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Introduction :

Preliminary Treatment :

The objective of preliminary treatment is the removal of coarse solids and other large
materials often found in raw wastewater. Removal of these materials is necessary to enhance
the operation and maintenance of subsequent treatment units. Preliminary treatment operations
typically include coarse screening, grit removal and, in some cases, comminution of large
objects. In grit chambers, the velocity of the water through the chamber is maintained
sufficiently high, or air is used, so as to prevent the settling of most organic solids. Grit removal
is not included as a preliminary treatment step in most small wastewater treatment plants.
Comminutors are sometimes adopted to supplement coarse screening and serve to red uce the
size of large particles so that they will be removed in the form of a sludge in subsequent
treatment processes. Flow measurement devices, often standing-wave flumes, are always
included at the preliminary treatment stage, and seeks to remove grit, rags and solids that float
which may harm the operation of the rest of the plant. Bar racks or mechanical screens remove
paper, rags and other large solids. Sand and grit are removed by gravity settling in a grit
chamber.

First Station : Bar Screen

Screening is the first unit operation used at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Screening
removes objects such as rags, paper, plastics, and metals to prevent damage and clogging of
downstream equipment, piping, and appurtenances. Some modern wastewater treatment plants
use both coarse screens and fine screens.
Coarse Screens :
Coarse screens remove large solids, rags, and debris from wastewater, and typically
have openings of 6 mm (0.25 in) or larger. Types of coarse screens include
mechanically and manually cleaned bar screens, including trash racks.

Fine Screens :
Fine screens are typically used to remove material that may create operation and
maintenance problems in downstream processes, particularly in systems that lack
primary treatment. Typical opening sizes for fine screens are 1.5 to 6 mm (0.06 to
0.25 in). Very fine screens with openings of 0.2 to 1.5 mm (0.01 to 0.06 in) placed
after coarse or fine screens can reduce suspended solids to levels near those achieved
by primary clarification.

Description Of Course Screens :

Type Description

Designed to prevent logs, timbers,


stumps, and other large debris from
Trash Rack
entering treatment processes.
Opening size: 38 to 150 mm (1.5-6 in)
Designed to remove large solids, rags,
and debris.
Opening size: 30 to 50 mm (1 to 2 in)
Bars set at 30 to 45 degrees from
Manually Cleaned Bar vertical to facilitate cleaning.
Screen
Primarily used in older or smaller
treatment facilities, or in bypass
channels.

Designed to remove large solids.


Mechanically Cleaned
Bar Screen Opening size: 6 to 38 mm (0.25 to 1.5 in)
Bars set at 0 to 30 degrees from vertical.
Almost always used in new
installations because of large number
of advantages relative to other
screens.

Second Station : Grit Removal Chamber

Grit removal of sand, gravel, grease, or other heavy solid materials that are heavier
(higher specific gravity) than the organic biodegradable solids in the wastewater. Grit
also includes eggshells, bone chips, seeds, coffee grounds, and large organic particles,
such as food waste. Removal of grit prevents unnecessary abrasion and wear of
mechanical equipment, grit deposition in pipelines and channels, and accumulation of
grit in anaerobic digesters and aeration basins. Grit removal facilities typically precede
primary clarification, and follow screening and comminution. This prevents large solids
from interfering with grit handling equipment. In secondary treatment plants without
primary clarification, grit removal should precede aeration.
Many types of grit removal systems exist, including aerated grit chambers, vortex-
type (paddle or jetinduced vortex) grit removal systems, detritus tanks (short-term
sedimentation basins), horizontal flow grit chambers (velocity-controlled channel),
and hydrocyclones (cyclonic inertial separation). Various factors must be taken into
consideration when selecting a grit removal process, including the quantity and
characteristics of grit, potential adverse effects on downstream processes, head loss
requirements, space requirements, removal efficiency, organic content, and cost. The
type of grit removal system chosen for a specific facility should be the one that best
balances these different considerations.
When selecting a grit removal process, the quantity and characteristics of grit and its
potential to adversely affect downstream processes are important considerations. Other
parameters to consider may include headloss requirements, space requirements,
removal efficiency, organic content, and economics.

