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Wang Hongdong, Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Yi Hong, Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Yu Ping, Jiangnan Shipyard Co., Ltd.

Liang Xiaofeng, Ph.D., Shanghai Jiao Tong University

Keywords: offshore oil platform, equivalent fault tree (EFT), minimal cut set, test point, diagnostic strategy

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS essential in fault diagnosis and testing for offshore oil

platforms.

Offshore oil platform testing is still in its initial stages.

Testing technology research now mainly concentrates on

Owing to the complexity and maintainability of offshore oil

electronic equipment [1]-[3], and studies on the testing of

platform systems, testing diagnostic strategies at the system

complex mechanical systems like an offshore oil platform

level have not yet been established. In this paper, such a

consisting of multiclass equipment, such as a mechanical

complex system is simplified using an equivalent fault tree

electric hydraulic system, are rare. Furthermore, fault

with only three levels. The concept of critical importance of a

diagnosis mainly focuses on the device or component level

minimum cut set (MCS) is also defined to determine the

because of the complexity of offshore oil platform systems,

MCSs with larger importance to establish the fault diagnosis

which consist of various equipment and encounter complex

strategy. The fault diagnosis sequence for MCSs is determined

faults. An offshore oil platform system is not considered as a

by their critical importance. The test sequence for the bottom

starting point in implementing diagnostic strategies [4].

events in the MCSs is decided by the critical importance

Global fault diagnosis and testing on offshore oil

values of units and the mean time to detection (MTTD). If a

platforms are both difficult and unnecessary, whereas

bottom event has been diagnosed to be normal, the minimum

expedient fault isolation in replaceable units, such as

cut set it belongs to can be evaluated based on the critical

equipment or components, can be achieved through fault

importance of the unit and MTTD; otherwise, this MCS can be

diagnosis strategies. Significant research has been conducted

excluded for testing diagnosis and the next MCS is diagnosed.

on this field. For example, Guangyao et al. [5] found the

Three factors, namely, unit critical importance, MTTD, and

optimal fault isolation node with the use of a fault isolation

test cost, should be considered when installing online test

weight number for complex electronic systems and determined

devices. At the end of this paper, the power system of

the best test point and the optimal fault diagnosis strategy

ChengDao No. 1 Center offshore oil platform in Shengli oil

through node information. Shaoxu et al. [6] employed a ship

field is used as the research object to establish the testing

power system as an example to determine the optimal fault

diagnosis strategy through the developed method. Results

diagnosis program, which is based on the unit’s critical

show that this method can not only establish a systematic

importance calculated by a fault tree and the mean time to

diagnosis strategy but can also provide a basis for the

failure detection (MTTD). A test point arrangement plan can

systematic placement of test devices.

be reasonably optimized based on fault analysis results; the

1 INTRODUCTION plan provides the basis for test equipment installation. Test

points are optimized on the basis of factors such as fault

Offshore oil platform systems and structures have become

information and test cost. For example, Junyou et al. [7]

increasingly complex; coupled with the harsh working

proposed a system-level test point optimization method and

environment at sea, the possibility of system failures gradually

two diagnosis strategies (i.e., least test steps and saving test

increases. These failures will inevitably result in considerable

cost) for avionic systems by considering comprehensive

economic losses and environmental disasters.

testability measurements, fault probability, test costs, and

Through the accurate placement of test equipment, the

other factors.

operating condition of each system can be timely, accurately

The current study establishes the equivalent fault tree

and dynamically validated to implement preventive

based on failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis

maintenance. Quickly locating faults to guide maintenance

(FMECA) and fault tree analysis (FTA), and then calculates

work by employing diagnostic strategies has practical

the importance of the minimum cut set (MCS) [8].

significance for offshore oil platform systems and is thus

Consequently, the test point arrangement strategy and the

,(((

minimum cut-set diagnosis strategy can be established. Fi (t )

Subsequently, the bottom event diagnosis strategy can be I iCR (t ) [ Rs (t; Ri (t) 1) Rs (t; Ri (t) 0)] u , (2)

Fs (t )

determined by three measure principles, namely, unit critical

importance, test cost, and MTTD. where I iCR (t ) represents the critical importance of unit i,

