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The Effect o f A lba Em oting on the Perceived Level o f

M usical and Physical Expression o f a Choral Performance

A Thesis by

Lindsie M. Hardy

Chapm an University

Orange, CA

College o f Educational Studies

Subm itted in partial fulfillm ent o f the requirem ents for the degree o f

M asters o f Arts in Teaching

D ecem ber 2014

Committee in charge:

Geraldine M cNenny, Ph.D.

Angel M. Vazquez-Ramos, Ph.D.


ProQuest Number: 10005780

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G eraldine M cNenny, Ph.D.

A ngel M. Vazquez-R fPh.D

D ecem ber 2014


The Effect o f A lba Emoting on the Perceived Level o f

Musical and Physical Expression o f a Choral Performance

Copyright © 2014

by Lindsie M. Hardy
ACKNOW LEDGEM ENTS

I w ould like to thank Dr. V azquez-Ramos for encouraging me to contribute research to

the field o f music education from the mom ent he becam e my professor. Your continued

support on this journey gave me the confidence I needed to conduct this experiment.

Thank you for always inspiring me to become a more thoughtful and knowledgeable

teacher.

I w ould also like to thank Dr. M cNenny, without whose guidance this thesis would not

have been possible. I would like to express my sincere gratitude for your enthusiasm and

immense knowledge. Thank you for your unwavering patience, encouragement, and

support throughout these past few years.

A nd to my m om and dad: thank you for your overwhelming love, and for motivating me

to be the best that I can be.

IV
A BSTRACT

The Effect o f Alba Emoting on the Perceived Level o f

M usical and Physical Expression o f a Choral Performance

by Lindsie M. Hardy

This study examines the effects o f an “emotionally safe” acting technique called Alba

Em oting on the m usical and physical expression o f a choral performance. The lack o f

facial expression in choral perform ances is a common problem because many music

directors prioritize teaching other m usical qualities during rehearsals, such as proper

rhythm , notes, and dynamics. Alba Emoting is a purely physical approach to acting that

requires actors to alter their facial expression, posture, and breathing patterns rather than

recall memories. An experiment using human subjects was split into two parts. Part one

o f the study involved video recording a small choir (11 volunteer singers) before and

after a workshop in which they learned the basic skills o f Alba Emoting. Part two o f the

study involved adm inistering a survey to a second population o f volunteer participants

(n=61) who answ ered questions about the musical and physical expression o f the choir

using a 5-point Likert scale, based on audio, visual, and audiovisual examples. Results

dem onstrated that Alba Emoting was particularly effective in improving the visual

expressiveness o f a choir, and also improved all areas expression, including audio, visual,

and audiovisual components. Alba Emoting can be used as a tool for music educators

who w ant to incorporate more expression into their choirs, and may be more effective

when com bined with other acting techniques, such as memory recalling.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter 1: Introduction....................................................................................................................... 1

Chapter 2: Literature R eview ............................................................................................................ 6

Chapter 3: M ethodology.................................................................................................................. 16

Chapter 4: R esults.............................................................................................................................20

C hapter 5: D iscussion...................................................................................................................... 33

R eferences...........................................................................................................................................39

A ppendices......................................................................................................................................... 42

VI
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 Participant A g e........................................................................................................ 20

Table 1.2 Participant G ender.................................................................................................. 20

Table 1.3 Participant M ajor.....................................................................................................22

Table 1.4 Choir Experience...................................................................................................22

Table 1.5 Performance E xperience...................................................................................... 23

Table 1.6 Preference w hen seeing a live choral perform ance.........................................24

Table 1.7 Im portant Qualities in a Choral Perform ance................................................. 24

Table 2.1 Com parison o f Visual Only Expression......................................................... 25

Table 2.2 Com parison o f Visual Only Em otion..............................................................25

Table 2.3 Comparison o f Visual Only Enjoym ent......................................................... 26

Table 3.1 Comparison o f Audio Only Expression..........................................................28

Table 3.2 Comparison o f Audio Only E m otion.............................................................. 28

Table 3.3 Com parison o f Audio Only Enjoym ent..........................................................28

