and have cross-curricular objectives listed below.

This lesson engages with the concept that heavier objects sink and lighter objects float.

However, use of different materials will cause students to question why sometimes bigger

objects float and sometimes they sink. This has to do with displacement of weight. This first
lesson will get students thinking about what sort of materials they can use to construct their own

boat. The scaffolding of our lessons allows for students to think critically about the different

aspects of buoyancy through predictions and observations in experiments.

It is important to remember that all students learn differently and that one way of

teaching may affect how some students will retain information. This unit will incorporate

techniques that will apply to auditory, visual, kinaesthetic, and tactile learners. For example,

students will be able to listen to instruction, watch videos and demonstrations, move around to

interact with their peers and have a hands-on learning experience. For each lesson there are clear

rules and expectations so that students are aware on what needs to be accomplished each day.

This unit also includes several educational resources that both teachers and students can use to

further their understanding of new ideas. The resources used in this unit vary from informative

videos that reinforce new knowledge, to an engaging piece of literature titled, What if Rain

Boots Were Made of Paper by Kevin Beals and P. David Pearson, which encourages students to

make connections with what they learn inside the classroom to the outside world. The goal is that

students will remain engaged throughout the unit and develop their understanding on the

different components that make up buoyancy.


Essential Inquiry Question:

What are the different components used in making an effective watercraft?

Key Questions:

What makes an object float?

What are buoyant materials?

Can students define waterproof?

Can students understand how weight displacement affects buoyancy?

Prior Knowledge:

We assume students have some understanding of construction because Grade 1 has a science unit

on building things. An SLO from the building unit states that students will have an idea of how

to construct an object and models of an object using different materials. The construction

involved in the buoyancy unit will build on prior knowledge of constructing objects out of

different materials.
POS Outcomes Achieved
Science:
General Learning Outcomes, students will:
27 Construct objects that will float on and move through water, and evaluate various designs for
watercraft.

Understanding
-Students will build an effective watercraft after learning what makes objects float or sink, the importance
of waterproofing, shaping, and balancing materials, and informally developing the concept of density.
Skills
Problem Solving through Technology

General Learner Expectations:


23 Construct, with guidance, an object that achieves a given purpose, using materials that are provided
Specific Learner Expectations:
Focus
-identify the purpose of the object to be constructed: What structure do we need to make? What does it
need to do?
Explore and Investigate
attempt, with guidance, a variety of strategies to complete tasks
identify steps followed in constructing the object and in testing it to see if it works
engage in all parts of the task and allow others to make their contributions
identify materials used and how they were used
Reflect and Interpret
communicate results of construction activities, using oral language, captioned pictures, writing
describe the product and describe and explain the processes by which it was made

Attitudes
General Learner Expectations:
24 Demonstrate positive attitudes for the study of science and for the application of science in
responsible ways

Specific Learner Expectations:


Students will show growth in acquiring and applying the following traits:
curiosity
confidence in personal ability to explore materials and learn by direct study
inventiveness
appreciation of the value of experience and careful observation
a willingness to work with others and to consider their ideas

Specific Learning Outcomes:


2.1 Describe, classify and order materials on the basis of their buoyancy. Students who have achieved this
expectation will distinguish between materials that sink in water and those that float. They will also be
aware that some floaters sit mostly above water, while others sit mostly below water. The terms
buoyancy and density may be introduced but are not required as part of this learning expectation.

2. 6. Evaluate the appropriateness of various materials to the construction of watercraft, in particular:


the degree to which the material is waterproof (not porous)
the ability to form waterproof joints between parts
2.7 Develop or adapt methods of construction that are appropriate to the design task of building a boat
that will float in water
2.4. Modify a watercraft to increase the load it will carry.
2.5. Modify a watercraft to increase its stability in water.

Art
General Learning Outcome, students will:
Purpose 1: Students will record or document activities, people, and discoveries
Specific Learning Outcome:
D. Knowledge gained from study or experimentation can be recorded visually

Assessment
Formative:
The unit incorporates several activities in which the teacher will use these to check in
with students to ensure their understanding
Teacher will make frequent observations on students by noting their response to
questions and class discussions
The students will complete various worksheets that are formatively assessed to make sure
students are completing the work and learning is occurring
Summative:
Performance task: Students are required to use what they have learned throughout the
unit on buoyancy to construct their own watercraft
Students have a final boat worksheet where we will be assessing the students choices of
materials
Students will also self-assess on ways to improve their watercraft after testing it
See Rubric on page (49)

Assessment Rationale
Formative Rationale after every lesson- Formative Assessment is also embedded in lesson plan
o Lesson 1 (18)
o Lesson 2 (30)
o Lesson 3 (40)
FOR, AS, OF Learning (43)
Summative Rationale (50)

Lesson Plan #1
Grade/Subject: Gr. 2/ Science Unit: Buoyancy and Boats- Lesson 1 Duration:45min

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES

General Learning Outcomes: 27 Construct objects that will float on and move through water, and
evaluate various designs for watercraft.

Specific Learning Outcome: 2.1 Describe, classify and order materials on the basis of their buoyancy.
Students who have achieved this expectation will distinguish between materials that sink in water and
those that float. They will also be aware that some floaters sit mostly above water, while others sit
mostly below water. The terms buoyancy and density may be introduced but are not required as part of
this learning expectation.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Students will:
1.Students will demonstrate an understanding of the difference between objects that float and objects that
sink by testing different objects in water
2.. Students will explain what affects an object's ability to float or sink after observations of experiments,
predictions, and conducting of their own experiments.

KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, ATTITUDES

K- Through building and testing a variety of floating objects, students learn the importance of selecting
appropriate materials.
Students informal understanding of density and weight aid in understanding of why things sink
or float. This knowledge is a necessary step in understanding how to build an effective watercraft.

S- 2-1 Investigate, with guidance the nature of things, demonstrating an understanding what allows
objects to sink and float.

A- 24 Demonstrate positive attitudes for the study of science and for the application of science in
responsible ways.
Show growth in: curiosity, confidence in personal ability to explore materials and learn by direct study

ASSESSMENTS

Observations: Key Questions:


-Observe students ability to differentiate between objects that sink and -Can students name objects that
float sink and float?
-Observe class engagement -Do big objects always sink?
-Do small objects always float?

Written/Performance Assessments:
-Students will complete a checklist during the demonstration and during their own experiments that
allows them to identify objects that sink and float.
-The teacher will approve the worksheet, ensuring students understanding, before they move on to
exploring the materials themselves
-Students will be listening and filling out their worksheet when we are going over objects as a class.

LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED

Resource #1: Alberta Program of Study- Science K-6


Resource #2: Kids want to Know YouTube Video

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

* Popsicle sticks, balloons, weights (coins), pencils, Styrofoam cup, marshmallows, straws, crayons,
cotton balls, twigs, rocks, feathers
* 3 or 4 Rubbermaid bins filled with water
*Worksheet for students to fill out
*Video on Buoyancy

PROCEDURE

Introduction (8 min):

Hook/Attention Grabber:
-Students will come in from recess and sit at their desks
-Have a class discussion and ask students to make a guess on what they think Buoyancy is.
ASK: Has anyone heard of the word buoyancy before?
If no ASK: Can anyone take a scientific guess as to what it could be, considering we are talking
about boats today?
ASK: What are some objects that you know float? What are some objects that will sink?
This will also assess students prior knowledge on buoyancy and what float vs what sinks
-Show a brief introductory video that explains the difference between floating and sinking
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nMlXU97E-uQ Stop video at 1:32.