Rs (t ; Ri (t ) 1) represents the system reliability when unit i

2 TESTING DIAGNOSIS STRATEGY BASED ON works correctly, Rs (t ; Ri (t ) 0) represents the system

EQUIVALENT FAULT TREE reliability when unit i fails, Fi (t ) represents the

2.1 Equivalent fault tree model failure probability of unit i at time t, and Fs (t ) is the

failure probability of the system at time t. Thus, the critical

A fault tree model can be established through FMECA. importance of the minimum cut set can be described as

Owing to the complex characteristics of offshore oil platforms, Fk (t ) wRs (t) Fk (t )

the corresponding fault tree is extremely large; thus, I kCR (t ) I kB (t )

Fs (t ) wRk (t) Fs (t ) , (3)

simplifying the fault tree is necessary for more convenient test F (t )

diagnosis. If the K MCSs are analyzed by FTA, then the [ Rs (t; Rk (t) 1) Rs (t; Rk (t) 0)] u k

Fs (t )

structure function of the fault tree, \ ( x) , can be described as

K where I kCR (t ) represents the critical importance of the k th

\ ( x) G (x ) , (1)

k 1

k i (1 d k d K ) MCS, I kB (t ) represents the Birnbaum reliability

where Gk ( x) represents the k th MCS. When the k th importance [9], Fk (t ) represents the unreliability of the k th

minimum cut set contains M units, xi ( 1 d i d M ) represents (1 d k d K ) MCS, Rs (t ) represents the system reliability at

the bottom event vector corresponding to the k th MCS

time t, Rk (t) represents the reliability of the k th MCS at time

equivalently represents the fault tree [8]. The relationship of

each bottom event affiliated with the MCS is “and,” and the t, Rs (t ; Rk (t ) 0) represents the system reliability when the

relationship between each MCS is “or.” Therefore, the fault reliability of the k th MCS is equal to 0 at time t, and

tree can be transformed to the equivalent fault tree as shown in Rs (t ; Rk (t ) 1) represents the system reliability when the

Figure 1.

reliability of the k th MCS is equal to 1 at time t.

According to the concept of minimum cut set, the top

event is known to occur when the minimum cut set occurs.

The minimum cut set occurs when all the bottom events

contained in the minimum cut set occur.

Rs (t ; Rk (t ) 0) 0 (4)

Rs (t ; Rk (t ) 1) Rs (t ; R( xi ) 1) (5)

1d i d M

Fk (t )

I kCR (t ) Rs (t; R ( xi ) 1) u (6)

1d i d M Fs (t )

The failure time of the bottom event can be obtained by

Figure 1 - Model of Equivalent Fault Tree sampling simulation through Monte Carlo method. If the

According to Figure 1, the complex fault tree can be sampled value of the failure time of xi unit [10] is equal to

transformed to an equivalent fault tree, which has three levels. ti Fi 1 ([) , where [ is the random number with uniform

In this way, the fault tree can be simplified considerably, and distribution between [0,1], Fi ([) is the distribution function

fault testing diagnosis work can be designed clearly. of the failure time of the i th unit, and the unreliability of the i

th unit at time t can be represented as Fi (t ) , then the MCS

2.2 Test point arrangement and diagnostic strategy occurs when the failure of all the M units occur so that the

establishment occurrence time of the k th MCS is

According to the equivalent fault tree model, both the tk max Fi 1 ([),1 d k d K . (7)

1d i d M

minimum cut set level and bottom event level should be

investigated when placing test points and establishing a If the simulation time is equal to N s , then the system

diagnostic strategy. The concept of unit critical importance failure time t j at j ( 1 d j d N s ) is

represents the degree of the contribution of a unit to system

tj min t j , k min[ max Fi 1 ([ j )], 1 d j d Ns . (8)

failure [9]. In other words, the larger the critical importance of 1d k d K 1d i d M

a unit is, the larger is the possibility of system failure resulting If the system runtime is t, then the unreliability of the k th

from the failure of the unit. minimum cut set at time t is

M M

MCS is “and.” Therefore, when diagnosing bottom events,

Fk (t ) 1 Ri 1 (1 Fi (t )) . (9)

once a certain event is determined to be working properly, the

i 0 i 0

corresponding MSC can be ruled out, and the diagnostic test

The value of M(t j ) , which is a state variable, is expressed can proceed to the next cut set, thereby reducing the time

as needed for fault diagnosis. Thus, the fault diagnosis strategy

°1ˈt j t

can be determined using a fault tree. In fault analysis, I iCR (t ) ,

M (t j ) ® . (10) MTTDi , and economic factors (test fee Ci ) are considered as

°̄0ˈt j t t

the bases for placing test points. Consequently, the measure

In the N s simulation, the times when the system failure indicator is

time t j is less than the runtime t can be accumulated; thus, the Qi I iCR (t) ( MTTDi u Ci ) . (16)

reliability of the system can be calculated as

Ns The larger Qi is, the more important it is to place the test

Fs (t ) ¦ M(t ) j Ns . (11) point. Thus, the arrangement of test points in an offshore oil

j 1 platform system can be determined.