Table 4.1 Comparison o f V isual Expression with Audio/Visual C om ponents.......29

Table 4.2 Comparison o f Aural Expression with Audio/Visual C om ponents........30

Table 4.3 Comparison o f Overall Expression with Audio/Visual Components ... .30

Table 4.4 Comparison o f Em otion with Audio/Visual C om ponents........................31

Table 4.5 Com parison of Enjoym ent with Audio/Visual C om ponents................... 31

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Chapter One: Introduction

The lack o f facial expression o f choral ensem bles in rehearsals and perform ances

is a com m on problem (Fink, 2006). Choral directors and singers often neglect the use o f

nonverbal com m unication as a way to convey m eaning and emotion. Although both

agree on the im portance o f nonverbal communication, m any lack the skills to achieve it

consistently. Choral conductors utilize m ost o f their rehearsal time working on pitch

accuracy, rhythm ic precision, dynamic contrast, diction, phrasing, and articulations

among m any other technical aspects o f perform ing choral music. Some believe that the

sound is more important than the appearance o f the ensemble, but w ithout consideration

o f the appearance, live choral perform ances lack excitem ent (Karlsson & Juslin, 2008).

Furthermore, strategies to achieve engaging facial expressions that truly communicate the

m eaning o f the text are not uniform (K arlsson & Juslin, 2008; Vosskuhler, 2005). The

purpose o f this study is to examine the effectiveness o f an acting technique called Alba

Em oting on the nonverbal and musical quality o f a choral performance.

As m entioned above, quality choral music perform ances usually require a great

deal o f rehearsal time. However, the ability to express is one o f the most important skills

leading to a quality musical perform ance. Coward (1914) suggests “singers and

instrum entalists take their rank more from possessing the pow er to sing or play with

expression than from possessing a good voice or digital dexterity” (p. 89). Karlsson and

Juslin (2008) also indicate that it is “expression that makes possible new and insightful

interpretations o f fam iliar pieces, and it is usually on the basis o f expressive skills that we

prefer one m usician over another” (p. 309).


Expression is a general concept that is used to describe the way in which a piece

o f m usic is portrayed. W hile it can be interpreted in a variety o f ways, it is a key elem ent

to music. Expression can bring out em otion in music and allow the audience to form

their own opinions. However, expression is not a quality that is taught universally

(V osskuhler, 2005). A ccording to Karlsson and Juslin (2008), “Although most teachers

seem to view expression as very important, they define expression in different ways. As

a result, their ways o f teaching expression vary also” (p. 309). The O xford Concise

D ictionary o f Music defines expression as “that part o f a com poser’s music such as subtle

nuances o f dynamics w hich he has no full means o f com m itting to paper and must leave

to the artistic perception and insight o f the executant” (Kennedy & Kennedy, 2004, p.

238). Elson ’s Music D ictionary defines expression as “that quality in a com position or

perform ance which appeals to our feelings, taste or judgm ent displayed in rendering a

com position and imparting it to the sentiment o f the author” (Elson, 1933, p. 105). For

the purpose o f this study, expression divides into two definitions: “verbal expression” and

“non-verbal expression.” Verbal expression refers to the nuances heard in music through

dynamics, articulation, and phrasing. Non-verbal expression refers to the visual

appearance o f the perform er, including facial expression and body posture.

There is little knowledge about the different approaches to teaching expression to

musicians. V osskuhler (2005) says expression is “what the majority o f musicians believe

music to be. Yet, for some unknown reason, it’s rarely talked about” (p. 1). In a study

involving private music lessons, Karlsson and Juslin (2008) found that most private

music teachers lack clear goals and specific methods for dealing with expression in a

musical context. They suggest that the developm ent o f new tasks and interventions in

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private lessons may enhance expression, and that “perform ance interventions could

benefit from the inclusion o f explicit goals, systematic teaching patterns and specific

feedback” (p. 309). Additional research reveals struggles when dealing with the

expression o f singers in particular. Fink (2006) found the following:

The ability o f singers to effectively project emotions while perform ing is a

com m on challenge for voice teachers and stage directors. A lthough some

perform ers seem to come by this skill naturally, many struggle, either mugging, or

appearing dispassionate or aloof. Conventional acting training, w hich has offered

a good deal o f guidance for building a character and arriving at choices o f action,

has been less helpful solving the problem o f emotional projection, (p. 3)

This lack o f successful acting strategies integrated in vocal perform ance leaves

music teachers w ithout a universal approach to teaching the projection o f emotions.