Expectations for Learning and Behaviour:


-Active participation during experiments. This will be monitored by the completion of their worksheet.
-Students are expected to listen and focus during the video.
-Students are expected to listen and act responsibly whilst doing the experiment.

Transition to Body: (3min)


-Review video on how light objects float and heavy objects sink
Objects that are light like a feather will float. And heavier objects are more likely to sink. Even though
the basketball was bigger it could also float because it is full of air and still lighter than a bowling ball
which is full of more stuff and heavier
Keep thinking about what you saw on the video as we move onto our activity

Body (20 min):


Learning Activity #1: (10min)
Assessments/Differentiation:
1. Give out worksheet to students.
Explain: we are going to think like scientists and predict (guess) whether an object will sink or
float.
2. Have students come gather around the bucket of water that will be placed on the round table at the front
of the room - This bucket of water and list of objects will be prepared before the class begins during
recess
3. Give a demonstration on objects that sink and float: put different objects in the water and show students
the outcome

**Before testing each object ASK students to write their prediction down by coloring in the
corresponding box on the worksheet - show them how to do this**
ASK: Do you think a rock will sink or float?
dont say anything just write your prediction down on your worksheet
When everyone has completed worksheet: Now thumbs up if you said float, thumbs down if you said
sink.. 3,2,1, show me!!
Object 1: Rock - Sinks
**Students fill out observation on worksheet and whether prediction was correct or incorrect**

ASK: Do you think a feather will sink or float?


write your prediction down on your worksheet
When everyone has completed worksheet: Now thumbs up if you said float, thumbs down if you said
sink.. 3,2,1, show me!!
Object 2: Feather - Floats
**Students fill out observation on worksheet and whether prediction was correct or incorrect**
Discussion: Why did the rock sink and the feather float?
Looking for: Because the rock is heavier than the feather.

ASK: Do you think a coin will sink or float?


write your prediction down on your worksheet
When everyone has completed worksheet: Now thumbs up if you said float, thumbs down if you said
sink.. 3,2,1, show me!!
Object 3: Coin - Float
**Students fill out observation on worksheet and whether prediction was correct or incorrect**

ASK: Do you think a balloon will sink or float?


write your prediction down on your worksheet
When everyone has completed worksheet: Now thumbs up if you said float, thumbs down if you said
sink.. 3,2,1, show me!!
Object 4: Balloon - Sink
**Students fill out observation on worksheet and whether prediction was correct or incorrect**

Discussion: (whilst students are still gathered around the bucket) Think back to the video. Even though
the coin is smaller, why did the coin sink but the balloon float?
Looking for: Because the balloon is full of air and the coin is more dense (full of stuff)

- Formative Assessment:
Teacher will check that students are engaged and understand how to make predictions by first
getting students to fill out the predictions column on their worksheet, then when most students
are done writing asking the class to show a thumbs up if they think the object will float and
thumbs down meaning it will sink.
The teacher will know students understand when seeing every hand up with a prediction.
The teacher will be able to observe the collective groups understanding of what objects float and
what objects sink by seeing their guesses develop and improve with practice through the thumbs
up strategy

Transition: (3min)

SAY: Now its your turn


EXPLAIN RULES TO STUDENTS
1. No splashing in the water
2. Must do prediction before conducting the experiment or putting anything in the water
3. Only 5 people at a station
4. Only 2 objects in the tub at a time
5. Take turns testing out different objects, give everyone an opportunity to participate
6. Fill out your worksheet!

Instruction for students:


-Before you start I need to check your worksheets and then I will tell you which table to go to
-Once you are there write down the object you have chosen to test in the correct column
-Color in your prediction like we did together
- Test the object ONLY 2 OBJECTS IN THE TUB AT A TIME - work together and share objects
- Once you have seen the results color in the prediction column
-Test the next object
-Ticket to activity: Before students can go to the bins to conduct their own experiments they must have
their worksheet filled out for the 4 objects we did as a class.

-As students bring their completed worksheet to the teacher tell them what table number to go to (1,2,3,4)
all tables have the same objects and experiment with different objects themselves
-Each table will have a bin of water and 10-15 objects

Learning Activity #2: (10min)


Assessments/Differentiation:

Formative Assessment:
Check for completion to indicate whether students understand and have a reference for what
makes objects float or sink.
Walk around room and make sure students are on task
Listen for conversations students are having whilst doing the experiments

Assessment/Expectations:
-Teacher will walk around to each group and observe: ensuring that students are on task and recognizing
the difference between objects that float and sink.
-Students will be active participants by manipulating different materials and having discussions/asking
questions.
-Students should be filling out their worksheet as they are testing different materials

Transition (5min)

Attention Grabber: Clapping rhythm pattern to get attention. Children will repeat.
Teacher will explain that students will tidy up by putting materials back where they found them, all
objects must go in a box next to each station, and use paper towel to clean up any water spills that may
have occurred. Students will then head back to their seats.

Closure (2 min):

Consolidation/Assessment of Learning:
-Students will respond to questions by more discussion and showing thumbs up or thumbs down
ASK: Were you surprised by any of your results?
ASK: Do heavy objects ALWAYS sink? Do light objects ALWAYS float?
This will show if the students understand WHY objects sink and float
Transition To Next Lesson:
Great work today, students. Tomorrow we will learn about what other factors such as type of material
affect an objects ability to float.
Sink or Float?
Object What do you What actually
(Write the object think will happened?
you have chosen here)
happen? (Color in your results)

(Color in your prediction)

Rock Sink Float Sink Float

Feather Sink Float Sink Float

Coin Sink Float Sink Float

Balloon Sink Float Sink Float


Sink Float Sink Float

Sink Float Sink Float

Sink Float Sink Float

Sink Float Sink Float

Sink Float Sink Float

Sink Float Sink Float

Formative Assessment Checklist

What is being assessed? How is it being assessed? Why are we assessing this?

Students are gaining a Students have completed their Students will use this skill so they know
deeper understanding of predictions worksheet and their what materials to use when making their
what sinks and floats predictions got better as more boat in the final summative assessment.
from the mistakes they objects were tested. Students will learn from their mistakes
make and not make the same ones on the final
WRITTEN ASSESSMENT
project.

Students have an Students are actively Students will have an understanding of


understanding of density participating in the thumbs up, what materials they can make their final
and buoyancy. thumbs down activity to make boats out of.
predictions on the objects we
Students have an test as a class.
understanding of what
floats and what sinks. VISUAL ASSESSMENT

The majority of students are


able to predict correctly with
the thumbs up thumbs down
response.
VISUAL ASSESSMENT

Students are furthering Teacher will walk around the Same as above, this is more learning and
knowledge of what sinks room and check for students growing knowledge so students know
and what floats working on the worksheet and what materials will work best for their
the conversations they are final boat
having in doing so
VISUAL ASSESSMENT

Evaluation Rationale for Formative Assessment- Lesson 1


Formative Assessment is important because it is a way to make sure students are on track and
understanding information as the lesson goes on. We need to formally assess our students by checking in
and making sure they can understand the lesson at each stage so they can be fairly tested at the summative
stage. Throughout this lesson there are several areas where formative assessment is crucial in determining
a students level of understanding. We need to make sure the assessment is fair, valid and reliable.

