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C29.

11-2012
Page i

ANSI/NEMA C29.11-2012

American National Standard

Composite Insulators—
Test Methods

Secretariat:

National Electrical Manufacturers Association

Approved: June 2012


Published: October 11, 2012

American National Standards Institute, Inc.

© Copyright 2012 by National Electrical Manufacturers Association


C29.11-2012
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NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER

The information in this publication was considered technically sound by the consensus of persons
engaged in the development and approval of the document at the time it was developed. Consensus does
not necessarily mean that there is unanimous agreement among every person participating in the
development of this document.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards and guideline publications, of which the
document contained herein is one, are developed through a voluntary consensus standards development
process. This process brings together volunteers and/or seeks out the views of persons who have an
interest in the topic covered by this publication. While NEMA administers the process and establishes
rules to promote fairness in the development of consensus, it does not write the document and it does not
independently test, evaluate, or verify the accuracy or completeness of any information or the soundness
of any judgments contained in its standards and guideline publications.

NEMA disclaims liability for any personal injury, property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever,
whether special, indirect, consequential, or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the
publication, use of, application, or reliance on this document. NEMA disclaims and makes no guaranty or
warranty, express or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and
disclaims and makes no warranty that the information in this document will fulfill any of your particular
purposes or needs. NEMA does not undertake to guarantee the performance of any individual
manufacturer or seller’s products or services by virtue of this standard or guide.

In publishing and making this document available, NEMA is not undertaking to render professional or
other services for or on behalf of any person or entity, nor is NEMA undertaking to perform any duty owed
by any person or entity to someone else. Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own
independent judgment or, as appropriate, seek the advice of a competent professional in determining the
exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstances. Information and other standards on the topic
covered by this publication may be available from other sources, which the user may wish to consult for
additional views or information not covered by this publication.

NEMA has no power, nor does it undertake to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this
document. NEMA does not certify, test, or inspect products, designs, or installations for safety or health
purposes. Any certification or other statement of compliance with any health or safety–related information
in this document shall not be attributable to NEMA and is solely the responsibility of the certifier or maker
of the statement.

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Approval of an American National Standard requires verification by


AMERICAN ANSI that the requirements for due process, consensus, and other
criteria for approval have been met by the standards developer.
NATIONAL
STANDARD Consensus is established when, in the judgment of the ANSI Board of
Standards Review, substantial agreement has been reached by directly
and materially affected interests. Substantial agreement means much
more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity. Consensus
requires that all views and objections be considered, and that a
concerted effort be made toward their resolution.

The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their


existence does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has
approved the standards or not, from manufacturing, marketing,
purchasing, or using products, processes, or procedures not conforming
to the standards.

The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards


and will in no circumstances give an interpretation of any American
National Standard. Moreover, no person shall have the right or authority
to issue an interpretation of an American National Standard in the name
of the American National Standards Institute. Requests for
interpretations should be addressed to the secretariat or sponsor whose
name appears on the title page of this standard.

Caution Notice: This American National Standard may be revised or


withdrawn at any time. The procedures of the American National
Standards Institute require that action be taken periodically to reaffirm,
revise, or withdraw this standard. Purchasers of American National
Standards may receive current information on all standards by calling or
writing the American National Standards Institute.

Published by

National Electrical Manufacturers Association


1300 North 17th Street, Rosslyn, VA 22209

 Copyright 2012 by National Electrical Manufacturers Association


All rights reserved including translation into other languages, reserved under the Universal Copyright
Convention, the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, and the
International and Pan American Copyright Conventions.

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America.

© Copyright 2012 by National Electrical Manufacturers Association


C29.11-2012
Page iv

FOREWORD
(This Foreword is not part of American National Standard C29.11-2012.)

The first edition of this standard was based on a NEMA proposed standards publication for composite
insulators used on overhead transmission lines. It was developed at the request of American National
Standards Committee on Insulators for Electric Power Lines, ASC C-29.

This standard was processed and approved for submittal to ANSI by ASC C-29. Committee approval of
the standard does not necessarily imply that all committee members voted for approval. At the time it
approved this standard, the ASC C-29 Committee had the following members:

Rob Christman, Chairman


Steve Griffith, Secretary

Organization Represented: Name of Representative:

Edison Electric Institute B. Freimark


R. Christman
E. Cleckley
M. Garrels
W. Avery
J. Varner (alt)
R. Kluge (alt)
G. Obenchain (alt)

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers T. Grisham


J. Hildreth
A. Jagtiani
J. Kuffel
A. Phillips
E. Gnandt (alt)

National Electrical Manufacturers Association P. Maloney


A. Baker
R. A. Bernstorf
G. Powell
G. A. Stewart
E. Kress (alt)
Z. Lodi (alt)
E. Niedospial (alt)
A. Schwalm (alt)

Tennessee Valley Authority J. Nelson

Western Area Power Administration R. Clark

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

FOREWORD ................................................................................ ………………..iv

1 SCOPE ................................................................................................................. 1

2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES ............................................................................... 1


2.1 Referenced American National Standards .......................................................................... 1
2.2 Other standards .................................................................................................................. 1

3 DEFINITIONS ....................................................................................................... 1
3.1 Insulators and Parts ............................................................................................................ 1
3.1.1 Insulator ................................................................................................................. 1
3.1.2 Line and Apparatus Post Insulator ......................................................................... 2
3.1.3 Suspension Insulator .............................................................................................. 2
3.1.4 Composite Insulator ............................................................................................... 2
3.1.5 Core ....................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.6 Housing .................................................................................................................. 2
3.1.7 Weathersheds ........................................................................................................ 2
3.1.8 End Fittings ............................................................................................................ 2
3.1.9 Coupling Zone ........................................................................................................ 2
3.1.10 Interfaces ............................................................................................................... 2
3.2 Terms Related to Exposure ................................................................................................ 2
3.2.1 Tracking ................................................................................................................. 2
3.2.2 Erosion ................................................................................................................... 3
3.3 Electrical Terms .................................................................................................................. 3
3.3.1 Low-Frequency....................................................................................................... 3
3.3.2 Low-Frequency Flashover Voltage......................................................................... 3
3.3.3 Low-Frequency Withstand Voltage ........................................................................ 3
3.3.4 Impulse Voltages.................................................................................................... 3
3.4 Mechanical Terms ............................................................................................................... 4
3.4.1 Specified Mechanical Load (SML) ......................................................................... 4
3.4.2 Routine Test Load (RTL)........................................................................................ 4
3.4.3 Specified Cantilever Load (SCL) …………………………………………………….. . 4
3.4.4 Cantilever Breaking Load (CBL) ............................................................................ 4
3.4.5 Reference Cantilever Load (RCL) .......................................................................... 4
3.4.6 Ultimate Mechanical Strength…………………………………………………………...4
3.4.7 Specified Tensile Load (STL) …………………………………………………...……..…4
3.5 Miscellaneous...................................................................................................................... 5
3.5.1 Test Specimen ....................................................................................................... 5
3.5.2 Leakage Distance .................................................................................................. 5
3.5.3 Dry-Arcing Distance .............................................................................................. 5
3.5.4 Radio-Influence Voltage ......................................................................................... 5

4 CLASSIFICATION OF TESTS ............................................................................. 6


4.1 Prototype Tests ................................................................................................................... 6
4.2 Design Tests ....................................................................................................................... 6
4.2.1 Electrical Design .................................................................................................... 6
4.2.2 Mechanical Design ................................................................................................. 6
4.3 Sample Tests ...................................................................................................................... 6
4.4 Routine Tests ...................................................................................................................... 6

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5 DIMENSIONS ....................................................................................................... 6

6 MARKING ............................................................................................................ 7

7 PROTOTYPE TESTS ........................................................................................... 7


7.1 Tests on Interfaces and Connection of End Fittings ........................................................... 7
7.1.1 Test Specimens ..................................................................................................... 7
7.1.2 Low Frequency Dry Flashover Voltage Test .......................................................... 7
7.1.3 Sudden Load Release Test-Suspension Insulators Only....................................... 7
7.1.4 Thermal Mechanical Tests ..................................................................................... 8
7.1.5 Water Penetration Test .......................................................................................... 8
7.1.6 Verification Tests.................................................................................................... 9
7.2 Core Time-Load Test .......................................................................................................... 9
7.2.1 Suspension Insulators ............................................................................................ 9
7.2.2 Line Posts ............................................................................................................ 10
7.3 Housing Tracking and Erosion Tests ................................................................................ 10
7.3.1 Test Specimens ................................................................................................... 10
7.3.2 Test Chamber ...................................................................................................... 10
7.3.3 Test Conditions .................................................................................................... 11
7.3.4 Evaluation............................................................................................................. 12
7.4 Core Material Tests ........................................................................................................... 12
7.4.1 Dye Penetration Test............................................................................................ 12
7.4.2 Water Diffusion Test ............................................................................................ 13
7.5 Flammability Test .............................................................................................................. 13