For equation (5), when the reliability of all the M units 3 ANALYSIS OF THE TESTING DIAGNOSIS STRATEGY

contained in the k th MCS is equal to 1, the failure time of the FOR POWER SYSTEM OF OFFSHORE OIL PLATFORM

minimum cut set MCSk except k is 3.1 Introduction to the power system of ChengDao No. 1

max Fi 1 ([ ), xI MCS k Center offshore oil platform

°1di d M

tk ® . (12) The basic function of the ChengDao No. 1 Center

°1dmax Fi 1 ([ ), xI MCS k offshore oil platform (Figure 2.) is to continuously produce

¯ idM I

electricity for the other satellite platforms. The power system

Equation (12) expresses that, when the unit xI is not in of the offshore oil platform consists of two T40-type

MCSk , the failure time of MCSk is the maximal value of the generating units; two natural gas compressors; an indirect-

failure time of the units contained in this MCS; when the unit fired heater; and five 190T-type generating units, which are

xI is in MCSk , the failure time of MCSk is the maximal the power starters of the T40-type generating units; and a

value of the failure time of the units contained in this MCS, standby power system. This system provides the basic

except for xI . Thus, the system failure time is functionality of uninterruptable power supply to other

tj min t j , k ˈ1 d j d N s . (13) platforms.

In this simulation, when the state variable M(t j ) is 3.2 Equivalent fault tree of the offshore oil platform power

system

introduced, and its value is equal to 1 when t j t or equal to

To conduct a reliability analysis of the system, the setup,

0 when t j t t , the times when the system failure time t j is less task characteristics, working environment, and typical failure

than runtime t can be accumulated as follows: model of the system should be determined initially based on

Ns

the system design and schematic diagram. Second, the fault

Rs (t; R( xi ) 1) 1 ¦ M(t j ) N s . (14) tree can be built through the FMECA on the power system.

1d i d M j 1 Third, the relationship between the mission time and reliability

Thus, equation (6) is transformed into is derived via numerical simulation based on MCS, and then

M

the mission times for different reliability values can be

Ns 1 (1 Fi (t )) obtained. Lastly, the critical importance of the components

I kCR (t ) [1 ¦ M(t j ) N s ] u i 0

. (15) can be determined.

Ns

Analysis of the available materials on offshore oil

j 1

¦ M(t )

j 1

j Ns

platform power system design, principle diagram of functions,

system startup, operation, control, and maintenance, among

After the critical importance values of the MCSs I kCR (t ) others is necessary in the FMECA to find the potential failure

are acquired, the less important MCSs are filtered out. Then, mode of a power system and gradually establish a system fault

the diagnosis order of the remaining MCSs is determined tree model. The minimum cut sets are identified using the

according to the order of critical importance. For the bottom Fussell algorithm [11]. Finally, the offshore oil platform

events in the MCSs, with unit reliability factors (critical power system failure fault tree model is built. Owing to space

importance I kCR (t ) ) and maintainability factors (mean time to limitations, the specific process of the FMECA is not

failure detection, MTTDi ) considered, the value of presented in this paper; however, Figure 3 shows the fault tree

Pi I iCR (t ) MTTDi is used as the measure indicator of the model. Table 1 shows the specific fault tree code in which M

diagnosis order. The fault with a larger value is given priority means medial event and B means bottom event. A fault tree

in the diagnosis. An MCS exists only when all the bottom model is established based on the MCS results. The model is

events fail because the relationship of the bottom events in an presented in Figure 1 and the MCS results are provided in

Table 2.