Validity of assessment refers to the assessment measuring what it is intended to measure. Many
of our assessments are observational. Dr. Anne Davies discusses how observation needs to ensure that
the information you are recording is related to the description of what students are to learn (Davies 48).
Our formative checklists ensure our observations are focused on students meeting the objective of the
lesson leading up to the summative assessment. Observation is valid evidence since it is measuring
students knowledge about what floats and what sinks, even though there is no written evidence, as the
teacher we still gauge that learning is occurring.
We will formatively assess students at the start before they go off and do activities through thumbs up-
thumbs down predictions. By doing the thumbs up-thumbs down formative assessment we are gauging
whether students remember what they learnt from the video they just watched. We are also getting a
different type of evidence of student understanding by doing a simple task rather than a written
assignment. By getting students to write down their answer before they put their thumbs up or down we
are getting a more valid response from students since they cannot change their answer. Observing
application of knowledge, listening to students articulate understandings, and engaging students in
demonstrating acquisition of knowledge can be valid evidence (Davies 34). In our first lesson we are
using multiple different ways of assessing students rather than just the worksheet to make sure our
formative assessment works for all students. The formative assessment we have chosen is still valid since
we as the teacher can easily see whether students are learning more about what sinks and what floats
through our observation, thumbs-up thumbs-down activity and the discussions we are having as a class.

Reliability in assessment is important as it measures whether or not a students performance on


an assessment is a true indication of their learning. In assessing the class understanding of what sinks or
floats through repeated trials and experiments it assures reliability.
When thinking of reliability think repeatability (Davies 46). Again in doing repeated experiments
students should have a better understanding of buoyancy and what sinks and what floats by the previous
tests. The more objects students test the more reliable their learning will be, since each object is proving
or disproving their previous ideas. Fewer misconceptions about what floats and what sinks will occur the
more tests students do, making their learning more reliable.
Even the instruction of our experiment is scaffold so students are provided with a model of the
experiment and are guided in their learning before testing and learning individually. This method makes
sure students know what they are suppose to be learning and in turn our formative assessment is reliable
and is a true indication of what we want students know.

If students dont know what they are to learn and what it can look like, they are handicapped and their
success is at risk (Davies 28). By repeating the knowledge students need to know it is more reliable that
students are more likely to remember the information.

Fairness in assessment refers to giving students equal opportunity to succeed in the assigned task. Our
mini unit uses fairness by directing lessons to the various learning styles: visual, tactile, kinaesthetic, and
auditory. This unit provides students with several opportunities to use the learning style they are most
comfortable with. Davies refers to the idea of fairness when working with learning styles by stating, We
need to remember that we all learn in different ways and at different times (106). Our mini unit has
multiple activities within the lessons that will accommodate the variety of learning styles in the
classroom. In lesson 1 to assess our students learning we are using the prediction worksheet to see if their
predictions become more accurate after repeated trials. By using this worksheet only formatively we are
keeping the assessment fair, since the essence of the experiment task is for students to learn - not be
experts and get all their predictions correct. By using multiple formative assessment techniques in our
lesson we are keeping assessment fair for all students. Some students may thrive in the discussion part of
the lesson, some may be nervous and do better during the hands on task.
Rationale for Teaching Strategies- Lesson 1
No Differentiation needed for the assignment:
We do not think this lesson will need differentiation, as it is largely collaborative and scaffold so the
students should succeed. There is very little reading that students have to do and instructions and
procedure are repeated several times as a class. We believe all students in our class should be able to do
this task. Also since students are working at a table together, we will encourage teamwork amongst peers
if someone is confused.
Students should succeed during the individual portion of the lesson as the class activity will go over all
the examples of why one object is better at floating than the other. Students then get to apply what they
observed to their hands on experience manipulating objects. Scaffolding and repetition should help
students to encode learning.
We used the direct instruction teaching strategy for activity one because students need to have a
demonstration of the activity so they know exactly what they are expected to do. By modeling the
experiments and working together as a class the students will have a better understanding of what to do
when they have opportunity to explore individually. We also have student involvement mixed in with the
direct instruction so students stay engaged throughout the demonstration.
Students have a better chance of being successful if they know what success looks like (Davies 19). By
modeling the task and the objectives we want students to achieve they know what is expected of them and
can succeed in this task.

For activity two we used the cooperative learning strategy and experiential learning. This type of lesson
works best for students to be doing the activity in groups and sharing materials. We also want students to
be asking questions to one another and discovering together. The hands on approach of experiential
learning is the way we think students will learn this concept best. Making incorrect predictions and seeing
objects sink or float will help students remember the concepts of the class.

Classroom Management Strategies- Lesson 1


We anticipate that this is an exciting lesson and students are likely to blurt out answers. To encourage
engagement but also manage noise level and excitement level we have implemented the thumbs up
thumbs down strategy for predictions. To avoid students rushing to the bins after the class activity,
students must wait until the teacher has checked their worksheet to start experimenting. Students are
expected to take turns conducting experiments and only test two objects at a time to ensure independent
activities can take place in an orderly manner and provide equal opportunity for everyone to test
materials. We believe this lesson sets up a positive learning environment, as students are encouraged to
participate during direct instruction and also conduct experiments to further independent learning.

Lesson Plan# 2
Grade/Subject: Grade 2/ Science Unit: Buoyancy and Boats- Lesson 2 Duration:45 min

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES

General Learning Outcomes (Cross-Curricular):


Science 27 Construct objects that will float on and move through water, and evaluate various designs for
watercraft.
Art Purpose 1: Students will record or document activities, people, and discoveries
Specific Learning Outcomes (Cross-Curricular):
Science
2. 6. Evaluate the appropriateness of various materials to the construction of watercraft, in particular:
the degree to which the material is waterproof (not porous)
the ability to form waterproof joints between parts
Art
D. Knowledge gained from study or experimentation can be recorded visually

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Students will:
1. Determine what the best waterproof objects are by making an art project out of different materials and
find out what ones hold up the best when sprayed with water
2.Determine the best attacher material for their boats by seeing which one keeps the materials on the
paper the best when sprayed with water

KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, & ATTITUDES

K (Science)- Students learn the importance of selecting appropriate materials and the importance of
workmanship in waterproofing their constructions, so they will do the intended job.
K (Art)- Students become more aware of the various artistic approaches one can take when designing a
watercraft

S (Science)- Students will develop their identification skills by exploring which materials are most
appropriate when immersed in water.
S (Art)- Students develop their artistic skills according to forms and their proportions, actions and
viewpoints and the qualities and details of those forms.

A (Science) - Students will develop a sense of responsibility for actions taken and a willingness to work
with others and to consider their ideas.
A (Art) - Students will use art materials as a vehicle or medium for saying something in a meaningful
way.
General Learner Expectations
(Science) 24 Demonstrate positive attitudes for the study of science and for the application of science in
responsible ways.
(Art) Visual images communicate to the individual and the individual can communicate through the visual
images.
Specific Learner Expectations
Students will show growth in acquiring and applying the following traits:
-willingness to work with others and to consider their ideas

ASSESSMENTS

Observations: Key Questions:


-Looking for the materials students are choosing to use -Can students define the term waterproof?
-How students work together in a group -Can students recognize what materials are
waterproof?
-Can students identify which adhesive works
best with different waterproof materials?