8 DESIGN TESTS ................................................................................................. 13


8.1 Test-Specimen Mounting for Electrical Tests ................................................................... 13
8.1.1 Suspension Insulators .......................................................................................... 14
8.1.2 Line Insulators (Post) ........................................................................................... 14
8.1.3 Apparatus Insulators (Post).................................................................................. 14
8.2 Electrical Tests .................................................................................................................. 15
8.2.1 Low-Frequency Voltage Dry Flashover Test ........................................................ 15
8.2.2 Low-Frequency Voltage Wet Flashover Test ....................................................... 17
8.2.3 Low-Frequency Voltage Dry Withstand Test........................................................ 17
8.2.4 Low-Frequency Wet Withstand Test .................................................................... 18
8.2.5 Switching Critical-Impulse Flashover Test ........................................................... 20
8.2.6 Impulse Flashover Voltage Tests ......................................................................... 20
8.2.7 Impulse Withstand Voltage Test .......................................................................... 20
8.2.8 Radio-Influence Voltage Tests ............................................................................. 21
8.3 Mechanical Tests .............................................................................................................. 22
8.3.1 Ultimate Mechanical-Strength Tests .................................................................... 22
8.3.2 Compression Withstand Load Test (Post) ........................................................... 23

9 SAMPLE TESTS ................................................................................................ 24


9.1 Sample Selection .............................................................................................................. 24
9.2 Verification of Dimensions................................................................................................. 24
9.3 Verification of the Locking System .................................................................................... 24
9.4 Mechanical Load Test-Tension ......................................................................................... 24
9.4.1 Test Samples ....................................................................................................... 24
9.4.2 Suspension Insulators (SML) ............................................................................... 24
9.4.3 Line Post Insulators (STL) ......................................................................................... 25
9.5 Verification of Cantilever Strength Test (Pin, Post) ........................................................... 25
9.5.1 Test Setup ............................................................................................................ 25
9.5.2 Cantilever Strength Verification ............................................................................ 25
9.5.3 Cantilever Breaking Load (CBL) Test .................................................................. 25

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9.6 Galvanizing Test................................................................................................................ 25


9.7 Retest Procedure for Sample Tests .................................................................................. 26

10 ROUTINE TESTS ............................................................................................... 26


10.1 Mechanical Tests .............................................................................................................. 26
10.1.1 Suspension Insulators .......................................................................................... 26
10.1.2 Line and Apparatus Post Insulators ..................................................................... 26
10.2 Visual Examinations .......................................................................................................... 26

ANNEX A……………………………………………………………………………………....A-1

FIGURES
10-1 LOW-FREQUENCY HUMIDITY CORRECTION FACTORS ......................................................... 27
10-2 IMPULSE HUMIDITY CORRECTION FACTORS ......................................................................... 27
10-3 THERMAL MECHANICAL TEST (SUSPENSION INSULATORS)... ........................................... 28
10-4 THERMAL MECHANICAL TEST (LINE POST). ........................................................................... 29
10-5 THERMAL MECHANICAL TEST (LINE POST ≥ 70 KV) ............................................................. 30
10-6 ELECTRODES FOR CORE MATERIAL TEST ............................................................................. 31

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AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD ANSI/NEMA C29.11-2012

Composite Insulators—Test Methods

1 SCOPE

This standard comprises a manual of test methods to be followed in making tests to determine the
characteristics of composite electrical power insulators, as defined herein.

2 NORMATIVE REFERENCES
2.1 Referenced American National Standards

This standard is intended to be used in conjunction with the following American National Standards. When
these standards are superseded by a revision approved by the American National Standards Institute, the
revision shall apply.

ANSI C29.1-1988 (R2002, R2012) Test Methods of Electrical Power Insulators


ANSI/IEEE 4-1995 Techniques for High-Voltage Testing
ANSI/IEEE 100-1984 Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms

2.2 Other Standards

IEC 60695-11-10 Fire Hazard Testing – Part 11-10: Test Flames – 50 W Horizontal and Vertical Flame
Test Methods

NEMA 107-1987 (R1993) Methods of Measurement of Radio Influence Voltage (RIV) of High-Voltage
Apparatus

ISO-3452-1: 2008 Non-Destructive Testing–Penetrant Testing – Part 1: General Principles

ASTM B499-09 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Coating Thicknesses by the Magnetic Method;
Nonmagnetic Coatings on Magnetic Basis Metals.

3 DEFINITIONS
3.1 Insulators and Parts

3.1.1 Insulator Types

3.1.1.1 Composite Insulator

A composite insulator is made of at least two insulating parts - a core and a housing. It is equipped with end
fittings. A composite insulator is a manufactured device intended to give flexible or rigid mechanical support
to electric conductors or equipment while electrically separating these conductors or equipment from ground
or from other conductors or equipment.

3.1.1.2 Line and Apparatus Post Insulators

A post insulator is an insulator with attached metal parts having means for direct and rigid mounting to a
supporting structure and for semi-rigidly supporting conductors.

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3.1.1.3 Suspension Insulator

A suspension insulator is an insulator with attached metal parts having means for non-rigidly supporting
electric conductors.

3.1.2 Insulator Parts

3.1.2.1 Core

The core is the internal insulating part of a composite insulator. It is intended to carry the mechanical load. It
consists mainly of glass fibers positioned in a resin matrix to develop mechanical strength.

3.1.2.2 Housing

The housing is external to the core and protects it from the weather, it may be equipped with weathersheds.
Some designs of composite insulators employ a sheath made of insulating material between the
weathersheds and the core. This sheath is part of the housing.

3.1.2.3 Weathersheds

Weathersheds are insulating parts projecting from the housing or sheath that are intended to increase the
leakage distance and to provide an interrupted path for water drainage.

3.1.2.4 End Fittings

End fittings transmit the mechanical load to the core.

3.1.2.5 Coupling Zone

The coupling zone is the part of the end fitting that transmits the load to the line, to the structure, or to another
insulator. It does not include the interface between the core and the end fitting.

3.1.2.6 Interfaces

An interface is the surface between different materials. Examples of interfaces in composite insulators are as
follows:

a) Glass fiber/impregnating resin


b) Filler/polymer
c) Core/housing
d) Weathershed/weathershed
e) Weathershed/sheath
f) Housing/end fittings
g) Core/end fittings

Note: Definitions as given in this section apply specifically to the subjects treated in this standard. For
additional definitions, see ANSI/IEEE 100-1984.

3.2 Terms Related to Exposure

3.2.1 Tracking

Tracking is the formation of electrically conducting paths starting and developing on the surface of an
insulating material. These paths are conductive even under dry conditions. Tracking can occur on surfaces in
contact with air and also on the interfaces between insulating materials.

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3.2.2 Erosion

Erosion is the loss of material from the insulating surface resulting in a nonconductive surface. It can be uni-
form, localized, or tree-shaped. Shallow surface traces commonly tree-shaped can occur on composite
insulators after arcing. These traces do not affect the operating characteristics of the insulator.
1
3.3 Electrical terms

3.3.1 Low-Frequency

Low frequency, as used in this standard, means any frequency between 15 and 100 hertz.

3.3.2 Low-Frequency Flashover Voltage

A low-frequency flashover of an insulator is the root-mean-square value of the low-frequency voltage that,
under specified conditions, causes a sustained disruptive discharge through the surrounding medium.

3.3.3 Low-Frequency Withstand Voltage

A low-frequency withstand voltage of an insulator is the root-mean-square value of the low-frequency voltage
that, under specified conditions, can be applied without causing flashover or puncture.

3.3.3.1 Dry Withstand Voltage Tests

Dry withstand voltage tests are tests as described in section 8.2.3.

3.3.3.2 Wet Withstand Voltage Tests

Wet withstand voltage tests are tests as described in section 8.2.4.

3.3.4 Impulse Voltages

3.3.4.1 Impulse Wave

An impulse wave is a unidirectional surge generated by the release of electrical energy into an impedance
network.

3.3.4.2 Impulse Flashover Voltage

The crest value of the impulse voltage that, under specified conditions, causes flashover of an insulator
through the surrounding medium.

Impulse flashover voltage tests are tests as described in section 8.2.6.

3.3.4.3 Critical Impulse Flashover Voltage

The critical impulse flashover voltage of an insulator is the crest value of the impulse wave that, under
specified conditions, causes flashover through the surrounding medium on 50 % of the applications.