Figure 2 - Operation Diagram of the ChengDao No. 1 Center Offshore Oil Platform Power System

Table 1 – Codes and Descriptions of the Events

Power system failure in which the system cannot supply

Top Event M16 #1 T40-type gas turbine generating unit failure

power to the platform

M1 Power system failure M17 #2 T40-type gas turbine generating unit failure

M2 Standby power system failure M18 #1 T40-type gas turbine line monitoring system failure

M3 Main power system failure M19 #2 T40-type gas turbine line monitoring system failure

M4 #1 190T-type gas turbine generating unit failure B1 6 kV high-voltage power distribution system failure

M5 #2 190T-type gas turbine generating unit failure B2 190T-type generator system low-voltage power distribution system failure

M6 #3 190T-type gas turbine generating unit failure B3 190T-type generator system failure

M7 #4 190T-type gas turbine generating unit failure B4 T40-type power distribution system failure

M8 #5 190T-type gas turbine generating unit failure B5 DC control panel failure

M9 #1 T40-type gas turbine generating unit failure B6 Generator control panel failure

M10 #2 T40-type gas turbine generating unit failure B7 Relay protection work failure

M11 #1 190T-type gas turbine line-monitoring system failure B8 T40-type generator system failure

M12 #2 190T-type gas turbine line-monitoring system failure B9 Main power system generator control panel failure

M13 #3 190T-type gas turbine line-monitoring system failure B10 Main power system DC power system control panel failure

M14 #4 190T-type gas turbine line-monitoring system failure B11 Main power system generator control panel failure

M15 #5 190T-type gas turbine line-monitoring system failure B12 Main power system relay protection work failure

Figure 3 - Fault-Tree Model of ChengDao No. 1 Center Offshore Oil Platform Power System

Bottom Bottom

MCS I kCR (t ) MCS I kCR (t )

event event

MCS2 B8, B3 0.397205 MCS13 B10, B5 0.003048

MCS31 B1 0.163919 MCS18 B11, B5 0.003048

MCS27 B4, B3 0.052009 MCS22 B12, B3 0.002909

MCS1 B8, B2 0.041042 MCS9 B99, B6 0.002444

MCS7 B9, B3 0.039169 MCS14 B10, B6 0.002444

MCS12 B10, B3 0.039169 MCS19 B11, B6 0.002444

MCS17 B11, B3 0.039169 MCS5 B8, B7 0.002295

MCS3 B8, B5 0.030909 MCS21 B12, B2 0.000301

MCS4 B8, B6 0.024789 MCS30 B4, B7 0.000301

MCS26 B4, B2 0.005374 MCS10 B9, B7 0.000226

MCS6 B9, B2 0.004047 MCS15 B10, B7 0.000226

MCS11 B10, B2 0.004047 MCS20 B11, B7 0.000226

MCS16 B11, B2 0.004047 MCS23 B12, B5 0.000226

MCS28 B4, B5 0.004047 MCS24 B12, B6 0.000182

MCS29 B4, B6 0.003246 MCS25 B12, B7 0.000168

MCS8 B9, B5 0.003048

We used the Simulink tool box of MATLAB to run the

3.3 Monte Carlo simulation and diagnosis strategy

program and adopted 95% as the confidence coefficient with

establishment

2000 samples for each bottom event. The MCS critical

The fault tree model is analyzed using Monte Carlo importance values derived from the simulation analysis are

simulation method described in Section 2.2. The specific shown in Table 2, and Table 3 presents the critical importance

flowchart is shown in Figure 4. values of the bottom event units and the test costs. The test

costs are categorized into five grades, i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, as

test cost data are unavailable. Among the five grades, 1 stands

for the minimum test cost and 5 indicates the maximum test

cost.

The test diagnosis strategy for the offshore oil platform

power system can be designed according to the simulation

results. At the MCS level, the test according to the order given

in Table 2 is performed. Once a bottom event in the MCS is

working, the MCSs that include this bottom event is

eliminated. The test then directly proceeds to the test program

for the next MCS. At the level of bottom event in the

minimum cut set, bottom events are tested according to their

P i values, which are presented in Table 3. For example, for

MCS2, B3 and B8 are tested accordingly. Once B3 is detected

to be working normally, the MCSs that contain B3 can be

eliminated. The optimization of test point arrangement is

conducted in the order of Q i , the values of which are shown in

Table 3. For example, in the power platform electric system,

the first test point should be established at the 6 kV high-

voltage power distribution system and the second test point at

the solar-powered 190T-type distribution systems. Test

methods can use either built-in test equipment or automatic

test equipment depending on the specific testing

circumstances.