Further research into teaching vocalists how to emote found few results, leading

to a small num ber o f contrasting methods o f acting that can also apply to singing (Lord,

2011). Constantin Stanislavski developed the most common acting technique, referred to

as “The M ethod,” in the 1920s (Lord, 2011). This method involves the actor accessing a

personal mental state by reliving a previous experience. By experiencing the emotion, an

authentic em otion is displayed.

In contrast to this emotion recall m ethod is a purely physical approach known as

Alba Emoting, created by Dr. Susana Bloch. In an early experiment, Bloch (1993)

studied normal and neurotic subjects who were reliving strong emotional experiences in a

clinical context or under hypnosis. Bloch found that “specific emotional feelings were

linked to specific patterns o f breathing, facial expression, degree o f m uscular tension, and

3
postural attitudes” (Bloch, 1993). Together, these physical behaviors create an emotional

effector pattern. Bloch assigned emotional effector patterns to each o f the six basic

emotions: joy, anger, sadness, fear, eroticism, and tenderness. Actors can then apply

these techniques in a supervised training session with a certified Alba instructor. The

name “A lba Em oting” developed because Bloch taught the effector patterns to her friends

during a production o f G arcia L orca’s play entitled The H ouse o f Bernarda Alba. Bloch

also nam ed the technique because in Spanish, “alba” means white, or pure, which

represents the “purity o f the emotional experience” (Kundert-Gibbs & Kundert-Gibbs,

2009).

A typical Alba Em oting training session begins with a physical warm-up and

general breathing activities, followed by instructions for participants to recreate the

specific breathing patterns, facial expressions, and postures o f a certain emotion w ithout

nam ing the emotion. At first, the goal is technical accuracy, so the movements and

breathing may seem formulaic or robotic. However, with practice, these emotions

becom e more natural. Each exercise is followed with a safety ‘step-out’ procedure,

w hich involves several deep breaths to get the participant back to a neutral state. This is

to avoid w hat Bloch calls an “emotional hang-over” in which the participant may still feel

the emotion recreated even after the exercise is complete (Bloch, 1993).

W hile Alba Emoting was not designed for singers, it creates an em otionally safe

means o f expression. This study seeks to investigate the effectiveness o f Alba Em oting

as a tool when teaching a choir to emote while singing. This study will attempt to answer

the following questions:

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1. How does the use o f A lba Emoting affect a choir’s ability to express both

physically and musically?

2. How does Alba Em oting affect the physical appearance o f choir participants

from the audience’s perspective?

a. Is there a noticeable difference in facial expression, body language,

and posture?

b. Is the perform ance more enjoyable?

3. How does A lba Em oting contribute to the engagem ent o f the choir

participants?

a. Did choir participants have an increase o f enjoym ent in the learning

process?

b. Did choir members feel more expressive?

c. Did choir members gain confidence in their ability to express?

4. Does Alba Em oting make the perform ance sound more expressive?

This inquiry, then, seeks to determine the effectiveness o f Alba Emoting on the

perform er’s experience, the physical and m usical expression, and the audience’s

perception.

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Chapter Two: Literature Review

In setting out to determ ine the effectiveness o f Alba Em oting when teaching a

choir to be physically expressive while singing, a range o f considerations m ust be

investigated. The extent to w hich the nonverbal com ponent o f choral music perform ance

contributes to audience perception is an area o f study still under consideration, which will

be discussed in this chapter. W hile there is some research on m ovem ent and facial

expression in instrum ental and solo vocal music (Broughton & Stevens, 2009; Davidson,

1993; Huang & K rum hansl, 2011; Juchniewicz, 2008; M. R. Thom pson & Luck, 2012;

V ines, Krum hansl, W anderley, Dalca, & Levitin, 2011), there is much less research on

facial expression in a choral perform ance where more than one person is singing at one

tim e (Lord, 2011). Research in the field also provides very little information about the

approaches o f teaching expression to musicians (K arlsson & Juslin, 2008). This

literature review w ill explain previous research regarding facial expression and

m ovem ent in music. This review begins with an overview o f expression in instrumental

m usic, then discusses vocal music and Alba Emoting, and finally nonverbal behaviors

and expression in a m usical perform ance.