1
Electrical terms and test requirements for Composite Insulators are the same as specified in ANSI C29.1 for
Electrical Power Insulators made of wet-process porcelain or toughened glass.

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3.3.4.4 Impulse Withstand Voltage

The impulse withstand voltage of an insulator is the crest value of an applied impulse voltage that, under
specified conditions, does not cause a flashover, puncture, or disruptive discharge on the test specimen.

Impulse withstand voltage tests are tests as described in section 8.2.7.

3.3.4.5 Linearly rising front chopped impulse

A linearly rising front chopped impulse is an impulse wave in which the voltage rises with approximately
constant steepness until it is chopped by a disruptive discharge.

3.4 Mechanical terms

3.4.1 Specified Mechanical Load (SML)

The SML is a value that has to be verified during a tensile load test. It forms the tensile loading basis for
selection of a composite insulator.

3.4.2 Routine Test Load (RTL)

The RTL is a rating equal to 50 % of the SML.

3.4.3 Specified Cantilever Load (SCL)

The SCL is a value that has to be verified during a cantilever load test. it forms the cantilever loading basis for
selection of a composite insulator.

3.4.4 Cantilever Breaking Load (CBL)

The maximum load reached during destructive cantilever testing.

3.4.5 Reference Cantilever Load (RCL)

The RCL is a rating that is less than or equal to 50% of the SCL.
2
3.4.6 Ultimate Mechanical Strength

The ultimate mechanical strength of an insulator is the load at which any part of the insulator fails to perform
its function of providing a mechanical support without regard to electrical failure.

Ultimate Mechanical Strength Tests Are Tests As Described In Section 8.3.

3.4.7 Specified Tensile Load (STL)

The tensile load that can be withstood by the insulator when tested in accordance with the test protocol
described in clause 9.4. This value is considered to be equivalent to a one minute withstand. This value is
specified by the manufacturer.

2
ANSI C29.1, section 2.4.1.

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3.5 Miscellaneous Terms

3.5.1 Test Specimen

A test specimen is an insulator which is representative of the product being tested for the test being
performed; differences between the specimen and an actual unit shall have no influence on the performance
or result of the test.

3.5.2 Leakage Distance

The leakage distance of an insulator is the shortest distance measured along the insulating surface between
the conductive parts, as arranged for dry flashover tests.

3.5.3 Dry-Arcing Distance

The dry-arcing distance of an insulator is the shortest distance through the surrounding medium between
terminal electrodes with the insulator mounted for dry flashover tests.
3
3.5.4 Radio-Influence Voltage

The magnitude of high-frequency voltage (noise) generated by all sources of ionization measured near the
mid-point of the AM radio band using prescribed circuits and under defined conditions

Radio-influence voltage results as specified in micro-volts are recorded using the method described in
section 8.2.8.

Due to the complexity of RIV testing for transmission class designs above 70 kV, the method defined in this
standard is not applicable for NCI designs above 70 kV. Only by agreement of the purchaser and the
manufacturer may the method described in this standard be applied to transmission class designs.

3
ANSI C29.1, section 2.5.4.

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4 CLASSIFICATION OF TESTS

4.1 Prototype Tests

The purpose of these tests is to verify the suitability of the prototype design, materials, and method of
manufacture. The prototype test methods are described in section 7. When a composite insulator is
submitted to the prototype tests, the results shall be considered valid for the whole class of insulators
represented as defined in the applicable standard.

The prototype test report shall include a drawing of the insulator tested with dimensions. These dimensions
shall at a minimum include those dimensions that define a class.

4.2 Design Tests

The purpose of these tests is to verify those characteristics of a composite insulator that depend on its size
and shape. The requirements are given in section 8.

4.2.1 Electrical Design

The electrical design of a composite insulator is defined by the following characteristics:

a) Dry arcing distance


b) Leakage distance
c) Weathershed inclination
d) Weathershed diameter
e) Weathershed spacing

The electrical design tests shall be performed only once on insulators of a specific electrical design.

4.2.2 Mechanical Design

The mechanical design of a composite insulator is defined by the following characteristics:

a) Core diameter
b) Method of attachment of the end fittings
c) Design of the core/end fittings interface

4.3 Sample Tests

These tests verify the conformance of composite insulators to any requirements selected in section 9. They
are to be made on insulators from a production lot.

4.4 Routine Tests

These tests are for the purpose of eliminating insulators with manufacturing defects. They are to be made on
every insulator. Various test protocols are listed in section 10.

5 DIMENSIONS
Requirements for the shape and spacing of weathersheds are not a part of this standard.

The tolerances listed in table 1 are allowed on all dimensions for which special tolerances do not apply. X is
the dimension in either mm or inches as noted in the column heading.

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Table 1
SI Units Imperial Units
When x is: The tolerance shall be When x is: The tolerance shall be
< 300 mm ± (0.04x + 1.5) mm < 11.81 in ± (0.04x + 0.06) in
≥ 300 mm ± (0.025x + 6) mm ≥ 11.81 in ± (0.025x + 0.24) in
Maximum 50 mm Maximum 2 in

6 MARKING
Each insulator shall be clearly and indelibly marked with the name or trademark of the manufacturer, the year
of manufacture or date code, and any mechanical ratings or other designations required by the applicable
standard.

7 PROTOTYPE TESTS
Prototype tests include all of section 7. Each part may be performed independently on new test specimens.
The test specimens shall pass the tests in each part in sequence. Prototype tests are performed only once
for each class of insulator. Prototype test requirements are specified in each specific product standard.

7.1 Tests on Interfaces and Connection of End Fittings

7.1.1 Test Specimens

7.1.1.1 Suspension Insulators

Three suspension insulators shall be tested. The insulation length (metal-to-metal spacing) shall be at least
800 mm (31.5 in) in length to be valid for all lengths. If insulators less than 800 mm (31.5 in) in length are
tested, the tests are only considered valid for insulators up to the length tested. The end fittings and
weathershed geometry shall be representative of production insulators. The insulators shall first be subjected
to the appropriate routine tests defined within the applicable standard.

7.1.1.2 Line Posts

Four line post insulators shall be tested. The insulator length (metal-to-metal) will be at least 15 times the
core diameter. If shorter insulators are tested, the results are valid only for insulators up to that length. The
insulators shall first be subjected to the appropriate routine tests defined within the applicable standard.

7.1.2 Low-Frequency Dry Flashover Voltage Test

The low frequency dry flashover voltage will be obtained for one test specimen as described in section 8.2.1.
This specimen will be used as a reference for the verification tests in section 7.1.6.

7.1.3 Sudden Load Release Test–Suspension Insulators Only


o o
With the insulator stabilized within a temperature range of -20 C to -25 C (-4 to -13 ºF), a tensile load shall
be applied increasing from zero to a value equal to 30 % of the SML and shall be held for a minimum of 15
seconds, after which the load shall be released suddenly and in a manner which does not significantly
increase the mass of the released end. Each test specimen shall be subjected to five sudden load releases.

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7.1.4 Thermal Mechanical Tests

7.1.4.1 Suspension Insulators

The insulators shall be loaded at ambient temperature to at least 5 % of the SML for 1 minute. During this
time, the length of the insulators shall be measured either directly or by means of fixed reference points on
the end fittings. This will be the reference length. The measurement accuracy shall be at least +0.5 mm
(± 0.02 in).

The insulators shall be submitted to thermal variations from -35 C ± 5 K to + 50 C ± 5 K


(-31 ºF ± 9 ºF to 122 ºF ± 9 ºF) as shown in Figure 3, while under the permanent mechanical load of the RTL
value as shown in Figure 3. The time at each temperature shall be at least 8 hours per cycle. The tests may
be conducted in any suitable medium.

At the end of thermal cycling, the insulators shall be allowed to reach ambient temperature and the length
shall again be measured using the same load as for the reference length. The length measured shall be the
same as the reference length +2mm (± 0.079 in).

Note: The test may be interrupted for maintenance for a total duration of 4 hours.

7.1.4.2 Line Posts

7.1.4.2.1 Line Posts for Use at 69 kV and Below

The insulators shall be tensioned to 1 kN (220 lb) for one minute at ambient temperature. During this time the
length of the insulator, including end fittings but excluding couplings, shall be measured to an accuracy of at
least 0.5 mm (0.02 in). This is the reference length.

Each insulator shall be subjected to thermal variations from -35 C  5K to 50 C  5K


(-31 ºF ± 9 ºF to 122 ºF ± 9 ºF) while under a permanent tensile load of 50 % STL for 48 hours (reference
Figure 4).

