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Neuro Fuzzy Modeling of Control Systems.

Conference Paper January 2006


DOI: 10.1109/CONIELECOMP.2006.42 Source: DBLP

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NEURO FUZZY MODELING OF CONTROL SYSTEMS

Efrn Gorrostieta, Carlos Pedraza


Centro de Ingeniera y Desarrollo Industrial CIDESI, Av Pie de La Cuesta 702. Des. San Pablo.
Quertaro, Qro, Mxico
gorrostieta@iteso.mx jpedraza@cidesi.mx

Abstract Most of the time when we face the modeling of a


system, we counted only with the input-output data
The analysis of the models is carried out starting that describes the system. Hence, we must consider a
from experimental data of a multivariable system black box with several inputs and outputs.
MISO (Many Input Single Output). The models In order to obtain the fuzzy modeling of dynamical
implementation was made using fuzzy logic. In fuzzy systems, we must remember that these systems are
logic, the cluster technique was used to decrease the generally modeled by a state function, like in eq. 1
number of rules to use in the identification. This
technique is opposed to the conventional method which
requires a considerable number of fuzzy inference
y (k ) f ( y (k  n), u (k )) (1)
rules to approach the model. In the consequence of
fuzzy model, different techniques are used to
implement Takagi-Sugeno type rules. By other hand, where f is denominated the transition state function.
we implemented the Neuro-fuzzy modeling methods, This function is used by the fuzzy dynamic model. The
which let represent the non-linear system and at the most common function utilized in this case is the ARX
same time a system with some learning degree using (Auto Regressive eXogenous), which is shown in eq.
different topologies. By comparison the goodness of 2; where y(k) is the system output, u(k) represents the
each method is obtained. system inputs, e(k) represents a white noise signal, and
n is the models order [3].
1. Introduction n n (2)
INSIDE the control of engineering systems, one of
y (k ) a
j 1
j y ( k  j )  b j u ( k  j )  e( k )
j 0
the most important tasks is the control systems
modeling. At the present time, there are many forms to
do this modeling. During the past years, the
improvement of the expert systems has allowed to
incorporate new methods to conventional techniques, The Takagi-Sugeno model has a very particular
such like the neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic structure, mainly in the consequent part; therefore this
algorithms. In the year of 1965 Lofti Zadeh in the structure can be represented by:
University of California makes the first publication on
fuzzy logic in the Journal of Information and Control, If X is Ai then yi=Fi(x)
titled Fuzzy Set [1]. This publication was the
beginning of many later works related to the The left part corresponds to the antecedent, and for this
application of the fuzzy logic in the control systems. particular case it is evaluated if the input variable X has
Without a doubt, one of the most relevant works was the value assigned by the diffuse variable A, which can
the one of the Takagi-Sugeno, whom drew up the be a linguistic variable that is used in the fuzzy
directive of the fuzzy systems modeling [2]. systems. However, the value of the Y variables cant
be a linguistic value. Function F which corresponds to
the consequent has a defined structure, as can be seen

Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (CONIELECOMP 2006)
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in eq. 3, which is very similar for all the rules and the Then, the fuzzy function expressed with the new
only one changing values are in the input vector X. assignment is represented by the vector multiplying as
Also, the F value can be simply a constant. shown in eq. 7

F ( x) aT x  b (3) y T T [ n (x) (7)

As we can see, the structure of the consequent could Where Tis defined by eq. 8 and [n(x) is defined by
correspond to eq. 2, and this similarity is an advantage eq. 9
to relate the ARX model with the Takagi-Sugeno
technique.
T [a11, a12  , a1n ] (8)
An inconvenience of using ARX is that this model n
[ n ( x) [[1 , [ 2 x,[ n x ] (9)
represents a linear relationship, and for the particular
case of a system that represents a non-linear
relationship it is necessary to built many ARX To know the values of the constants from the T
structures. Finally, in the last part of this paper a vectorthe least squares method is used due to the
Neuro-fuzzy model is proposed by using a Neural form the function adopts [4][5][6].
Network to approximate the results of the model to the
real system. Once the structure is defined, we face the problem
of defining the number of necessary rules to obtain the
2. Fuzzy Model system model. The number of necessary rules is a
function of the number of fuzzy partitions made in
The fuzzy system of the type Takagi- Sugeno[2] is each linguistic variables. This number of rules can be
represented by the eq. 4 obtained from eq. 10. [7]