Written/Performance Assessments:
Exit slip: students must write down which materials they learned were waterproof

LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED

Resource #1: Alberta Program of Studies


Resource #2: Book: What if Rain Boots Were Made of Paper by Kevin Beals and P. David Pearson

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

* Paper with a picture of a boat,


* Testing materials: Tin foil, paper, cloth, plastic wrap, bubble wrap, tissue paper
*Scotch tape, Duct tape, Glue sticks

PROCEDURE
Introduction (10min.):

Hook/Attention Grabber:
(Have classroom set up with all the materials arranged on the table groups. When students come into the
class, invite them to sit on the carpet. This will keep the students from getting distracted and playing with
the materials before given instruction)

Advance Organizer/Agenda:
(This will be written on the board or a piece of chart paper for students to follow along)
1. What is Waterproof?
2. Read What if rain boots were made of paper
3. Create a craft!

Attention grabber: If you can hear me do this If you can hear me do this..
Go over agenda for lesson
ASK: Does anyone know what the term waterproof means?
If no, ASK: Can anyone take a scientific guess?
Also assessing Prior Knowledge here
Introduce book: What if rain boots were made of paper by Kevin Beals and P. David Pearson
Read book
ASK: What happened to the rain boots that were made out of paper?
Hands up if you want to answer a question
ASK: Why didnt they work?
Looking for: Because they were not waterproof
ASK: Just like how rubber made bad pans What other materials do you think would make bad rain
boots?
Looking for: Any non waterproof materials

Expectations for Learning and Behaviour: Students will be listening to story quietly on the carpet
Students will share materials and be respectful of others. They will collaborate ideas and cooperate
together on their project
Transition: (3min)

Next we are going to learn about what materials are waterproof and which materials are not in our art
project today.

Instruction - You will be working in your table groups to attach materials to a image of a boat, you
should chose to cover your boat in materials that you think are waterproof.
One group will attach the materials with glue sticks, one with scotch tape, and one with duct tape. So at
the end we can see which of these, along with the materials you chose, are the most waterproof.
You only have 10 minutes to talk about your plan with your group and attach the materials, so work fast;
this isn't a big art project.
Then we will test your boats by spraying water on them and seeing how well the material holds. We will
also learn about which tool to attach the material works best: glue or tape.

Body (10min.):

Learning Activity #1(10 min):


Assessments/Differentiation:
Students will go back to their table groups to work on project
Teacher will walk around the room and observe students being respectful and cooperative with each
other. Students should be willing to listen to others ideas.

Formative Assessment:
Teacher will check that students are meeting the Science General learning goal of an attitude or
willingness to work with others and to consider their ideas
Teacher will walk around and see what materials students are choosing to use and have conversations
with students as to why they are choosing the materials they are

Transition: (7 min)
Teacher will ask for a volunteer from each group to place the artwork to the front.
Teacher will then ask students to go back to the table groups and clean up any bits of paper, bring extra
resources to assorted bins at the front (paper bin, plastic bin, tinfoil bin).
Students will be asked to clean up glue and extra tape. Once students think they are done cleaning they
will come show the teacher they are ready by sitting quietly in their desks with their hands on their head.

Learning Activity #2 (10 min):


Assessments/Differentiation:
The teacher will spray water on each piece of art and discuss what substances stayed the same and which
ones were ruined.
We will discuss how paper, tissue paper, and cloth are not waterproof as they absorb the water.
We will talk about how tinfoil, plastic, and bubble wrap do not change as they do not hold the water and
are waterproof.
We will then compare the boats that were made with glue vs. boats made with tape to discuss which helps
join material better/ is more waterproof?

Transition: (2 min)

Consolidation/Assessment of Learning:
Asking questions by pulling popsicle sticks with student names
ASK: If you were to build your own boat, would bubble wrap or cloth be a good material to use? Why?
-This example will act as a summary of everything we just learned and ensure that students can
differentiate between waterproof and non-waterproof objects. This will be important for the next lesson
when students will start to construct their own boat.
Formative Assessment:
Teacher will assess that students understand what waterproof materials are by pulling popsicle
sticks to ask students to share during group discussion

Closure (3 min.):
-Students will fill out an exit slip, which will require them to identify which items are waterproof, which
items are not waterproof, and which materials are best for attaching items together.
-Students will bring slips to the teacher
- The exit slip is another form of formative assessment to reinforce material
EXIT SLIP EXIT SLIP
What material did you learn is waterproof? What material did you learn is waterproof?

______________________________________ ______________________________________

What material did you learn is not waterproof? What material did you learn is not waterproof?

______________________________________ ______________________________________

Circle the most waterproof tool to stick materials Circle the most waterproof tool to stick materials
to paper to paper

Glue Duct Tape Scotch Glue Duct Tape Scotch


Tape Tape

EXIT SLIP EXIT SLIP


What material did you learn is waterproof? What material did you learn is waterproof?

______________________________________ ______________________________________

What material did you learn is not waterproof? What material did you learn is not waterproof?

______________________________________ ______________________________________

Circle the most waterproof tool to stick materials Circle the most waterproof tool to stick materials
to paper to paper
E.g., Of boat worksheet where students will attach materials to determine if they are waterproof
Formative Assessment

What is being How is it being assessed? Why are we assessing this?


assessed?

Students are working The teacher will walk around Students will be working together on their
cooperatively and the room and observe how final boat and need to learn how to cooperate
respectfully with students are working together. with one another.
others
VISUAL ASSESSMENT

Students will complete the exit This will show that students understand what
slip before they leave the materials are waterproof and the best
class. materials to use for their boat and to connect
their final boat together
WRITTEN ASSESSMENT

Students will be able to answer Again students will show an understanding


Students understand the questions in the group of what is waterproof, so they can choose the
what waterproof discussion. best materials for their final summative
materials are assessment.
ORAL ASSESSMENT

Teacher will have


conversations with students to
get them to explain why they
are using the materials they
choose whilst students are
doing the art task
ORAL ASSESSMENT

Students understand When we are discussing the This is making real world connections as to
the concepts of the book at the start of the lesson, the importance of waterproof materials. This
book and how to the teacher will recognize is more than just the summative assessment,
implement waterproof which students have an answer by understanding this concept students will
materials into to every question and which understand why certain materials are used
everyday problems students are still showing for everyday waterproof objects, and why
boats are made out of waterproof materials.
uncertainty.
Both real life boats and their summative
VISUAL & ORAL assessment boats.
ASSESSMENT
Evaluation Rationale for Formative Assessment- Lesson 2

Validity: One form of formative assessment we are using in this class, like in lesson 1, is observation and
conversation. Observation is a great formative assessment tool to use in the classroom because students
don't realize they are being assessed and are less likely to panic about the assessment. Students just see
you as being the teacher walking around and talking to each student individually. There is no anxiety of
assessment making the assessment more valid because it is assessing the content of what we want to
assess and not the nerves of the student. Also, this assessment is valid because the teacher knows the SLO
they are trying to reach and by simply listening to conversations students are having the teacher can gauge
whether students are learning the content. We are using the exit slip for students as a form of formative
assessment because it is a simple way to check understanding as student leave the door. It is also
something we can look at and easily see the concepts students do not understand and revisit them the next
day. Exit slips are valid because the questions we ask on the slip are specifically what we wanted the
students to know by the end of the class. So, we know for sure that students have or have not learnt what
we wanted them to learn. Students are sharing their knowledge on what they know to be waterproof with
us so we can see what students learnt from the day. When students share their thinking with teachers,
students learn more and teacher teach better (Davies 11) the exit slips are more than just a valid
assessment, they act as a learning tool for teachers and how they should progress with their next class.