Instrumentalists

In the past, studies involving instrumentalists and expression have found several

conclusions about the im portance o f movement in an instrum ental perform ance and how

it contributes to audience perception. Vines (2011) did a study concerning observer

perception in a m usical perform ance in which 30 m usicians saw, heard, or both saw and

heard recordings o f a standard clarinet piece by Stravinsky. This piece was perform ed in

three expressive styles, including restrained, standard, and exaggerated intention.

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Participants rated each recording on a 5-point Likert scale on the extent to which they

experienced 19 different em otional qualities while view ing/hearing the recordings. Vines

found “strong evidence that the visual com ponent o f m usical perform ance makes a

unique contribution to the com m unication o f em otion from perform er to audience”

(Vines et al., 2011, p. 168). This study focused on ratings given by the direction, “Rate

how m uch you yourself experienced the following sensations during that last

perform ance” (Vines et al., 2011, p. 160). Participants’ responses were constrained by

the directions given to register their own feelings as opposed to those evident in the

perform ers’ paralinguistic gestures.

B roughton (2009) did a sim ilar study using m arim ba perform ance and focusing

on com m unicating m usical expression to the audience. The focus o f this study was on

the body m ovem ent o f the m arim ba players because a marim ba player creates sound

using m ovem ent that “occurs externally to the hum an body” and “therefore the sonic

event is closely related” to the m ovem ents o f the perform er seen by the audience

(B roughton & Stevens, 2009, p. 138). Two male and female m arim ba players were

recorded playing a 20th century piece o f m arim ba music with minimal expressions

(deadpan) and perform ance expression (projected). Forty-eight participants, h alf o f

w hom were m usicians, either listened alone, or viewed and listened to the perform ances.

Because they were focusing on body movement, the faces o f the perform ers were

digitally masked. The study resulted in higher ratings “recorded by observers for pieces

perform ed in a projected m anner com pared with those pieces perform ed in a deadpan

manner. ...This provides support for the concept that novelty and variety in dynamic

visual inform ation com m and audience attention” (Broughton & Stevens, 2009, pp. 143,

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149). The same effect was evident in m any similar studies on instrum entalists and their

m ovem ents, including research with piano and violin (Davidson, 1993; Huang &

K rum hansl, 2011; Juchniewicz, 2008; M. R. Thom pson & Luck, 2012).

Vocalists

Research on the subject o f teaching vocalists how to emote found few results.

Lord (2011) suggests several acting techniques and ways to apply them to teaching a

choir in her doctoral dissertation. These acting techniques include ‘The M ethod’ inspired

by Stanislavski, the D elsarte M ethod, the M eisner Technique, the Jehlinger Approach,

and the Physical Approach. She gives examples o f how to teach acting in a choral

situation, keeping in m ind that not everyone will learn the best from one particular

technique (Lord, 2011).

One other acting technique discovered in the research involves a purely physical

approach. A n article by Fink (2006) discusses the study o f Alba Em oting, an acting

technique based on recreating the physical signs o f certain emotions, including facial

expression, posture, and breathing. Dr. Susana Bloch, former Directeur de Recherches o f

the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), collected data from

subjects “experiencing various emotional states, finding archetypal breathing patterns,

postures, and facial expressions associated with specific emotions; when subjects

recreated these breathing patterns, postures, and expressions, the em otion was

experienced” (Fink, 2006, p. 4). A lthough the emotion may be experienced, the goal is

m erely projection o f emotion. Fink discusses how this technique can be applied to music

by opera singers. Though singers are limited in certain aspect o f this (because posture
and breathing certain ways are required for proper sound production), m any o f the Alba

Em oting techniques are still very useful for singers.