k
Pi (aiT x  bi ) Kr nf v (10)
y i 1
k
(4)
i 1
Pi
Where Kr is the number of rules, nf is the number
of linguistic terms or partitions from the fuzzy variable
Another way to express this equation is by and v is the number of the variables from the system.
separating the membership functions of the For instance, if we consider a system with 3 partitions
denominator and leave the corresponding for each or fuzzy subsets and 2 variables, the number of rules
numerator, remember that in this structure the changes will be Kr=9, by increasing a fuzzy partition in each
are due to the variables that represent the present variable, the number of rules will increase until 16. If
inputs, the outputs and the previous inputs. On we want our model to have a better approximation to
equation 5, the same fuzzy function is represented with the real system, we have to increase the fuzzy
this new order. partitions in each variable and consequently the
number of the rules will increase exponentially
P i ( x ) ai 0 P i ( x ) ai1 x1 P ( x) a x (5) according to eq. 10.
y k
 k    i k in n
i 1 P i ( x ) i 1 P i ( x ) i 1 P i ( x )
By other hand we define a part of the eq. 5 that does To optimize the number of rules, we must group the
not include the constants and the variables, as shown in data obtained in the regions where the elements show
eq. 6. By simplifying the original fuzzy function into a some similar characteristics. The theory groups
more simple expression we could define the values of (cluster) help us to prepare the data, and it determines
the constants to their corresponding rules. the number of c partitions to use in the model, which
must be less than the calculated by eq. 10.
Pi ( x) (6)
[i n
i 1 Pi ( x) The algorithm required to find the c partitions
from the set of data corresponding to the number of
rules is shown in the next 7 steps:

Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (CONIELECOMP 2006)
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1) Select the number of partitions from the sample weight required to multiply in the next layers of the
universe A. The possible values of the partition are net.
between two and the maxim number of data contained
in the sample. The value of c is defined.
2) Initialize the Mfc matrix with random data.
3) Choose the allowed limit of the error e between
the matrix Mfc(0) and Mfc( r). A value between 0.01 and
0.001 is desirable.
4) Select the m value starting from 1. We consider a
value of m=2.
5) Calculate the centers {vi ( 0)} for each group defined
in the step 1).
6) Generate matrix Mfc( r) using the next information
and the eq. 11
Figure. 1 Neural network applied in the first part of
1
the fuzzy system.
c ( 0 ) 2 m 1
d ik

(r )
P ik (r ) (11)
j 1 d jk The data required to train the net was obtained from
the fuzzy group in the Mfc array, where the data
corresponds to each exit value of the network.
7) If the comparison between Mfc(0) and Mfc( r) is less
than the stipulated error on step 3, then we have found The second Neuro-fuzzy model consider a Neural
the groups that belongs to the given data; otherwise, it Network in the next level. To train this network, the
is necessary to update the matrix Mfc(0) and go back to elements belongings only to one group were used; to
step 5). do this model three Neural Networks were trained in
accordance with the model showed in [5]. The fuzzy
With the above described algorithm, we can find process was the same than in the previous section. The
the c partitions of the set; but this lead us to the next structure is shown in equation 13.
question: which one of all the partitions is the best
one to carry out the model?. On eq. 12, the selected If x1, x2, x3 and x4 belongs to S, Y=NN(x1,x2,x3)
criteria is shown on [8] and [9], to find the number of
necessary rules to build our fuzzy model. To analyze In this structure, the data group required to train the
this value, it is necessary to review; the m weight network does not require a similar treatment, due to the
(initially considered m=2), the centers of the group v, short size of it; this is the reason why it is possible to
the membership degree P the data and the average apply a more simple neural network than the one
value of the data.
applied in a neural model.
n c 2
2 In the third procedure (neuralfuzzy procedure),
S (c ) ( Pik ) m ( xk  vi  vi  x ) (12)
k 1 i 1
the structure applies the bias of a fuzzy model, where it
is possible to find the three components of a fuzzy
Therefore, we must find the minimum value of eq. system. The corresponding parameters to every
12 varying m to know which is the best number of function into the structure are the unknown variable,
rules [9][10]. and the same condition exists to the corresponding
constants to each one of the next values; under this
3. Neuro- Fuzzy Model Application. condition a lineal relationship between input and exit
values can be structured. First, we do a treatment to
Three possibilities are available to build the Neuro- the whole fuzzy system in a similar way to a Neural
fuzzy model, in order to join the fuzzy system with the Network, using some method to train the net and
neural network. In any case, the main objective is to define the function parameters 13]. Next, a back
find an advantage according to the problem propagation method was applied [12] to find the center
and size of the membership functions. The most used
The first Neuro-fuzzy method uses a Neural function was the Gauss function.[5].
Network in the first part of the structure to get the

Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (CONIELECOMP 2006)
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4. Study Case
To prove the structure using several cases, a
combustion system is proposed. Here we have 7
variables at the enter and given that the nature of the
burner element, we can easily note that it has a non-
linear behavior

Figure2 Neuro-fuzzy model 3 structure

It is preferable to assign short training values in the


calculator layer in order to avoid the system
divergence.