Following the thermal cycling, each insulator shall be permitted to reach original ambient temperature and a
tension load of 1 kN (220 lb) shall be applied and the length again measured in the same manner as above.
The length measured shall be the same as the reference length  2 mm (± 0.079 in).

7.1.4.2.2 Line posts for use at 70 kV and above

The three insulators will be loaded in cantilever and subjected to the temperature cycle described in Figure 5.
The load shall be selected so as to produce the same bending moment at the base of the insulator as is
exerted by 50 % of the SCL in normal application.

Each 24 hour cycle has a minimum of 8 hours at both + 50 C and -35 C  5 K


(122 ºF ± 9 ºF and -31 ºF ± 9 ºF). The 24 hour cycle shall be run twice with the direction of the load reversed
after the first cycle.

The test may be interrupted for the load direction reversal and for maintenance of the test equipment for a
total duration of 2 hours.

7.1.5 Water Penetration Test

The test specimens shall be immersed in boiling tap water for 42 hours (de-ionized water with 0.1 % NaCl or
tap water adjusted to a conductivity of 1650 S/cm at 20 C to 25 C (68 ºF to 77 ºF). At the end of boiling,
o
the insulators shall remain in the vessel until the water cools to approximately 50 C (122 ºF). This
temperature shall be maintained until the verification tests start.

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7.1.6 Verification Tests

7.1.6.1 Visual

The housings shall be inspected visually. No cracks are permitted.

7.1.6.2 Linearly Rising Front Chopped Impulse Voltage Test

If the test specimen has an insulating length less than or equal to 500 mm (19.7 in) the voltage is applied
between the end fittings. If the test specimen has an insulating length greater than 500 mm (19.7 in),
electrodes consisting of clips made of a copper strip approximately 20 mm (0.79 in) wide and less than 1 mm
(0.039 in) thick shall be banded around the test specimen creating approximately equal test sections 500 mm
(19.7 in) or less in length. The voltage is then applied separately to each section. The entire length of the
insulator shall be tested.

An impulse voltage with a front steepness of at least 1000 kV/microsecond shall be applied to each test
section. Each test section shall be stressed with 25 impulses of positive polarity and 25 impulses of negative
polarity. Each impulse shall cause an external flashover of the test section, no puncture shall occur. Following
the test, any temporary electrode(s) used to form the test sections shall be removed.

7.1.6.3 Low-Frequency Dry Flashover Voltage Test

The low frequency dry flashover voltage shall be determined once more for each specimen using the
procedure given in section 7.1.2. The average flashover voltage for each test specimen shall be at least
90 % of the value determined in section 7.1.2.

Each test specimen shall be individually subjected to 80 % of its average flashover voltage as determined in
section 7.1.2. The voltage shall be maintained for 30 minutes. No puncture shall occur and the temperature
o
of the shank measured immediately after the test shall not be more than 10 C (18 ºF) above ambient.

7.2 Core Time-Load Test

7.2.1 Suspension Insulators

7.2.1.1 Test Specimen

Six insulators shall be tested. The insulation length (metal-to-metal spacing) shall not be less than 800 mm
(31.5 in) or the longest length to be manufactured, whichever is less. The end fittings shall have a grip to the
core that is representative of production insulators, but the coupling zone may be modified to avoid failure of
the end fittings.

7.2.1.2 Determination of the Average Failing Load of the Core

Three of the test specimens shall be tested to establish the average failing load. The tensile load shall be
increased rapidly but smoothly from 0 to 75 % of the expected mechanical failing load and then shall be
gradually increased to failure in a time between 30 and 90 seconds. Failure shall be by fracture or complete
pull-out of the core at a load exceeding SML. Failure of an end fitting within the coupling zone shall require
testing of additional test specimens until three core failures (fracture or complete pull-out) are obtained.

7.2.1.3 Core Time-Load Test

Three test specimens shall be subjected to a tensile load of 60 % of the average failing load obtained in
section 7.2.1.2. This load shall be maintained for 96 hours without failure.

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7.2.2 Line Posts

7.2.2.1 Test Specimens

Three insulators manufactured on the production line using the standard end fittings shall be selected. The
section length (pole face to line attachment) shall be between 15 and 24 times the diameter of the core, or
the longest length to be manufactured, whichever is less.

7.2.2.2 Core Time Load Test

Each insulator shall be gradually loaded to 40 % of the SCL or the manufacturer’s RCL (whichever is greater)
at a temperature of 20 C  10 ºC (68 ºF ± 18 ºF). The load shall be applied to the insulator at the conductor
position, approximately perpendicular to the intended orientation of the conductor and approximately
perpendicular to the core of the insulator. The load shall be maintained for at least 96 hours.

7.2.2.3 Evaluation

7.2.2.3.1 Visual Examination

After removal of the load, visually inspect the base end fitting for cracks or permanent deformation. All
threaded connections must be intact and usable.

7.2.2.3.2 Dissection and Dye Penetration

Cut each insulator approximately 90to the axis of the core and about 50 mm (2 in) from the base end fitting,
then cut the base end fitting longitudinally into two halves in the plane of the previously applied cantilever
load. The cut surfaces shall be smoothed by means of fine abrasive cloth (grain size 180).

A dye penetration test shall be performed on the cut surfaces in accordance with ISO 3452 to reveal cracks.
The presence of cracks or delamination in the fiberglass rod shall constitute failure.

7.3 Housing tracking and erosion tests

7.3.1 Test Specimens

Two insulators of identical design shall be tested. The specimen length shall be chosen such that the leakage
distance falls between 484 mm and 800 mm (19 in to 31.5 in). If these insulators cannot be produced on the
production line, special test specimens of essentially identical design profile and identical material shall be
made that meet the leakage distance requirements. The insulators or special test specimens shall be fitted
with standard production end fittings

7.3.2 Test Chamber

The test is carried out in a moisture-sealed corrosion-proof chamber, the volume of which shall not exceed
3 3 2 2
15 m (530 ft ). An aperture of not more than 80 cm (12.4 in ) shall be provided for the natural exhaust air.

A turbo sprayer (room humidifier) of constant spraying capacity shall be used as the water atomizer, forming
water droplets of a size of 5 μm to 10 μm. Alternatively, nozzles producing water droplets of the same size
may be used. The sprayer or nozzles are mounted close to the bottom of the chamber and spray upwards
towards the roof of the chamber. The fog shall fill the chamber and not be directly sprayed onto the test
specimens. A solution of NaCl and deionized water shall be supplied to the sprayer (reference 7.3.3).

It is not permitted to re-circulate the water.

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7.3.2.1 Sample Mounting

The test specimens shall be cleaned with de-ionized water before starting the test. One test specimen
shall be tested mounted horizontally (at approximately half the height of the chamber) and the second
shall be mounted vertically. There shall be a clearance of at least 200 mm between the roof of the
chamber and a test specimen, a clearance of at least 100 mm between the side walls of the chamber and
a test specimen and at least 400 mm between parallel test specimens.

Note: Up to two pairs of test specimens can be tested simultaneously.

7.3.2.2 Fog Calibration

The calibration shall be carried out at the start of each test.


2 2 2 2
At least two clean collecting receptacles with a collecting area of 8000 mm ± 2000 mm (12.4 in ± 3.1 in )
and a maximum height of 100 mm (3.94 in) each are placed as close as practical to the position of the ends
of the test object. The receptacles shall be positioned in such a way that they are not shielded by the test
specimens and to avoid dripping from the construction elements of the chamber or another source.
2 2
They shall collect between 1.5 ml and 2.0 ml of precipitation per hour (corrected to 8000 mm (12.4 in )
collecting area) averaged over a minimum period of 16 h according to IEC 60068-2-11.
3
Note: The flow rate necessary to obtain such precipitation (typically of the order of 0.3 l/m h) should be noted.
(The water flow rate is defined in litres per hour and per cubic meter of the test chamber volume.)
Subsequently during the test, the flow rate should be checked at least every 100 h and remain within ± 25 %
of the initial value.

7.3.3 Test Conditions

The following conditions shall be maintained for a 1000-hour duration of the test:

7.3.3.3.1 Test Voltage

The test voltage in kilovolts is adjusted to the actual leakage distance of the test specimens determined by
dividing the leakage distance in millimeters by 34.6 (equal to a specific leakage distance of 20 mm/kV). The
test circuit when loaded with a continuous resistive current of 250 mA (r.m.s.) during 1 seconds on the high
voltage side shall experience a maximum voltage drop of 5 %. The protection level shall be set at 1 A
(r.m.s.).

7.3.3.2 Temperature

The ambient temperature within the chamber shall be 20 ºC ± 5 ºC.