Fairness: The teacher is using the observation assessment as a tool to give students who seem to struggle
extra help. This assessment method is fair because if the teacher walks around the rooms and has
conversations with students about their material choices each student gets a chance to explain themselves
and their ideas. Some students are better able to show what they know by doing it(18). By observing
students in smaller groups we will be able to see who understands what waterproof materials are by their
choices and how they defend those choices to their peers. Some students are shy in front of a big group
and don't answer questions but thrive when asked to go in smaller groups, if we observe how they talk to
their peers in small groups it will give us a fairer assessment of their knowledge. We won't be assessing
students ability to talk in front of their class, but we will be assessing the actual knowledge they have.

Reliability: After reading the book we will have a discussion about the book and the contents of what are
waterproof materials. We are using the student's comments and participation from the conversation to
assess what they know. We are constantly throughout the lesson orally assessing students about what
materials are waterproof and getting them to defend their decisions. Through repetition, they are able to
take what they are learning and apply it at deeper and deeper levels (Davies 7) Throughout the duration
of the lesson we are constantly having conversations with students and repeatedly asking them what is
waterproof, why they are choosing the materials they are choosing etc. This makes our assessment more
reliable; as we are constantly assessing students in multiple ways we get a better understanding of
students knowledge.
Rationale for Teaching Strategies- Lesson 2
No Differentiation needed for the assignment:
This lesson plan implements interactive instruction and collaborative learning in order to engage students.
Differentiation is not needed as we have scaffold the assignment and students can be helped by their
group members and the teacher during the project. This lesson is scaffold as we start with reading a book
that talks about waterproof materials and gets students thinking about other items that may also be
waterproof. Students then work together in groups to make their waterproof craft. We have used these
instructional strategies, as social interaction is fundamental to cognitive development. Students have an
opportunity to learn from their peers and are more likely to remember information from the lesson
because it is a novel assignment. We also encourage that students learn from mistakes when testing the
materials and recognizing that not all of the student's crafts will be completely waterproof. Having
students reflect with an exit slip, naming a waterproof material they have learned about also encourages
reflective learning.

Classroom Management Strategies- Lesson 2


In order to reduce distraction and transition into the beginning of the lesson we have students come in
from recess and sit at the carpet so the crafting materials on their desks do not distract them. To have
timely and organized transitions we have set up the crafting supplies ahead of the lesson during recess.
When students have completed their artwork, the teacher will ask for a volunteer to bring all the work to
the front. This will be most effective, as it will eliminate any additional commotion when trying to wrap
up for the day. The student will also have time at the end of the lesson to clean up all the art supplies and
their workspace.
Lesson Plan #3
Grade/Subject: Grade 2/ Science Unit: Buoyancy and Boats- Lesson 3 Duration: 40 min

OUTCOMES FROM ALBERTA PROGRAM OF STUDIES

General Learning Outcomes:


27 Construct objects that will float on and move through water, and evaluate various designs for
watercraft.

Specific Learning Outcomes:


2.7 Develop or adapt methods of construction that are appropriate to the design task of building a boat
that will float in water
2.4. Modify a watercraft to increase the load it will carry.
2.5. Modify a watercraft to increase its stability in water.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Students will:
1. Demonstrate their knowledge that distribution of weight and the shape / structure of an object will
affect an object's buoyancy by testing various tin foil watercrafts using weight in the water

KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, & ATTITUDES

K - Through the testing of the construction of the tin foil boats, students learn the importance of
workmanship in shaping, positioning and fitting their constructions, so they will do the intended job.

S - General Learner Expectations


Students will: 23 Construct with guidance, an object that achieves a given purpose, using materials that
are provided.
Specific Learner Expectations
Students will:
Focus
identify the purpose of the object to be constructed: What structure do we need to make? What does it
need to do?
Reflect and Interpret
communicate results of construction activities in writing

A -General Learner Expectations


Students will: 24 Demonstrate positive attitudes for the study of science and for the application of
science in responsible ways.
Specific Learner Expectations
Students will show growth in acquiring and applying the following traits:
-curiosity
-appreciation of the value of experience and careful observation

ASSESSMENTS

Observations: Key Questions:


-Students willingness to participate as a class when distributing coins -Can students determine what
on each shape shapes hold the most amount of
weight when placed in the
-Students willingness to participate individually when filling out the
water?
worksheet
-Can students determine how
-If students are able to explain why the square shape was most
weight should be distributed
effective
when constructing a watercraft?
-Ensuring that students have a strong understanding on all the
components that goes into constructing a watercraft by the end of the
review learning activity
Written/Performance Assessments:
-Students will complete a worksheet where they can make predictions on what will happen when they add
weight to different designs of a boat

LEARNING RESOURCES CONSULTED

Resource #1: Alberta Program of Studies


Resource #2: https://www.pinterest.ca/pin/119345458846467427/

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

-There will be five pre-made boat structures made out of tinfoil: square, circle, triangle, thin rectangle and
a very tiny circle for comparison
-Coins (weight)

PROCEDURE

Introduction (5 min.):

Hook/Attention Grabber:
-Show students an image of a square, circle, triangle, and thin rectangle and ASK them to identify the
name of each shape
-This will be a simple task that encourages students to think back on what they already know, before
introducing them to a new topic. This simple task is also something we know students can accomplish so
will start the lesson off on a positive note.
-After the students identify the name of each shape, ASK them to think about which shape would work
best when creating a boat: Which shape do you think will float better in the water? Which shape do
you think would be able to hold more weight?. Today we are going to find out

Transition: (4min)

Students will be given a worksheet and asked to draw the shape of the boat that they predict will
be able to float with the most weight (number of pennies).
Underneath they will write their hypothesis and why they think that boat will float the best with
the most weight

Body (28min.):

Learning Activity #1 (15 min):


Assessments/Differentiation:
Teacher will test the different tin foil boat shapes ability to float under water by adding a penny to
the boat until it sinks.
Teacher will call up students to take turns adding pennies to the boat and make sure students are
engaged and involved.
As we are adding pennies to the boat, be sure to talk about how pennies must be evenly
distributed for the boat to be most stable. If all pennies are in one corner even the most
stable boat will tip over
Students will record in their worksheets how many pennies each boat held before it sunk
Lesson will conclude with the large square shaped boat being able to hold the most pennies when
balancing/ distributing the weight evenly throughout the boat

Formative Assessment:
Teacher will check to make sure students are filling out their worksheets.
The teacher will check for active participation by having students add pennies and make guesses as to
whether it will hold additional weight during the experiment