The training of this fuzzy system is done in a


similar way that the training of a Neural Network
under supervisory conditions. This condition implies
that the input data in the first layer of the net must be Figure 3 The Neuro-fuzzy2 model
shown, and the output data will be assigned to
evaluate the parameters along the Neuro-fuzzy layers

Equation 13 bring us the output function, which


have the Takagi-Sugeno structure:

i
R n 1 uj  cj 2
b (u ) j 1 exp(  (
i 1 i
2 Vj i
) )
(13)
f (u / T ) y' i
R n 1 uj  cj 2
i 1 j 1
exp(  (
2 V ij
) )

where bi can take two types of conditions; the first


one can be a constant and the second one a lineal Figure 4 The Neuro-fuzzy2 error.
relationship between the variables at real time and the
previous moments. In this condition bi adopts the form The Neuro-fuzzy model 2 and their respective error
used in the eq. 2. plots are shown on figures 3 and 4; in this case a
variation of r 10 degrees is maintained respect to the
The criteria to minimize the error was expressed in 900 or 1000 from the burner operation.
equation 6; this is the reason why em is expressed for
14 [3][12] as next:

1
em [ f (u m / T )  y m ]2 (14)
2

Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Computers (CONIELECOMP 2006)
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case, was called Fuzzy2, also the result obtained for an
identification model using the traditional least mean
squares (lms) method was included.

Model W
Neuro-fuzzy1 7.1
Neuro-fuzzy2 5.9
Neuro-fuzzy3 7.2
lms 12.8
Table 1 Comparison of the models

.
Figure 5 The Neuro-fuzzy3 model. 6. Conclusions
On section 5, we have some results from the system
modeling using different modeling techniques. It can
be observed that a first order classic model presents a
bigger error than the fuzzy models. The fuzzy
modeling by cluster reduces in great number the rules
of inference which are used in the system modeling.
By other hand, the fuzzy logic model in combination
with the neural networks could represent a very good
option in the case of non-linear systems.

The w value was calculated for the first order models


with similar characteristics. Considering the reported
values, the most recommendable model is the Neuro-
fuzzy2 with the smallest value in the performance,
Figure 5 The Neuro-fuzzy3 error. which means that in general has a better approximation
to the real system.
In figure 4, the Neuro-fuzzy 3 output is shown. In One good conclusion is the inference of the most
this graph a data -different from the ones used to build relevant variable, which corresponds to the previous
the model- is used to build the model. The goal is to values of temperature. Also the models where all the
validate the model performance. In figure 5, the error variables were included with the model were
in the output data is shown. compared, later it was constructed from this variable
and the results were identical.
5. Results
The performance of the w models is calculated
according to eq. 15 [5] where y* is the data from the 7. References
real output, y is the data from the output of the model
and n is the number of total data. [1] Tanaka K., An introduction to Fuzzy Logic for Practical
Applications, Ed. Springer, U.S.A, 1991, pp. 1-13.
*
1 n yi  yi
w y * *100
ni1
(15) [2] Berkan R. and Trubatch S.. Fuzzy System Design
i Principles, Ed. IEEE press, U.S.A, 1996. pp. 83-131.

The comparison that was made is about the [3] Aguado B. Alberto, Temas de Identificacin y
performance of each one model respect to the w Control Adaptable. Instituto de Ciberntica,
variable. On table 1, the values for w are shown for Matemticas y Fsica. La Habana,2000.
each Neuro-fuzzy model; the used model in the first
technique described was called Fuzzy1, for the second

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[4] Gorrostieta, E, Pedraza, C and Rosete J. Fuzzy
Modeling of Systems, Methos and Models in Robotics
29 Agust 1 September 2005, Miedzyzdroje, Poland.
pp.100

[5] Passino K. and Yurkovich S. Fuzzy Control, Ed.


Addison-Wesley, U.S.A., 1998 pp.221-286

[7] Bortolet P, Dpassaquay, S. A Titli. Interactive


Fuzzy Modeling and Control of no linear System
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[6] Wolkenhauser O, Fuzzy System Identification


Takagi-Sugeno Modelling and Identification.
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[8] Cao S.G. Rees, N.W y Feng G, Proceedings of the


Fifth IEEE International Conference Fuzzy Systems,
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[9] Sugeno M. and Yasukawa T., IEEE Transactions


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[10] Nguyen H. and Sugeno M.. Fuzzy System


Modeling and Control, Ed. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, U.S.A, 1998.pp. 74-75

[11] Tsoukalas L. and Rober E., Fuzzy and Neural


Approaches in Engineering, Ed. Wiley and Son,
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[12] Gorrostieta E., y Vargas E., A Neuro PD


Control Applied for Free Gait on a Six Legged Robot
, 3er. WSEAS International Conference on Signal
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ISBN 960-8052-95-5, 2004,February 13-15, Salzburg,
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[13] Zhang J. and Morris J, Recurrent Neuro Fuzzy


Networks for Nolinear Process Modeling
Transactions on Neural Networks, vol 10 No 2 March.
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