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g Proj: Admin
Ref :
Tel:d Date: 24/08/17
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Fire design of timber beam

This method assumes that a depth of charring occurs around the exposed face of the section, and the corners of the beam
becomes rounded. For the residual section method, dry stresses are assumed throughout the design. The residual section is
checked for stability strength and for beams; deflection is limited to span/20 (clause 3.2of BS 5268:part 4: section 4.1-1978).

Beam properties
Species category - Western red cedar
Exposure condition - Three sides exposed
Basic fire exposure period period = 30 min
Strength class = C22
Span of beam L =2m
Original depth of section od = 250 mm
Original width of section ob = 150 mm

Beam design parameters


The timber member is a load sharing system with the imposed load is for an area intended for mechanical plant and
equipment, or for storage, or for floors subject to vibrations.
Axial load F = 0 kN
a
Effective length of bending about XX Le =4m
x
Effective length of bending about YY Le =0m
y
Length of bearing lb = 140 mm
Position of bearing is less than 75mm
Shear enhancement factor shefac =2
Compression perpendicular to grain enhancement factor
cpgfac =2
No notch at support

Load Description Type A B C Gk Qk


Point 1.0 10.0 10.0

Calculation
Charring depth char
= 25 mm (Table 1)
Residual depth of beam d
= od-char
= 250-25
= 225 mm
Residual width of beam b = ob-2*char
= 150-2*25
= 100 mm
Rounding of arrises is insignificant and may be disregarded as per Clause 4.3 of BS5268:Part 4:Section 4.1:1978.

Maximum span bending moment M = 10 kNm


Design shear force Fve = 10 kN
Unfactored dead shear at LHE R = 5 kN
udlhe
Unfactored imposed shear at LHE R = 5 kN
uilhe
Unfactored dead shear at RHE R = 5 kN
udrhe
Unfactored imposed shear at RHE R = 5 kN
uirhe

Inertia about XX-axis I = b*d3/12


xx
= 100*(225)3/12
= 94921875 mm4
Inertia about YY-axis I = d*b3/12
yy
= 225*(100)3/12
= 18750000 mm4
Area of cross-section A = b*d
= 100*225
= 22500 mm2
Radius of gyration abt xx axis i = SQR(I /A)
x xx
= SQR((9.49*107)/22500)
= 64.95 mm
Radius of gyration abt yy axis i = SQR(I /A)
y yy
= SQR((1.88*107)/22500)
= 28.87 mm

Slenderness ratio
Slenderness ratio abt xx axis  = Le *1000/i
x x x
= 4*1000/64.95
= 61.58
Slenderness ratio abt yy axis  = Le *1000/i
y y y
= 0*1000/28.87
=0
xx axis controls slenderness at  =
x
= 61.58

Grade stresses (Table 8 of BS5268-2:2002)


Compression parallel to grain  = 7.5 N/mm2
cd
Bending parallel to grain  = 6.8 N/mm2
d
Shear parallel to grain  = 0.71 N/mm2
d
Compression perp to grain (no wane)  = 2.3 N/mm2
bd
Mean modulus of elasticity E = 9700 N/mm2
mean
Minimum modulus of elasticity E = 6500 N/mm2
min

Modification factors
The load bearing capacity of a flexural member is based on the long term dry stresses. Therefore
K = 1.0
3
As per clause 2.10.6 of BS 5268-2:2002
Depth factor K = (300/d)0.11
7
= (300/225)0.11
= 1.03
Member is in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 2.9.
Load-sharing modification factor K = 1.1
8
Imposed load is for an area intended for mechanical plant or for storage or for floors subject to vibrations, and therefore
minimum modulus of elasticity should be used as defined by clause 2.9(b).
Modulus of elasticity E =E
min
= 6500 N/mm2
Square corners at the ends of flexural members cause concentrations and the shear capacity of the section has to be reduced
accordingly to conform with clause 2.10.4.
No notches exist at the support, K =1
5
Bearing modification factor K = 1.02
4

Permissible stresses
For fire design based on the residual section method, the permissible bending stress parallel with the grain is taken as 2.25
times the long term dry stress.
Permissible bending stress  = 2.25*K *K *K *
d 3 7 8 d
= 2.25*1*1.03*1.1*6.8
= 17.37 N/mm2
BS 5268 Part 4 section 4.1 does not give any guidance on the enhancement to the shear stress or for compression
perpendicular to the grain using the residual section method.
Shear parallel to grain  = shefac*K *K *K *
d 3 5 8 d
= 2*1*1*1.1*0.71
= 1.56 N/mm2
Compression perpendicular to grain (no wane)
 = cpgfac*K *K *K *
bd 3 4 8 bd
= 2*1*1.02*1.1*2.3
= 5.16 N/mm2

Bending
Applied bending stress  = M*106*(d/2)/I
xx
= 10*106*(225/2)/(9.49*107)
= 11.85 N/mm2
Since  <=  applied bending stress within permissible value.
d

Check for deflection


Actual deflection inclusive of shear Def = Dmax
= 6.7 mm
Limiting deflection Def = L*103/20
lim
= 2*103/20
= 100 mm
Since Def <= Def , OK for deflection.
lim

Shear and bearing


Applied shear stress  = 3*Fve*1000/(2*b*d)
= 3*10*1000/(2*100*225)
= 0.67 N/mm2
Since  <=  applied shear stress does not exceed permissible value, therefore OK.
d
Applied Bearing stress on wall plate  = Fve*1000/(lb*b)
b
= 10*1000/(140*100)
= 0.71 N/mm2
Since  <=  applied bearing stress does not exceed permissible value, therefore OK.
b bd

Summary
Applied bending stress = 11.85 N/mm2
Permissible bending stress = 17.37 N/mm2
Actual deflection = 6.7 mm
Limiting deflection = 100 mm
Applied shear stress = 0.67 N/mm2
Permissible shear stress = 1.56 N/mm2
Applied bearing stress = 0.71 N/mm2
Permissible bearing stress = 5.16 N/mm2
The beam is safe from fire damage.