Transition (3min)

Students who have been helping with the experiment will return to their desks and all students will fill out
the remainder of their worksheet.
Students will record that the square shaped boat was able to stay afloat with the most pennies
Learning Activity #2 (10 min):
Assessments/Differentiation
(This activity will act as more of a review to ensure students understand all the different components that
go into constructing a watercraft: ability to float, waterproof materials and distribution of weight)

Ask questions from a group member at each of the table groups for the questions
-ASK students: Why do you think the square shape was able to hold the most pennies?
Answer: Because the square had the largest surface it was able to balance and distribute the weight and
stay afloat
Review other factors that affect buoyancy:
Waterproof materials:
ASK : Is the tinfoil we used today waterproof?
Looking for: yes this proves students remember what waterproof means from the
day before
- ASK : Class to raise their hands and share different materials we learned are waterproof
from previous class and why
Answer: bubble wrap, plastic, are waterproof because they do not absorb the
water and are able to stay afloat
Discussion: Next class we will be constructing and testing our own boats ability to float. What do we
need to remember when building our own boats?
Looking for:
Using waterproof materials
Heavier objects usually sink and lighter objects usually float
Larger objects does not necessarily mean heavier objects
Review from lesson one our discussion about the basketball vs. bowling ball and
which object was able to float
- Boats need to have weight equally balanced on all sides
- Larger surface area for the base of the boat will help its ability to float and bear weight

Formative Assessment:
-Make sure that students from each group are participating and giving answers to each of the questions
-If students were struggling during any of the previous lessons, this will be a good time to go over any
other questions they may have before they start to build their own watercraft
- Check that students have completed their worksheet to show they understand weight displacement
affects buoyancy

Consolidation/Assessment of Learning:
-At this point, students should have a solid understanding on the different steps required to construct their
own watercraft

Closure (1 min.):

Next class we will be constructing our own boats based on the knowledge we have learnt so far. When
you go home tonight be thinking about what materials you would like to use for your boats and how you
would like them to look
Name:________________

BOATS EXPERIMENT

Draw the boat you think will hold the most pennies

Hypothesis: Why do you think this boat will hold the most pennies?

______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
___________________________________

Record the number of pennies each boat held:


Large circle Square Long Small circle Triangle

Which boat shape worked the best?

_____________________________________________________

Formative Checklist- Lesson 3

What is being How it is being assessed? Why are we assessing this?


assessed?

Students -Assessed by listening to students This is a very simple task, yet is


background responses essential that students have this
knowledge knowledge so that they are prepared
-Initiating conversation by asking students
for their own construction.
to identify basic shapes. This is the first
step students need to make before creating
their own watercraft.
VISUAL ASSESSMENT

Students -The teacher will invite the students to take We are formatively assessing this to
willingness to turns coming up to the front of the class ensure the students are engaged with
engage and and dropping pennies into the boat. The the lesson. Students will be able to
participate with teacher will notice the students who may visually see what happens when they
the class. seem less engaged and encourage them to add weight to materials in water and
participate to increase their understanding. therefore increase their understanding
using a hands-on approach to
VISUAL ASSESSMENT learning.

Students -Teacher will walk around the class and We are formatively assessing this so
participation in make sure that students are completing the that students have the opportunity to
completing the worksheet by drawing which shape for a learn through their observations. The
worksheet. boat would be the best fit for holding worksheet acts as a tool that students
weights and providing a reason as to why. can use to develop their
The worksheet acts as an exit slip that lets understanding.
the teacher know that the student is ready
to start constructing his or her own
watercraft.
VISUAL AND WRITTEN
ASSESSMENT

Students -During the review part of the lesson, the We are formatively assessing this to
participation in teacher will recognize which students have see which students are being active
answering an answer to every question and which learners and which students still need
questions during students are still showing uncertainty. more clarification. The teacher will
group discussion. give students the opportunity to ask
VISUAL ASSESSMENT questions so that they have a solid
understanding on the material before
building their own watercraft.

Formative Assessment Rationale- Lesson 3

Reliability: The teacher will formatively assess their students by ensuring that students have
developed a solid understanding of all of the material discussed in the unit thus far. This will be
done by giving students the opportunity to ask question and bring forth any components they are
still struggling to comprehend. The teacher will observe which students respond more frequently
than others and if necessary, the teacher will ask direct questions to those students who are still
unsure about which shape of a boat will most effectively carry distributed weight, or on any
other material covered throughout the unit. Davis mentions in his book the importance of using
repetition in the classroom by stating, Through repetition, they are able to take what they are
learning and apply it at deeper and deeper levels (Davis, 7). In other words, when teachers
reiterate information and go over some of the concepts learned earlier in the unit, students are
able to analyze what they are learning with more of a critical perspective. Reviewing content and
opening up discussion at the end of a unit will allow teachers to observe each students status of
understanding. This also relates to the idea of reliability in which repeating new knowledge will
reinforce the information and deepen a student's understanding. The teacher will track the
progress of each students development of learning. A classroom assessment article mentions
that reliability is when assessments are consistent. If teachers choose to regularly review
information, students will have a better time storing what they learn into their long-term
memory.
Fairness: A simple way we are formatively assessing students is by simply making sure they are
engaged and filling out the worksheet we provided them with. While the students fill out their
worksheets, the teacher will walk around the room and make sure students are on the right track
and know what they are required to do. This worksheet may be completed differently, where
some students identify the circle boat shape to be the most appropriate structure for holding
weights and other students think the square. However, this assessment is still considered to be
fair because the teacher is simply using the worksheet as a tool to strengthen the students
understanding on the distribution of weight. The worksheet is formatively assessed to remind
students that the essence of experimenting is not to always have the correct answer, rather to
encourage students to continue being active learners. Davis recognizes this thought in his book
by stating, When students have time to think about their learning...and decide what needs to be
changed or improved, they can set goals (19). Teachers will formatively assess the worksheet to
promote growth in students and to motivate them to consider new ways of thinking.
Validity: This lesson demonstrates validity by formatively assessing students on material
relevant to the course outcome. The article on classroom assessment explains validity by stating,
Validity refers to the accuracy of an assessment- whether or not it measures what its suppose to
measure. In other words, the students do not always have to show the correct answers, as long
as the assignment and certain answers to questions are related to what they are learning. The
teacher will observe to ensure students are succeeding throughout the lesson; ultimately
preparing them for the summative task.

Rationale for Teaching Strategies- Lesson 3


Slight differentiation needed in Learning Activity 1, but no differentiation needed in Learning
Activity 2

There is very little differentiation needed throughout this lesson because it mostly revolves
around discussion between teacher and student. However, there may be some students who
struggle with writing. In order to accommodate this challenge, we could alter the first assignment
where instead of asking the students to write a hypothesis, they could chose to meet with the
teacher and verbally explain why they chose the shape they did. By giving students the option to
write or verbally express themselves, students will be able to have freedom in conveying their
ideas.