Susanna Bloch found that in A lba Emoting, as actors begin to m aster the patterns

and techniques, they can begin to mix certain em otional breaths and postures to create a

different emotion, like mixing “sadness with tenderness [to] get m elancholy” (Bloch,

1993, p. 130). The ability o f A lba Em oting to induce “emotional states through

controlled physical actions can assist people— and particularly actors— to better

recognize, express, and control their em otions” (Bloch, 1993, p. 132).

In 1993, Roxane Rix began a prelim inary experim ent dealing only with the

breathing patterns. She took seven graduate acting students and led them through w arm

ups and taught the ‘step-out’ procedure. They were then given a paper with six graphs

and instructions for breathing that were not labeled with an emotion. Rix asked them to

be as “open as possible to whatever experience flowed from their breathing (including

none), to ‘follow ’ it physically, mentally, and emotionally, and note any images that

came to m ind” (Rix, 1993, p. 141). She then verbally discussed responses with the

participants after each effector pattern and step out procedure. Participants reported

feeling certain emotions and visualizing certain memories that are congruent with the

em otion assigned to the effector pattern. Phase two o f the experim ent involved adding

posture attitudes to each o f the previous breathing rhythms. R ix’s (1993) study found the

following:

The pow er o f the feelings and vividness o f the images evoked in this brief

exposure to just part o f the Alba technique were impressive and suggested to me

that the breathing patterns, particularly, have strong potential as a tool for

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em otional work. Given the overall success rate using only breath and the

approach/avoidance scale w ith m inim al (in some cases, no) postural coaching, I

retain my skepticism about the necessity o f facial m anipulation (p. 144).

Y ears later, Roxane Rix (1998) discussed her change o f opinion and her

experiences w ith A lba Em oting as both a student and a certified instructor. Rix was one

o f 10 participants in the first formal tw o-w eek training session open to the public in

O ctober 1993 in Chile, instructed by Susana Bloch. Rix and the three other A m erican

students in the course w ere skeptical o f Alba Em oting at first, especially since the

beginning phases o f the technique are much more robotic until the participant can m ake a

break through emotionally. As the participants “became more skilled, genuine emotions

began to emerge from the practiced patterns, sometimes explosively—a phase o f the

process Bloch terms ‘induction’” (Rix, 1998, p. 57). A ccording to Rix (1998), Alba

Em oting creates genuine emotions:

Traditional em otion m emory techniques essentially begin with content—mentally

constructing a rem em bered or imagined stimulus in order to arouse a visceral

response. W ith Alba Emoting, this aspect o f "subjective experience" becom es

voluntary: the actor may fill this "content" with the fictive circumstances (usually

the ideal choice in perform ance) with m em ories and images, or with nothing at

all, yet still enter wholly into the bodily experience, expression, and recognition

of the emotional state. It is critical to understand that, regardless o f content (or

lack thereof), the emotional state created through Alba Em oting is real—not an

imitation, a way o f "faking it." Until experienced, this is for most people the most

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difficult aspect o f the technique to grasp, for it entails no less than a paradigm

shift in perception (Rix, 1998, p. 60).

There has been success in com bining A lba Emoting with other acting techniques as well.

A m erican actor and teacher Pam ela Chabora, who had two years o f experience with Alba

at the time, found the patterns “do not impede or negate the Stanislavski training . . .

rather A lba seems to mesh well with the personalization and emotional m em ory w ork on

w hich I have always relied” (Rix, 1998, p. 66).

There are, however, limits when learning Alba Emoting. Becom ing proficient in

A lba is a long process and the training sessions must be set up in a way that supports

Alba com pletely (Rix, 1998). She believes that “the technique simply could not be taught

in an acting class designed to accomm odate twenty students meeting in fifty-minute

sessions ... A lba Em oting instructors in the US are ethically bound to uphold AENA

safety guidelines (Rix, 1998, p. 66). These guidelines include a maximum enrollm ent o f

twelve beginning participants per session.