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7.3.3.3 Saline Solution

The amount of salt to add to the deionized water shall be as follows:

Table 2
Shank diameter Initial NaCl content of water
3
Mm kg/m
l/p ≤ 3 l/p > 3
< 50 8 ± 0.4 4 ± 0.2
50 to 150 4 ± 0.2 2 ± 0.1
> 150 2 ± 0.1 1 ± 0.1
l/p is the leakage distance divided by the arcing distance.

Note: For insulators with longer leakage per length, the initial NaCl content is reduced in order to avoid
flashovers during the 1000 h test. This reduction in salinity is not regarded as decreasing the severity of the
tracking and erosion test but chosen to avoid unnecessary interruptions of the procedure.

If more than one flashover occurs at the initial NaCl content, the test shall be re-started at a halved value
of the NaCl content. The insulators are washed by tap water and the test re-started within 8 h (interruption
times shall not be counted as part of the test duration). This may be repeated until interruptions no longer
occur. The application of any of the above measures shall be noted.

The numbers of flashovers and trip-outs shall be recorded and noted in the test report.

7.3.4 Evaluations

The test specimens of identical design shall be assessed together. The evaluation of the samples shall be
in accordance with the applicable product standard.

7.4 Core Material Tests

7.4.1 Dye Penetration Test

7.4.1.1 Test Specimen

Ten samples shall be cut from an insulator. The housing material may be removed from the core but removal
is not mandatory. The length of the samples shall be 10 mm +0.5 mm (0.39 in ± 0.02 in). They shall be cut
approximately 90 and approximately parallel to the axis of the core with a diamond coated circular saw blade
under cool running water. The cut surfaces shall be smoothed with a 180-grit abrasive cloth. The cut ends
shall be clean and approximately parallel.

7.4.1.2 Test

The samples shall be placed on a layer of steel or glass balls in a glass vessel with the fibers vertical. The
balls shall be of the same diameter and in the range of 1 mm to 2 mm; The dye, composed 1% alcohol
solution of a red/violet Methin dye (such as Astrazon or Basonil), or fuschin dye is poured into the vessel until
its level is 2 mm to 3 mm (0.079 in to 0.118 in) above the top of the balls.

Note: The equivalence of the two types of dye is under investigation.

7.4.1.3 Evaluation

The time for the dye to rise through the samples by capillarity shall be more than 15 minutes.

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7.4.2 Water Diffusion Test

7.4.2.1 Test Specimen

Six samples shall be cut from an insulator. The housing material may be removed from the core, but removal
is not mandatory. The length of the specimens shall be 30 mm +0.5 mm (1.181 in ± 0.020 in). They shall be
cut approximately 90 degrees to the axis of the core with a diamond coated circular saw blade under cool
running water. The cut surfaces shall be smoothed with a 180-grit abrasive cloth. The cut ends shall be clean
and approximately parallel.

7.4.2.2 Pre-Stressing

The surfaces of the specimens shall be cleaned with isopropyl alcohol and filter paper immediately before
boiling. The specimens shall be boiled in de-ionized water with 0.1% by weight NaCl in a glass container for
100 hours + 0.5 hours. Only one core material may be boiled at one time in the same container.

After boiling, the specimens shall be removed from the salt water and placed into tap water in a glass
container at room temperature for at least 15 minutes. The following test shall begin within 3 hours of
removal of the specimens from the salt water.

7.4.2.3 Test

The test arrangement is shown in Figure 6. Immediately before the test, the specimens shall be removed
from the water and their surfaces dried with filter paper. The specimens shall be placed between the
electrodes and the voltage increased at a rate of approximately 1 kV per second to a value of 12 kV where it
shall remain for 1 minute.

7.4.2.4 Evaluation

No puncture or surface flashover is allowed. The current during the whole test shall not exceed 1 mA r.m.s.

7.5 Flammability Test

The manufacturer shall test and provide information on the ignition and self-extinguishing properties of the
elastomeric materials of the insulator. The test specimen and procedure shall be according to
IEC 60695-11-10. The evaluation shall be as defined in the appropriate product standard.

8 DESIGN TESTS
Design tests are performed on full insulators. Test specimens shall have clean insulating surfaces.

8.1 Test-Specimen Mounting for Electrical Tests

8.1.1 Suspension Insulators

8.1.1.1 Mounting Arrangement

Unless otherwise specified, the test specimen shall be suspended vertically at the end of a grounded
conductor so that the vertical distance from the uppermost point of the insulator hardware to the supporting
structure shall be not less than 914 mm (3 ft).

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8.1.1.2 Energized Electrode

The energized or line end electrode shall be a smooth rod, tube, or actual conductor having an outside
diameter not less than 19 mm (0.75 in) nor more than 38 mm (1.5 in). It shall be coupled to the lower integral
fitting of the test specimen so that the distance from the lowermost weathershed to the upper surface of the
electrode shall not be less than 1/2 diameter of the lowest weathershed. The conductor shall be horizontal
and at right angles to the axis of the test specimen. The conductor shall be of such length that flashover will
not be initiated at the ends.

8.1.2 Line Insulators (Post)

8.1.2.1 Mounting Arrangement

Unless otherwise specified, the insulator shall be mounted in the typical service orientation. If multiple
orientations are equally possible and a vertical orientation is one, testing shall be performed on the vertical
orientation.

The supporting member shall be a straight, smooth, grounded metallic tube or structural member having a
horizontal width not less than 76 mm (3 in), nor more than 305 mm (12 in). It shall be of such length that
flashover will not be initiated at its ends.

The minimum clearance between the energized electrode and the support structure for the post shall be
greater than the nominal strike distance of the insulator being tested. The minimum clearance between the
energized electrode and any other grounded object shall be 914 mm (3 ft) plus the strike distance of the
insulator being tested.

8.1.2.2 Energized Electrode

The energized or line end electrode shall be a smooth rod, tube, or actual conductor having an outside
diameter not less than 19 mm (0.75 inch) nor more than 38 mm (1.5 in). It shall be coupled to the nominal
line end fitting using typical service hardware. The conductor shall be horizontal and at right angles to the axis
of the test specimen. The conductor shall be of such length that flashover will not be initiated at the ends.

8.1.3 Apparatus Insulators (Post)

8.1.3.1 Mounting Arrangements

Unless otherwise specified, the test specimen shall be mounted in its typical service orientation, on a
grounded 254 mm (10-inch) channel, with the flanges projecting away from the test specimen, or other
smooth grounded structural member having a horizontal width not less than 254 mm (10 in). A sub-base
shall be used if the insulator characteristics are predicated on its use. The supporting structure shall be of
such length that flashover will not be initiated at its ends, and its surface facing the test specimen shall not be
less than 914 mm (3 ft) from any other grounded surfaces.

8.1.3.2 Energized Electrode

The energized or line end electrode shall be a smooth rod, tube, or actual conductor at right angles to the
supporting channel having a diameter that is approximately 5 % of the test-specimen dry-arcing distance and
having an outside diameter not less than 13 mm (0.5 inch) nor more than 111 mm (4.5 in). The length of the
conductor shall be such that flashover will not be initiated at its ends. It shall be mounted directly in contact
with the integral fitting, opposite that used for mounting of the test specimen and with its horizontal axis in the
same vertical plane as the vertical axis of the test specimen.

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8.1.3.3 Proximity of Other Objects

No objects, other than parts of the test assembly, shall be nearer the test specimen or energized electrodes
than 1-1/2 times the test-specimen dry-arcing distance with a minimum allowable distance of 914 mm (3 ft).
4
8.2 Electrical Tests

8.2.1 Low-Frequency Voltage Dry Flashover Test

8.2.1.1 Test Specimen

Dry flashover tests shall be performed on one insulator in accordance with the following sections.

8.2.1.2 Mounting Arrangement

The test-specimen mounting for dry flashover voltage tests shall be in accordance with section 8.1.

8.2.1.3 Voltage Application

The initial applied voltage may be quickly raised to approximately 75 % of the expected average dry flashover
voltage value. The continued rate of voltage increase shall be such that the time to flashover will be not less
than 5 seconds nor more than 30 seconds after 75 % of the expected flashover value is reached.
5
8.2.1.4 Dry Flashover Voltage Value

The dry flashover voltage value of a test specimen shall be the arithmetical mean of not less than five
individual flashovers taken consecutively. The period between consecutive flashovers shall be not less than
15 seconds nor more than 5 minutes.

8.2.1.5 Corrections

8.2.1.5.1 Standard Conditions

Dry flashover voltage values shall be corrected in accordance with American National Standard Techniques
for high-voltage testing, ANSI/IEEE 4 except the following standard conditions shall apply:
4
Barometric pressure: 10.086 X 10 pascals
(29.92 inches of mercury)
Temperature: 25C (77 F)
3
Vapor pressure: 2.052 X 10 pascals
(0.6085 inches of mercury)

Humidity and relative air density corrections shall be calculated in accordance with sections 8.2.1.5.2 and
8.2.1.5.3.