Direct instruction is a teaching strategy used not only in this lesson, but also those prior to it. It
allows students to learn from their teacher through demonstration but also from one another. The
first activity encourages teamwork amongst the students where they are each invited to come up
to the front of the class and place a coin in the boat for demonstration. This task will keep
students engaged by getting them up and moving as well as interacting with one another. This
strategy is great for getting all students involved and motivated to learn.
The second learning activity uses the strategy of revision and repetition. Revising information
allows students to spend time thinking about everything they learned. Davis expands on this by
stating, When we have more time to think about our learning, we learn more (18). In other
words, by asking students to think about how they want to make their boats, we are giving
students the time to think and process their knowledge. This activity also encourages
communication between students where they can bounce their ideas off one another; in turn
learning from what each person has to say.

This lesson uses teaching strategies that apply to all types of learners. Visual learners are able to
apply what they see in the demonstration to their individual worksheets. Tactile learners will
gain understanding by physically holding the weight and placing it into the boat. Kinesthetic
learners will be engaged through movement where they will walk from their seat to the front of
the class. Finally, auditory learners will retain new knowledge by listening to instruction from
the teacher and participating in class discussion.

By the end of this lesson, students should have a strong understanding of the different
components that go into constructing a watercraft. This lesson provides students will additional
time at the end to go over anything they may still find challenging. Reviewing material at the end
of a unit is an effective strategy teachers can use to revisit some ideas introduced earlier on. This
will ultimately prepare students for the summative task.

Classroom Management Strategies- Lesson 3

When developing lessons, it is important to keep in mind how students will transition from one
activity to the next. This lesson uses both group work and individual work; therefore, it is
essential that the teacher provides clear instruction to ensure students understanding. The
students may be experiencing a lot of excitement when taking turns going up to the front of the
class but at the same time, they need to be completing their worksheet. In order for this to be
done efficiently, the students need to be seating in their seats until their name is called to come
up to the front. The teacher needs to be observant and take control of the class if it starts to get
out of hand. The teacher can use a variety of strategies to grab the attention of their students, e.g.,
countdown method, eyes on me, repeat clapping pattern, etc. By having the entire class take
turns participating on one task, students should feel encouraged to participate. However, if some
students do not want to participate in the class demonstration, they can observe from their seats
and continue to fill out their worksheet.
Assessment FOR, AS, and OF Learning
Assessment FOR Learning
Assessment for learning formatively assesses the student's learning progress. Assessment for
learning is important as it allows the teacher to assess students learning and assess the
effectiveness of their instruction. If the teacher recognizes that students are struggling with
certain concepts during the assessment for learning they can adjust their instruction or focus on
reviewing certain concepts so that when it comes to the summative assessment of learning
students are being fairly assessed on what they are being taught..

Observations and worksheets- One way we are formatively assessing our lessons by
using the worksheet we are giving our students. By filling out the worksheet students will
be using their knowledge and making predictions before doing the actual experiment
itself. This is a formative assessment for learning since students are learning as they go
through the worksheet.

Assessment AS Learning
Assessment as learning is important as it allows for students to grow in their learning through
assessment. This assessment involves self and/or peer evaluation and focuses on reflection
rather than grading. Dr. Davies discusses how [f]requent self-assessment ensures the focus stays
on the learning (Davies 57)

Providing self-feedback and self-assessment- Self feedback/assessment is a form of as


learning, where students are learning as they go through the assessment task. The
mistakes students make are a tool students should be using to learn and grow their
knowledge about what makes something sink or float. The mistakes students make in
their previous predictions compared to their realization of what actually happens to
objects is a form of self feedback. Davis discusses this by stating, Mistakes provide
assessment evidence- they give learners feedback about what is not working and bring
them closer to knowing what will work (16).
Exit slip in Lesson 2- This is assessment as learning because students are given the
opportunity to show the teacher what they have learned. An assessment article
emphasizes this point by explaining how students can use this form of assessment to
further their own learning. Students will revisit some of the main ideas learned
throughout the lesson so that they can reinforce new knowledge.
We also use discussion as a form of as learning. By having discussions students are
learning from what they hear from other students and the teacher. As they go through the
discussion and get assessed on what they know student are also expanding their
knowledge of what they dont know.
We think it is okay to have the summative task contribute to AS learning. It is a reflective
piece that not only focuses on the success of a task, but also understanding what
happened and how to improve.

Assessment OF Learning
Once students have had opportunities for assessment for learning and as learning, assessment of
learning can take place. Assessment of learning involves summative assessment where
assessment clearly measures and records what the student has learned. Summative assessment is
important as we need to have a method of recording the student's progress and provide evidence
of student learning. See Summative Rationale (Pg. 50)
Summative Project
Activity Plan for Summative Project - Building a Buoyant Watercraft
GLO 27 Construct objects that will float on and move through water, and evaluate various
designs for watercraft.
SLO 2.7 Develop or adapt methods of construction that are appropriate to the design task of
building a boat that will float in water
SLO 2.9 Explain why a given material, design or component is appropriate to the design
task.
Materials:
milk cartons, water bottles, popsicle sticks, scotch tape, duct tape, bubble wrap, tin foil, egg
cartons, straws, glue

Objectives:
1. Students will demonstrate an understanding of factors that affect buoyancy such as waterproof
materials, weight, distribution of weight by building an effective watercraft
2. Students will explain their choice of materials to demonstrate knowledge of waterproof
materials and buoyancy
3. Students will reflect on their experiments and suggest improvements they could have made to
improve buoyancy and design

Procedure
Activity #1 (30 min)
Students will be given the class period to build boats that will meet criteria we have been
studying for the last three units
Students must build a boat using waterproof materials that can be balanced and float in
the water with a load of 10 pennies being added to it
Teacher will read instructions to students and the requirements for the students boats will
also be listed on their worksheet
Students will work in pairs to build their boats and must demonstrate respect and
cooperation when building their boats
Students will be asked to explain their choice of materials to ensure they understand the
importance of waterproof materials and workmanship of materials (Verbal Formative
Assessment)

Formative Assessment:
-Teacher will formatively assess by walking around and checking/approving their plan of
materials they will use and design of their watercraft to ensure students are considering factors
that affect buoyancy
- The teacher will practice visual formative assessment in walking around and observing groups
of students to check that they are on task and set them up for success

Activity #2 (30 min)


In the second class period students will present their boat and test it in front of the class
Students will then be asked to reflect on why they think their boat was able to float or
sink
Students will reflect on their worksheet one change they could have made to their boat to
improve its buoyancy engaging with concepts such as weight, distribution of a load,
waterproof and structure of materials, and balance of their watercraft (written Summative
Assessment)

Name:______________

The final boat


Task: Using all the knowledge you have learnt so far you have been assigned the
task to build a boat out of 3-5 waterproof materials provided that will float and
hold 10 pennies.

Draw your boat design here:


Complete the following table. Use words like buoyancy and waterproof in your
explanation of why you used each material.

Material Used Why?


Did your boat float? (circle the correct response)

YES NO

Reflection:

If you could change your boat to make it better, what would you do?