Nonverbal Behaviors

N on-verbal behaviors in a perform ance, or the way a perform er behaves

physically, are relevant to both classical and popular musical performances. A case study

o f the popular Irish band, the Corrs, studies the nonverbal behaviors o f the 3 singers in

the band (K urosaw a & D avidson, 2005). The authors, from the Department o f Music,

University o f Sheffield, analyzed and classified the nonverbal behaviors according to

Ekm an and Friesen’s five types o f nonverbal behaviors (e.g. emblems, illustrators, affect

displays, regulators and adaptors). They also used A rgyle’s (1975) posture, visual gaze,

touch and facial expressions (K urosaw a & Davidson, 2005). The movements were

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charted with lyrics, chord progression, and type o f nonverbal behavior. The frequencies

and type o f m ovem ents and possible m otivations for the m ovem ent were com pared and

contrasted. The authors concluded:

N V Bs [nonverbal behaviors] in this type o f perform ance are crucial to the

developm ent, production and perception o f the musical perform ance.... We

believe that nonverbal behaviours in popular music perform ance have important

functions: to contribute to the perform er’s self-control in order to produce the

m usical activity; to provide m usical and narrative messages; to reveal personal

characteristics; to demonstrate em otion and to manipulate the perform er’s self­

presentation and inter-personal relationships (Kurosawa & Davidson, 2005, p.

130).

One o f the m ost w ell-know n examples o f visual influences on speech perception

is the M cG urk effect (M cGurk & M acdonald, 1976). M cGurk and M acdonald conducted

an experim ent involving participants watching videos o f people speaking certain

nonsense syllables repeatedly, like “ga”. Audio was removed and replaced with sounds

o f different syllables. The study found that w hen the facial movements used to produce a

syllable were presented sim ultaneously with the audio o f a different syllable, a third

syllable could be perceived. For example, when the visual articulation o f the sound /ga/

was presented with the aural sound /ba/, often /da/ was perceived. This is an illusion that

dem onstrates the fusion o f auditory and visual cues. Quinto et al. did a sim ilar study

using sung syllables instead o f spoken syllables (Quinto, Thompson, Russo, & Trehub,

2010). The results revealed “no differences in the proportion o f fusion responses

betw een spoken and sung conditions confirm ing that cross-m odal phonemic information

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is integrated sim ilarly in speech and song” (Quinto et al., 2010, p. 1450). Because this

phonem ic inform ation, or syllabic information, is comparable in both speech and song,

this thesis w ill be focusing on the nonverbal com m unication aspect in song and music.

Expression in Musical Performances

Studies in nonverbal expression in musical perform ances have found that viewers

infer additional inform ation about the perform ance based on visual cues. W. F.

Thom pson has done several studies involving emotional com m unication and perception

o f music. An early study by Thom pson found that facial expression can be viewed by the

audience as an indicator o f pitch change. Thom pson considered w hether the “facial

expressions and head m ovem ents o f singers com municate m elodic inform ation that can

be ‘read ’ by view ers” (W. F. Thom pson & Russo, 2007, p. 756). In this study, 17

participants view ed videos o f three singers singing intervals. However, they viewed these

videos w ithout sound, and were told to guess the size o f the interval being sung. Video-

based m otion tracking was used with pixel markers on the faces o f the singers at

eyebrows, nose, upper, and lower lip. Analysis o f this inform ation “confirmed that the

size o f sung intervals was correlated with the degree o f m ovem ent for all three features...

indicating that facial expressions carry inform ation about pitch relations that can be read

by view ers” (W. F. Thom pson & Russo, 2007, p. 756).

A long with carrying inform ation about pitch, research has found that facial

expressions affect the perception o f emotion in song. In 2008, Thom pson did a more in-

depth study to examine “w hether facial expressions o f performers influence the

em otional connotations o f sung materials, and w hether attention is implicated in audio­

visual integration o f affective cues” (W. F. Thompson, Russo, & Quinto, 2008, p. 1457).