8.2.1.5.2 Humidity

The dry flashover voltage value shall be corrected to standard humidity conditions in accordance with the
curves in Figure 1.

4
Electrical test procedures parallel those in ANSI C29.1, section 4.
5
Probable Variation: Due to inaccuracies of correction methods, difficulties of precise calibrations and
other uncontrollable conditions, a variation of  5 % from the probable true average dry flashover voltage
value may occur in tests conducted in one laboratory. Values obtained by tests conducted in different
laboratories may vary by  8 %.

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The vapor pressure shall be determined by the following procedure:

Humidity shall be measured with wet- and dry-bulb thermometers, the air being circulated past the
thermometers at a velocity of 3 meters (9.84 ft) or more per second, or with the sling psychrometer, or with a
digital output humidity meter, appropriately calibrated. The measurements shall be reduced to vapor pressure
with the assistance of the Smithsonian meteorological tables or by the following formulas:

For SI units:
Ph = Ps – 0.0876b(t-t’)(1+0.00115t’)

Where:
Ph = vapor pressure, in pascals
Ps = pressure, in pascals, of saturated aqueous vapor at temperature t’
b = barometric pressure, in pascals
t = temperature of air, in degrees Celsius
t’ = wet-bulb temperature of air, in degrees Celsius

(For U.S. customary units:

Ph = Ps – 0.000367b(t - t’)(1+(t’-32)/1571))

Where:
Ph = vapor pressure, in inches of mercury
Ps = pressure, in inches of mercury, of saturated aqueous vapor at temperature t’
b = barometric pressure, in inches of mercury
t = temperature of air, in degrees Fahrenheit
t’ = wet-bulb temperature of air, in degrees Fahrenheit)

8.2.1.5.3 Air Density

The dry flashover voltage value shall be corrected to standard atmospheric temperature and pressure
conditions. To do so, divide the measured voltage value by the relative air density correction factor, Kd,
calculated in one of the following ways:
For SI units:

Kd = 0.002955(P/(273 + t))

Where:
P = barometric pressure in pascals
t = air temperature in degrees Celsius

Or,
Kd = 0.392(P/(273 +t))

Where:
P = barometric pressure in millimeters of mercury
t = air temperature in degrees Celsius.

(For U.S. customary units):

Kd = 17.95(P/(460 + t))

Where:
P = barometric pressure in inches of mercury
t = air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit)

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8.2.2 Low-Frequency Voltage Wet Flashover Test

8.2.2.1 Mounting Arrangement

The test specimen mounting for wet flashover voltage tests shall be in accordance with section 8.1.

8.2.2.2 Precipitation

The precipitation shall be applied as prescribed in ANSI/IEEE 4 and the included table of precipitation
conditions, conventional procedure of practice in the USA.

8.2.2.3 Preparation of Test Specimen

The preparation of the test specimen shall be in accordance with the section on wet tests of ANSI/IEEE 4.

8.2.2.4 Voltage Application

At not less than 1 minute after the final adjustment of the spray, the applied voltage may be raised quickly to
approximately 75% of the expected average wet flashover voltage value. The continued rate of voltage
increase shall be such that the time to flashover will be not less than 5 seconds nor more than 30 seconds
after 75% of the expected average wet flashover voltage value is reached.
6
8.2.2.5 Wet Flashover Voltage Value

The wet flashover voltage value of a test specimen shall be the arithmetical mean of not less than five
individual flashovers taken consecutively. The period between consecutive flashovers shall be not less than
15 seconds nor more than 5 minutes.

8.2.2.6 Corrections

Corrections shall be made in accordance with section 8.2.1.4, except that no correction for humidity shall be
made.

8.2.3 Low-Frequency Voltage Dry Withstand Test

8.2.3.1 Mounting Arrangement

The test-specimen mounting for dry withstand voltage tests shall be in accordance with section 8.1.

8.2.3.2 Voltage Application

75% of the rated dry withstand voltage may be applied in one step and gradually raised to the required value
in not less than 5 nor more than 30 seconds.

8.2.3.3 Test Voltage and Time

The test voltage, which is the rated dry withstand voltage with appropriate atmospheric corrections applied,
shall be held on a test specimen for 1 minute.

6
Probable Variation: Due to variations in water spray, inaccuracies of correction methods, difficulties of precise
calibrations, and other uncontrollable conditions, a variation of  8 % from the probable true average wet flashover
voltage value may be expected in tests conducted in one laboratory. Values obtained by tests conducted in different
laboratories may vary by  12 %.

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8.2.3.4 Correction

Corrections shall be made in accordance with section 8.2.1.4. The test voltage applicable to existing
atmospheric conditions is obtained from the rated withstand voltage as given for standard atmospheric
conditions, by use of the following equation:

V = Vs x /H

Where:
V= test voltage, in kilovolts, applied to test specimen
Vs= rated withstand voltage, in kilovolts
 = relative air density
H = humidity correction factor applicable for the particular test specimen.

8.2.4 Low-Frequency Wet Withstand Test

8.2.4.1 Mounting Arrangement

The test specimen mounting for wet withstand voltage tests shall be in accordance with section 8.1.

8.2.4.2 Precipitation

The precipitation shall be applied as prescribed in ANSI/IEEE 4 and the included table of precipitation
conditions (Conventional procedure – practice in USA).

8.2.4.3 Preparation of Test Specimen

The preparation of the test specimen shall be in accordance with the section on wet tests of ANSI/IEEE 4.

8.2.4.4 Voltage Application

75% of the rated wet withstand voltage may be applied in one step and gradually raised to the required value
in not less than 5 nor more than 30 seconds.

8.2.4.5 Test Voltage and Time

The test voltage, which is the rated wet withstand voltage, with appropriate atmospheric corrections applied,
shall be held on the test specimen for 10 seconds.

8.2.4.6 Corrections

Corrections shall be in accordance with section 8.2.1.4 except that no correction shall be made for humidity.
The test voltage applicable to existing atmospheric conditions is obtained from the rated withstand voltage,
as given for standard atmospheric conditions, by use of the following equations:

V=Vs x 

Where:

V=test voltage (kilovolts) applied to test specimen.


Vs=rated withstand voltage (kilovolts)
=relative air density

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8.2.5 Switching Critical-Impulse Flashover Test

This test shall be performed only when the intended service voltage is in excess of 300 kV phase-to-phase.
It shall be performed on one insulator in accordance with section 8 of ANSI/IEEE 4. The specimen mounting
shall be in accordance with section 8.1 of this standard.

8.2.6 Impulse Flashover Voltage Tests

8.2.6.1 General

Impulse flashover voltage tests are made under dry conditions only.

8.2.6.2 Mounting Arrangement

The test-specimen mounting for impulse flashover voltage tests shall be in accordance with section 8.1.

8.2.6.3 Impulse Voltage Wave

All tests shall be made with a 1.2 X 50-microsecond wave in accordance with ANSI/IEEE 4.
7
8.2.6.4 Critical Impulse Flashover Voltage Value

The critical impulse flashover voltage shall be determined in accordance with ANSI/IEEE 4.

8.2.6.5 Volt-Time Flashover Curves

The volt-time flashover curves shall be determined in accordance with ANSI/IEEE 4.

8.2.6.6 Corrections

8.2.6.6.1 Critical Impulse Flashover Voltage

The critical impulse flashover voltage value shall be corrected to standard conditions in accordance with
section 8.2.1.4, except that the curves in Figure 2 shall be used.

8.2.6.6.2 Volt-Time Curves

The full air-density corrections shall be applicable. The humidity correction shall be made as follows:

a) When the critical flashover voltage value occurs at more than 10 microseconds, full corrections shall
be applied to all values with time lags of 10 microseconds or more. When flashover above critical
voltage occurs at less than 10 microseconds, the correction shall be reduced in the direct ratio that the
time to flashover bears to 10 microseconds.

b) When the critical flashover voltage value occurs at less than 10 microseconds, the correction shall be
reduced in the direct ratio that the time to flashover bears to the time at the critical flashover.

7
Probable Variation: Due to inaccuracies of correction methods, difficulties of precise calibrations and other
uncontrollable conditions, a variation of  5 % from the probable true average impulse critical flashover voltage value
may be expected in tests conducted in one laboratory. Values obtained by tests conducted in different laboratories
may vary by 8 %. In volt-time curves, similar variations are to be expected at points near the impulse critical
flashover voltage value, with considerably larger variations involved as the time to breakdown decreases.