______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

Summative Rubric

Task Excellent Good Satisfactory Limited

SLO 2.4 Student has created Student has created a Student has created a Student has
a boat that can float boat that can float but boat that can float created a boat
Student while holding 10 can only hold but can not hold any but it does not
designs a boat pennies approximately 5 additional weight float
that is buoyant pennies
and able to
float while
holding 10
pennies

SLO 2. 6. Student has used 3- Student has used 3-5 Student has used less Student has
Student 5 materials that are materials that are than 3 materials but used less than
designs a boat all waterproof mostly waterproof they are waterproof 3 materials
that uses at and the
least 3-5 watercraft is
materials that not
waterproof
are waterproof
SLO 2.9 Student clearly Students clearly Student identifies Students does
identifies why they identifies why they some of their not identify
Student
used all their used some of their materials used but why they
explains the
materials using materials using words doesn't mention used any of
choices they
words such as such as waterproof or waterproof or their
made for the
waterproof and buoyant buoyant in their materials
design of the
buoyant explanation
boat

SLO 2.7 The Student identifies Student identifies one Student identifies a Student is
Students one way to improve way to improve their way to improve their unable to
reflection their boat and boat and it is clear boat but reasoning identify a
identifies at explicitly connects there is an does not demonstrate way to
least one way their reasoning to understanding of an understanding of improve their
to improve previous knowledge waterproof materials, waterproof, weight, watercraft.
about waterproof weight and/or and/or balancing
their
materials, weight, balancing weight weight distribution.
watercraft
and/or balancing distribution but it is
weight distribution not explicitly stated.

SUMMATIVE RATIONALE
Summative assessment is important, as we need to have a method of recording the student's

progress and have evidence of student learning. Assessment for learning will be monitored during

formative assessment leading up to the final project. In lesson one the teacher will check that students

understand how weight and size affect an objects ability to float. In lesson two the exit slip will help

teachers to determine that students understand the importance of waterproof materials. In lesson three the

teacher will be able to visually assess through observation and engagement with students if they

understand how load and weight distribution affects an object's buoyancy. Checking that students are

confident in this previous knowledge sets them up for success with the summative project. During the

project the teacher has a final opportunity to formatively assess and ensure students have developed their

learning process by checking the students plan for their boat. The teacher can check that students use of

materials and design will relate to the boat's buoyancy and provide verbal feedback when needed. The

summative assessment is needed for an assessment of learning. Students application of floating a boat and
their level of success in this task will determine whether they understood the components that are

necessary to make an object float. Students will demonstrate this when their boat floats with the added

weight of the pennies, is balanced, and waterproof. To engage with assessment AS learning, we have

provided students with an opportunity to reflect on what went well in their project and what areas they

can improve on. By having the reflection be apart of the summative grade, the self-assessment ensures

the focus stays on learning (Davies 57) rather than success or failure with the boat being able to float.

The self-assessment will allow teachers to understand what students are thinking and have a better idea of

where the student may need more instruction or assistance in their learning. The validity and reliability of

this mini-unit can be maintained based on observations formatively and during summative assessment.

Our formative checklists ensure our observations are focused on students meeting the objective of the

lesson. The worksheet provided clearly asks students to show what they have learned from previous units

such as waterproof materials, structure, and weight displacement and our rubric is designed to meet

objectives listed in the activity plan. Our assessment should be reliable as the concepts in our summative

lesson are repetition from the first three lessons, as aforementioned Davies states when focusing on

reliability think repeatability (46). In James MacMillans article on Classroom Assessment, he states

[f]airness is enhanced by student knowledge of learning targets before instruction, the opportunity to

learn, [and] the attainment of prerequisite knowledge and skills (76). Our assessment focuses on fairness

as students have already tested boats under the weight of materials and tested what materials are

waterproof so they should be familiar with these concepts. Thus, students are being assessed on concepts

they have already had opportunity to learn and engaged with prerequisite skills needed for this task. We

have also scaffolded our lessons so that students have had exposure to the different components that make

a boat float and should be able to independently show what they know. Dr. Davies also discusses how

evidence of learning needs to be diverse because it requires performance and self-assessment or

reflection to demonstrate application and the ability to articulate understandings (Davies 34). We believe

our assessment is diverse as it has reflective and performative elements and this diversity makes it a fair

and well-rounded assessment.


Reflection/ Rationale

Our mini-unit is designed to give students hands on experience and real life examples in

order to engage with their understanding of buoyancy. Students will become scientists and

through their experiments, they will discover what allows a watercraft to float, repel water and

carry weight. This unit incorporates a sufficient amount of hands on interaction and personal

reflection. Students will use what they learn in the first lesson to develop their understanding in

the lessons to follow. This method of learning is how we are providing scaffolding for our

students. Each lesson students are developing the skills they need for the final project. In other

words, the information learned in all of the lessons relate to each other in answering the

overarching question of how to make the best boat. The focus of this unit is for students to be

active in their learning. When applying this unit to the various learning styles (visual, tactile,
kinesthetic, auditory, etc.), it becomes clear that the approach is focused on learner-centered

ideology. Every student has a different way they learn best and so this unit is great for focusing

on accommodating the needs of students.

In an actual classroom setting, it would be challenging to have this mini unit split up into

only three lessons. Ideally, we would spend more time focusing on each of the sub questions to

ensure students have enough hands on interaction and personal reflection. We also realize the

fact that this unit is directed towards a grade two class, so it may take more time to get through

all the material in the time given. Time management is a key component that needs to be

considered when developing a unit plan.

Our lesson is designed to enhance student engagement by having a variety of hands on

techniques to keep student moving. We focus on using the environmental learning approach in

our lessons as we feel like the concepts we are teaching our students will be best learnt from first

hand experience. We utilize several different teaching strategies to engage all kinds of learners

and get students to think about things in different ways. In lesson 1 and 3 we focus on direct

instruction when doing experiments with the boats to model expectations for when students build

their own boats or conduct tests on their own. We scaffold learning so we first have discussion

and/or practical examples as an entire class before letting students engage in collaborative and

experiential learning. Students are able to work together in lesson 2 to analyze what materials are

waterproof and then learn from experience whether or not the materials are effective for a

watercraft. We believe many people learn best by learning by doing and have set up our lessons

so there is opportunity to learn through experimentation rather than just observation and direct

instruction.
The use of assessment to influence instruction is valuable for both the teacher and the

student. We use assessment to evaluate what our students have learned and how well they

learned the concepts. However, in order for assessment to be fair it is important the teacher

makes sure the students have been sufficiently taught the concepts. When the teacher writes out

rubrics and other forms of assessment for the students it also holds the teacher accountable. In

writing out assessments and sharing with the students then the students know what is expected of

them and the teacher knows what they must teach in order to ensure student success when it

comes to summative assessment.

Classroom climate sets the tone for the lessons and level of engagement. We want our

classroom to be a positive environment and we will encourage active participation and

emphasize that mistakes do not mean failure. It is better to take risks and make mistakes than to

not try at all. The intent is that students will visualize their mistakes as a learning experience and

ultimately use them to develop their own understanding.

References
-Davies, Anne. (2011). Making Classroom Assessment Work (3rd ed.). Courtenay, BC:

Connect2Learning

-McMillan, James H. (2001) Classroom Assessment: Principles and Practice for Effective

Instruction (2nd edition). Virginia Commonwealth University. Allyn and Bacon.

-Na. (2010). Assessment FOR, OF and AS learning, Growing Success. Na. Web.

http://www.tvdsb.ca/webpages/takahashid/techdia.cfm?subpage=128207

-Na. (na). Reliability and Validity- Classroom Assessment. Na, Web.

http://fcit.usf.edu/assessment/basic/basicc.html