Table 3 – Fault Data and Results of Each Bottom Event

B1 6 kV high-voltage power distribution system failure 60000 0.215897 0.017 4 12.69982 3.174956

B4 T40-type generator system failure 60000 0.120947 0.017 4 7.114529 1.778632

190T-type generator system low-voltage power

B2 60000 0.046768 0.017 4 2.751059 0.687765

distribution system failure

B3 190T-type generator system failure 5240 0.612311 0.6 5 1.020518 0.204104

B12 Main power system relay protection work failure 1089778 0.002694 0.015 1 0.1796 0.1796

B7 Relay protection work failure 1089778 0.002545 0.015 1 0.169667 0.169667

B9 Main power system generator control panel failure 80000 0.037019 0.12 2 0.308492 0.154246

Main power system DC power system control

B10 80000 0.037019 0.12 2 0.308492 0.154246

panel failure

B11 Main power system generator control panel failure 80000 0.02956 0.1 2 0.2956 0.1478

B5 DC control panel failure 80000 0.034966 0.12 2 0.291383 0.145692

B6 Generator control panel failure 100000 0.02792 0.1 2 0.2792 0.1396

REFERENCES

BIOGRAPHIES

1. Tian Zhong. Shi Junyou, System engineering: System

testing analysis and verification of the design, Beihang Wang Hongdong

University Press, 2003. No.800, Dongchuan Road, Minhang District

2. Williams T W, Parker K P, “Design for testability—A Shanghai, 200240, China

survey,” Proceedings of the IEEE, 1983, 71(1): 98-112.

e-mail: whd302@sjtu.edu.cn

3. Nagle H T, Roy S C, Hawkins C F, et al., “Design for

testability and built-in self-test: a review,” Industrial Wang Hongdong received M.S. degree in Naval Architecture

Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, 1989, 36(2): 129-140. and Ocean Engineering from Shanghai Jiao Tong University

4. Zhang Haiyan, Xia Fei, “A survey of marine power in 2011, and is studying for doctor’s degree now. His research

system fault diagnosis,” Ship Science and Technology, interests are system reliability of ships and offshore platforms,

2010 (004): 134-137. hydrodynamics and automatic control.

5. Lian Guangyao, Huang Kaoli, Zhao Changliang,

Yi Hong, Ph. D.

“Efficient algorithm for test node and diagnosis strategies

No.800, Dongchuan Road, Minhang District

of a complex electronic system,” System Engineering and

Shanghai, 200240, China

Electronics, 2004, 26(11): 1739-1742.

6. Ni Shaoxu, Zhang Yufang, Yi Hong, et.al., “Intelligent Email: yihong@sjtu.edu.cn

Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Fault Tree,” Journal of

Prof. Yi Hong worked in Wuhan Institute of Ship Design from

Shanghai Jiaotong University, 2008, 42(8): 1372-1375.

1983 to 1988, and is teaching at Shanghai Jiao Tong

7. Shi J, Tian Z, “Efficient algorithm for fault diagnosis

University (SJTU) from 1991. He received doctor's degree in

strategy,” Acta Aeronautica ET Astronautica Sinica,

Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering from SJTU in

2003, 24(3): 212-215.

2003. As IEEE Reliability Society member, He is a leading

8. Yi Hong, “Research on ship general reliability model and

expert in the field of reliability of ships and offshore platform

reliability engineering method,” Ph.D. dissertation,

in China.

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2003.

9. Birnbaum Z W, “On the importance of different Yu Ping

components in a multicomponent system,” Tech. Rep. No.988, Jiangnan Road,

Washington Univ. Seattle Lab of Statistical Research, Changxing Island

1968. Shanghai, China

10. Liang X F, Yi H, Zhang Y F, et al., “Reliability and safety

Email: yuping4532266@126.com

analysis of an Underwater Dry Maintenance Cabin,”

Ocean Engineering, 2010, 37(2): 268-276. Yu Ping received M.S. degree in Naval Architecture and

11. RE Barlow, FND Singpurwalla, Reliability and Fault Ocean Engineering from SJTU in 2015 and is now working

for Jiangnan Shipyard Co., Ltd.. His research interest is testing Email: liang_xiaofeng@sjtu.edu.cn

diagnosis on large complex system.

Liang Xiaofeng received doctor's degree in Naval Architecture

Liang Xiaofeng and Ocean Engineering from SJTU in 2010 and is now

No.800, Dongchuan Road, Minhang District teaching at SJTU. His research interest is marine engineering

Shanghai, 200240, China equipment and has published several dissertations in Ocean

Engineering indexed by SCI.

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