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8.2.7 Impulse Withstand Voltage Test

8.2.7.1 General

Impulse withstand voltage tests are made to determine that the test specimen is capable of withstanding a
specified impulse voltage.

8.2.7.2 Mounting Arrangement

The test specimen mounting for impulse withstand voltage tests shall be in accordance with section 8.1.

8.2.7.3 Corrections

Corrections shall be made in accordance with section 8.2.1.4 except that the curves in Figure 2 shall be
used.

8.2.7.4 Voltage Application

Impulse withstand voltage tests shall be made with an impulse of that polarity which produces the lower
flashover voltage on that test specimen. Three consecutive impulses shall be applied to the test specimen.
The crest voltage of each shall be not less than the specified impulse withstand voltage, with appropriate
atmospheric corrections.

8.2.8 Radio-Influence Voltage Tests

Due to the complexity of performing RIV testing at voltages above 70 kV, it is suggested that the purchaser
and manufacturer agree upon the test installation details. The details include, but are not limited to, bundle
design, number of conductors, type of connection hardware, grading ring design, and specifics of the
installation mounting configuration. For the purpose of clarity in ANSI standards for NCI designs, the use of
the terms grading ring or corona ring is considered equivalent. For RIV testing, the choice of an appropriately
sized electrode is critical to eliminate erroneous results.

8.2.8.1 Mounting Arrangement

The test-specimen mounting shall be in accordance with section 8.1, except that the clearance to objects,
other than parts of the test assembly, shall in no case be less than 914 mm (3 ft) per 100 kilovolts of test
voltage.

8.2.8.2 Equipment

The equipment used in making the radio-influence voltage tests shall be in accordance with
NEMA 107-1987 (R1993) Methods of Measuring Radio Noise.

8.2.8.2.1 Wave Shape

The wave shape of the applied voltage shall be a sine wave of acceptable commercial standards in
accordance with ANSI/IEEE 4.

8.2.8.2.2 Supply-Voltage Frequency

The frequency of the supply voltage shall be 60 hertz  5%.

8.2.8.3 Atmospheric Conditions

Tests shall be conducted under atmospheric conditions prevailing at the time and place of test, but it is
3
recommended that tests be avoided when the vapor pressure exceeds 2.02 X 10 pascals (0.6 inch of

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mercury). Since the effects of humidity and air density upon the radio-influence voltage are not definitely
known, no correction factors are recommended for either at the present time. However, it is recommended
that barometric pressure and dry- and wet-bulb thermometer readings be recorded so that if suitable
correction factors should be determined, they could be applied to previous measurements.

8.2.8.4 Precautions in Making Radio-Influence Voltage Tests

The following precautions should be observed when making a radio-influence voltage test on a test
specimen:

a) The test specimen should be at approximately the same temperature as the room in which the test is
made.

b) The test specimen should be clean.

c) In some cases it may be found that the radio-influence voltage falls off rapidly after the 60-hertz
voltage has been applied for a short time. In such cases it is permissible to stabilize conditions by
pre-exciting the test specimen at normal operating voltage for a period not to exceed 5 minutes before
proceeding with the tests.

d) The radio-influence voltage test, as defined by this standard, is applicable to insulators intended to be
supplied at system voltages of less than 70 kV.

e) In the absence of a utility specification for applications above 70 kV, the manufacturer may provide
evidence, based on testing of standard ANSI classifications noted in the NCI standards, that the insulator
will not exceed 100 micro volts when performing RIV testing. This limit shall be reported when the
insulator, including grading rings where appropriate is tested at 115% of the nominal line-to-ground
voltage of the application.

8.2.8.5 Methods of Making Tests

8.2.8.5.1 Radio-Influence Voltage

The specified voltage shall be applied to the test specimen, and the radio-influence voltage shall be
measured in microvolts at the specified radio frequency. It is considered impractical to read radio-influence
test voltages that are less than 10 microvolts.

8.2.8.5.2 Radio-Influence Characteristics

The radio-influence characteristics are determined by plotting the test voltage against the corresponding
radio-influence voltage.

8.3 Mechanical Tests

8.3.1 Ultimate Mechanical-Strength Tests

8.3.1.1 General

Mechanical load shall be applied to the test specimen in the manner prescribed in the following sections.
The load shall be started at zero and smoothly brought up in a practically stepless variation to the failure
point.

8.3.1.2 Suspension Insulators

For section 8.3.1.2.1, the mechanical-tensile load shall be applied between terminal fittings in line with the
axis of the test specimen.

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8.3.1.2.1 Specified Mechanical Load Test (SML)

The insulators shall be subjected to a tensile load that shall be increased rapidly but smoothly from zero to
75% of the SML and then gradually be increased to the SML in a time between 30 and 90 seconds. If 100%
of the SML is reached in less than 90 seconds, the load shall be sustained at SML for the remainder of the
90 seconds. The load shall then be increased until the insulator fails. The failure load shall be recorded.

8.3.1.3 Line and Apparatus Post Insulators

For sections 8.3.1.3.2 and 8.3.1.3.4, the sample insulator shall be subjected to a cantilever load in the
normal vertical loading direction, or approximately perpendicular to the core of the insulator if the insulator
is to be mounted vertically.

The load shall be applied at the conductor mounting position, approximately perpendicular to the typical
direction of the conductor.

For trunnion end fitting, tension load shall be applied to the metal nose of the trunnion.

Other test arrangements shall be in accordance with ANSI C29.1, section 5.

8.3.1.3.1 Specified Tensile Load Test (STL)

The insulators shall be subjected to a tensile load that shall be increased rapidly but smoothly from zero to
75% of the STL and then gradually be increased to the STL in a time between 30 and 90 seconds. If 100% of
the STL is reached in less than 90 seconds, the load shall be sustained at STL for the remainder of the 90
seconds. The load shall then be increased until the insulator fails. The failure load shall be recorded.

8.3.1.3.2 Cantilever Breaking Load Test (CBL)

The sample insulator shall be loaded at an approximately constant rate of less than 40 % of the SCL of the
insulator per minute until the insulator fails. The CBL shall be recorded.

8.3.1.3.3 Torsion load test (apparatus post)

Torsion load tests shall be made with the test specimen adequately secured to the testing machine. The
torsional load shall be applied to the test specimen through a torque member so constructed that the test
specimen is not subjected to any cantilever stress.

The load shall be started at zero and smoothly brought up in a practically stepless variation until failure of
the core or slip of the end fitting occurs. The load may be increased rapidly to approximately 75 % of rated
strength of the insulator. The rate of increase of load from 75% of rating to failure is between minimum
30 % and maximum 60 % of the rated strength of the insulator per minute.

8.3.2 Compression Withstand Load Test (Post)

8.3.2.1 Test Specimen

One sample insulator representing the class shall be assembled. The sample shall have a core and end
fittings that are both dimensionally and materially representative of the class. The sample need not
include weathersheds or housings. The sample length shall be at least 10 times the diameter of the core
or 889 mm (35 in), whichever is greater. The section length shall be measured before testing with a
precision of ± 0.81 mm ( 0.032 in).

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8.3.2.2 Compression Test

The test specimen shall be loaded such that the load is aligned with the axis of the core. End fitting
attachment to the loading mechanism shall be made in the attachment zone and where possible, shall
represent a typical means of service loading. The compression load shall be applied rapidly, but smoothly,
from zero to 75% of the specified compression load and then gradually be increased to the specified
compression load in a time between 30 and 90 seconds. If 100% of the specified compression load is
reached in less than 90 seconds, the load shall be sustained at the specified compression load for the
remainder of the 90 seconds. The load shall then be removed.

8.3.2.3 Evaluation

Following removal of the load, the section length of the test specimen shall again be measured. The
length shall not change by more than 0.81 mm (0.032 in). No visual cracking shall occur in the core or end
fittings.

After a visual check of the surface of the test sample, the rod shall be cut approximately perpendicular to
the axis near the mid-point and near both ends (no more than 30mm (1.181 in) away from the edge of end
fittings). A dye penetration test in accordance with ISO 3452 shall then be performed on the cut surfaces.
No visible cracks shall be evident on the cut surfaces of the core.

9 SAMPLE TESTS

9.1 Sample Selection

The insulators shall be selected from the lot in accordance with the applicable standard.

9.2 Verification of Dimensions

The insulators in the sample shall be checked for dimensions against the dimensions on the manufacturer’s
drawing. If tolerances are not given on the drawing, the tolerances in the applicable standard shall apply.