Aerated Grit Chamber


Some advantages of aerated grit chambers include:
Consistent removal efficiency over a wide flow range.
A relatively low putrescible organic content may be removed with a well controlled
rate of aeration.
Performance of downstream units may be improved by using pre-aeration to reduce
septic conditions in incoming wastewater.
Aerated grit chambers are versatile, allowing for chemical addition, mixing,
preaeration, and flocculation.
Primary Treatment :

The objective of primary treatment is the removal of settleable organic and inorganic
solids by sedimentation, and the removal of materials that will float (scum) by
skimming. Approximately 25 to 50% of the incoming biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD5), 50 to 70% of the total suspended solids (SS), and 65% of the oil and grease
are removed during primary treatment. Some organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus,
and heavy metals associated with solids are also removed during primary sedimentation
but colloidal and dissolved constituents are not affected. The effluent from primary
sedimentation units is referred to as primary effluent.
During the primary wastewater treatment process, wastewater is temporarily held in a
tank where heavier solids can settle to the bottom, while any lighter solids and scum
float to the surface. The settled and floating materials are desludged or held back and
the remaining liquid may be discharged or put through a secondary treatment process.
Primary treatment removes material that will either float or readily settle out by gravity.
It includes the physical processes of screening, comminution, grit removal, and
sedimentation.

Third Station : Primary Sedimentation Tank


The Primary Settlement or sedimentation tanks are designed to reduce the velocity of
the wastewater flow, allowing heavier organic solids (called raw sludge) to settle. They
are the first stage of treatment after the removal of rags and grit in the inlet works.
Scrapers present in the tank move continuously along the floor of the tank to deposit
the raw sludge in hoppers for removal. The scum which floats to the surface is directed
by water jets or scum boards to the sludge sump. The raw, settled sludge is removed by
pump or gravity feed to a sludge treatment process, either on site or via tanker to a
larger processing centre. Approximately 60% of suspended solids and 35% of BOD
removal efficiency can be achieved at this stage.
Purpose:
1- Removal of 40 - 60 % of suspended solids
2- Removal of 25 - 35 % of B.O.D.
3- Sediment the organic and inorganic matters to improve the properties of the sewage
and prepare it for the biological treatment.
4- Removal of floating materials (oil and geese).

Types of primary sedimentation tanks:


1- Rectangular tank.

2- Circular tank.
Circular sedimentation tank

Rectangular sedimentation tank


Oxidation Ditch Lagoon:

Fourth Station : Oxidation Ditch Lagoon


An oxidation ditch is a modified activated sludge biological treatment process that
utilizes long solids retention times (SRTs) to remove biodegradable organics. Oxidation
ditches are typically complete mix systems, but they can be modified to approach plug
flow conditions. (Note: as conditions approach plug flow, diffused air must be used to
provide enough mixing. The system will also no longer operate as an oxidation ditch).
Typical oxidation ditch treatment systems consist of a single or multichannel
configuration within a ring, oval, or horseshoe-shaped basin. As a result, oxidation
ditches are called racetrack type reactors. Horizontally or vertically mounted aerators
provide circulation, oxygen transfer, and aeration in the ditch.
The main advantage of the oxidation ditch is the ability to achieve removal performance
objectives with low operational requirements and operation and maintenance costs.

Oxidation ditches are commonly constructed using reinforced concrete, although


gunite, asphalt, rubber, and clay have also been used. Impervious materials, are usually
used to prevent erosion.
Secondary Treatment:

Fifth Station: Secondary Sedimentation Tank (Clarifier)


The objective of secondary treatment is the further treatment of the effluent from
primary treatment to remove the residual organics and suspended solids. In most cases,
secondary treatment follows primary treatment and involves the removal of
biodegradable dissolved and colloidal organic matter using aerobic biological treatment
processes. Aerobic biological treatment is performed in the presence of oxygen by
aerobic microorganisms (principally bacteria) that metabolize the organic matter in the
wastewater.
Secondary treatment removes the soluble organic matter that escapes primary
treatment. It also removes more of the suspended solids. Removal is usually
accomplished by biological processes in which microbes consume the organic
impurities as food, converting them into carbon dioxide, water, and energy for their
own growth and reproduction.
There are three basic biological treatment methods: the trickling filter, the activated
sludge process, and the oxidation pond. A fourth, less common method is the rotating
biological contractor.