9.3 Verification of The Locking System

For insulators with one or more socket end fittings, the specified samples shall be tested for disengagement
force of the cotter key. The number of tests performed and the force to lock or unlock the assembly shall be
as listed in the applicable standard.

9.4 Mechanical Load Test-Tension

9.4.1 Test Samples

The number and type of samples to be tested shall be as specified in the applicable standard.

9.4.2 Suspension Insulators (SML)

The sample insulator(s) shall be subjected to a tensile load that shall be increased rapidly but smoothly from
zero to 75% of the SML and then gradually be increased to the SML in a time between 30 and 90 seconds. If
100% of the SML is reached in less than 90 seconds, the load shall be sustained at SML for the remainder of
the 90 seconds. The test is passed if no failure occurs. The load shall then be increased until the insulator
fails. The failure load shall be recorded. The historical failure loads shall justify the manufacturer’s choice of
SML.

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9.4.3 Line Post Insulators (STL)

9.4.3.1 Test setup

If a detachable base is used, it should be removed and attachment made to the end fitting, which is attached
to the core rod. Attachment to the line end fitting shall be made in the attachment zone and shall represent a
typical means of service loading, but need not include actual service hardware. Attachment means shall be
at the manufacturer’s discretion.

9.4.3.2 Loading

The tensile load shall be applied rapidly, but smoothly, from zero to 75% of the STL and then gradually be
increased to the STL in a time between 30 and 90 seconds. If 100% of the STL is reached in less than 90
seconds, the load shall be sustained at the STL for the remainder of the 90 seconds. The load shall then be
increased until the insulator fails. The failure load shall be recorded.

9.5 Verification of Cantilever Strength Test (Post)

9.5.1 Test Setup

For sections 9.5.2 and 9.5.3, the sample insulator shall be subjected to a cantilever load in the normal vertical
loading direction, or approximately perpendicular to the core of the insulator if the insulator is to be mounted
vertically. The load shall be applied at the conductor mounting position, approximately perpendicular to the
typical direction of the conductor.

9.5.2 Cantilever Strength Verification

The sample insulator shall be loaded at an approximately constant rate of less than 50% of the SCL of the
insulator per minute. The position of the end fitting to which the load is being applied shall be monitored. A
load of at least 50% of the SCL shall be held for one minute. During the 1-minute hold, the position of the top
end fitting shall be monitored. Tolerances for positional shift of the top cap during the 1-minute hold shall be
as defined in the applicable standard.

9.5.3 Cantilever Breaking Load (CBL) Test

The load shall be increased at an approximately constant rate of less than 40% of the SCL of the insulator
per minute. The direction of loading shall be free to pivot in a plane defined by the axis of the insulator and
the anchoring point of the loading device. The failing load (Cantilever Breaking Load) shall be the maximum
load attainable under these loading conditions.

The test is passed if the CBL is greater than or equal to the SCL.

9.6 Galvanizing Test

The test for thickness of coating shall be in accordance with ASTM B499 Standard Measurement of Coating
thickness by the Magnetic Method: Nonmagnetic Coatings of Magnetic Base Metals. Sample sizes shall be
as defined in the individual test standard. Five to ten measurements shall be distributed over the surface,
except in the crimped areas. Both the average thickness value for each individual specimen and the average
of the entire sample shall equal or exceed the following:

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Table 3
Average of
Average of
Individual
Entire Sample
Specimen
mm (mil)
mm (mil)
Hardware
(except
nuts/bolts) 0.086 (3.4) 0.078 (3.1)
Nuts/Bolts 0.053 (2.1) 0.043 (1.7)

Crimped areas shall be visually examined for full coverage without flaking or cracking.

9.7 Retest Procedure for Sample Tests

If only one insulator or metal part fails to comply with the requirements of a sample test, a new sample equal
to twice the quantity originally submitted to that test shall be subjected to retesting. The retesting shall
comprise the test in which failure occurred, preceded by those tests that may be considered as having
influenced the results of the original test.

If two or more insulators or metal parts fail to comply with any of the sample tests or if any failure occurs
during the retesting, the complete lot is considered as not complying with the standard and shall be
withdrawn for examination by the manufacturer. The number then selected shall be three times the first
quantity chosen for tests.

The retesting shall comprise the test in which failure occurred, preceded by those tests that may be
considered as having influenced the results of the original test. If any insulator fails during the retesting, the
complete lot is considered as not complying with this standard.

10 ROUTINE TESTS

10.1 Mechanical Tests

10.1.1 Suspension Insulators

Every insulator shall withstand for at least 10 seconds a tensile load equal to or greater than the RTL rating.
No partial or complete pull out of the core from the end fitting shall occur.

10.1.2 Line and Apparatus Post Insulators

Each assembled line and apparatus insulator shall be given a tensile-strength test 10 seconds in duration, at
the specified value, applied in line with the axis of the insulator. No partial or complete pull out of the core
from the end fitting shall occur.

10.2 Visual Examinations

The mounting of metallic parts shall be in conformance with the manufacturer's drawing. The color of the
insulator shall be approximately as specified on the drawing.

The following imperfection shall be acceptable on the insulator surface: superficial defects of area less than
2
25 square millimeters (0.039 in ) (the total defective area not to exceed 2% of the total insulator surface) and
depth less than 1mm (0.039 in).

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Low-Frequency Humidity Correction Factors

1.3
1.25
1.2
1.15
Correction Factor (H)

1.1
1.05
1
0.95
0.9
0.85
FIGURE 10-1
0.8
LOW FREQUENCY HUMIDITY CORRECTION FACTORS
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 45
Vapor Pressure, Pascals (Ph)

Impulse Humidity Correction Factors

1.18
Legend:
A – Suspension insulators, positive
1.13 wave
B – Line insulators, positive wave
Suspension insulators, negative
wave
Correction Factor (H)

1.08 Apparatus insulators, positive wave


C – Line insulators, negative wave
Apparatus insulators, negative wave
1.03

0.98

MULTIPLY MEASURED KV
0.93 BY CORRECTION FACTOR.
MEASUREMENTS MADE IN THE RANGE SHOWN
DOTTED ARE APT TO BE ERRATIC
0.88
0 1000 FIGURE2000
10-2 3000 4000 5000
IMPULSE HUMIDITY CORRECTION FACTORS
Vapor Pressure, Pascals (Ph)

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FIGURE 10-3
THERMAL MECHANICAL TEST (SUSPENSION INSULATORS)

Note: The test may be interrupted for maintenance for a total duration of 4 hours.
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FIGURE 10-4
THERMAL MECHANICAL TEST (LINE POST – 69 KV AND BELOW)
Note: The test may be interrupted for maintenance for a total duration of 4 hours.

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FIGURE 10-5
THERMAL MECHANICAL TEST (LINE POST – 70 KV AND ABOVE)
Note: The test may be interrupted for maintenance for a total duration of 2 hours.

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FIGURE 10-6
ELECTRODES FOR CORE MATERIAL TEST
Note: For samples with large diameters, the diameter of the electrodes must be increased. The diameter of
the electrodes must be at least 0.75 in (19 mm) greater than that of the sample.

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ANNEX A
BIBLIOGRAPHY
ANSI C29.12-1997 (R2012) American National Standard for Insulators–Composites–Suspension Type

ANSI C29.13-2012 American National Standard for Insulators–Composite–Distribution Deadend Type

ANSI C29.17-2002 American National Standard for Insulators-Composite–Line Post Type

ANSI C29.18-2003 American National Standard for Insulators Composite–Distribution Line Post Type

IEC 60383-1 Ed. 4.0 -1993 Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above 1000V–
Part 1: Ceramic or glass insulator units for a.c. systems-Definitions, test methods, and acceptance criteria

IEC 60383-2 Ed. 1.0 (1993) Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above 1000 V–
Part 2: Insulator strings and insulator sets for a.c. systems-Definitions, test methods and acceptance
criteria

IEC 61109 Ed. 2.0 (2008) Insulators for overhead lines-Composite suspension and tension insulators for
a.c. systems with a nominal voltage greater than 1000V–Definitions, test methods and acceptance criteria

IEC 61462 Ed. 1.0 (2007) Composite hollow insulators–Pressurized and unpressurized insulators for use
in electrical equipment with rated voltage greater than 1000V–Definitions, test methods, acceptance
criteria and design recommendations

IEC 61952 Ed. 2.0 (2008) Insulators for overhead lines-Composite line post insulators for a.c. systems
with a nominal voltage greater than 1000V-Definitions, test methods and acceptance criteria

IEC 62217 Ed. 1.0 (2005) Polymeric insulators for indoor and outdoor use with a nominal voltage greater
than 1000 V–General definitions, test methods, and acceptance criteria

© Copyright 2012 by National Electrical Manufacturers Association