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Two experim ents were com pleted in w hich participants determ ined emotional valence

from audio-visual videos o f singers singing m ajor thirds and m inor thirds. These

experim ents included varying conditions by adding unrelated secondary tasks. The

outcom e found that judgm ents o f em otion in music are influenced by facial expression,

even though facial expressions are extraneous to the act o f making music. The results

“suggest that visual aspects o f music perform ance are autom atically and pre-attentively

registered and integrated with auditory c u e .... The findings add to an emerging literature

dem onstrating that visual aspects o f music perform ance can powerfully affect our

interpretations and experience o f the m usic” (W. F. Thom pson et al., 2008, p. 1468).

Y et another study by Thom pson (Livingstone, Thom pson, & Russo, 2009)

dem onstrated the significance o f facial expression during several points during a singing

experim ent, including during the perception, planning, production, and post-production

o f em otional singing. Two experiments were conducted. Both experiments involved

skilled singers w atching a video o f a person singing phrases like “grass is green in

sum m ertim e” with different em otional intentions o f happy, sad, and neutral, in

experim ent 1, “thirteen reflective m arkers were placed on [each] participant’s face” as a

placem ent m arker and to track m ovem ent o f eyebrows and lips as they watched and

im itated the phrase while being recorded with a 3D m otion capture cam era (Livingstone

et al., 2009, p. 477). In experim ent 2, “ Electrodes were placed over zygomatic major

(smiling) and corrugator supercilli (frowning) muscles on the left side o f the face” while

participants w atched and imitated the same phrases, in order to examine the activities o f

smiling and frowning, which are correlated with positive and negative affective states

(Livingstone et al., 2009, p. 481). The study concluded “taken together, data from

14
m otion capture and EM G provide strong support for the notion that facial expressions

have m ultiple functions in music. There is now ample evidence that they are used during

m usic perform ance and significantly influence the perception o f m usic” (Livingstone et

al., 2009, p. 485).

A final study by Thom pson in 2010 included similar experiments involving

guessing sizes o f intervals w ith secondary tasks involved. The results provided “the first

evidence that facial expressions influence perceived pitch relations” (W. F. Thompson,

Russo, & Livingstone, 2010, p. 317).

Conclusion

This literature review covers a wide variety o f research on nonverbal behaviors in

speech, instrum ental perform ances, and vocal perform ances. Body m ovem ent in

instrum entalists and facial expression in vocalists com m unicate information about pitch

and affect the perception o f music. Some acting techniques, such as A lba Emoting, have

been introduced to solo vocalists as a m ethod for expressing emotion. This leaves the

question as to w hether recreating the physical aspects o f vocal perform ance through Alba

Em oting, here discussed in solo perform ances, have the same impact on group/choral

perform ance. This thesis will explore the effectiveness o f Alba Em oting in successfully

conveying em otion through musical and visual appearance (facial expression) in choral

perform ance.

15
Chapter Three: Methodology

In exam ining w hether Alba Em oting is an effective technique for teaching

m usical and physical expression in a choral perform ance, the researcher was m otivated

by the observation that choirs often focus more on m aking the music sound expressive

and place less em phasis on how engaging their outw ard appearance m ay be. This

experim ent about how the visual com ponent o f choral music is perceived by the audience

w as broken down into two parts.

Part one was an experim ent involving hum an subjects from a mid-size university

in Southern California. This section consisted o f video recording a small choir (12 or less

singers) before and after a w orkshop in which they learned an emotionally safe acting

technique called Alba Emoting. Participants received a m odified lesson in Alba Emoting.

A lba Em oting is a purely physical approach to acting that requires participants to learn

breathing patterns, facial expressions, and posture. The breathing patterns are a large part

o f A lba Em oting, but using these breathing patterns would not be effective in

com bination with singing because singing requires certain breathing techniques as well.

The A lba lesson in this study was m odified to focus mainly on facial expression and

posture, requiring participants to look into mirrors and make changes to their expression

and posture accordingly. A lba Em oting does not involve recalling personal or painful

m em ories o f the past.

Part two o f the study involved adm inistering a survey to a second population of

participants from a mid-size university in southern California who answered questions

about the video perform ances o f the choir. Survey participants saw, heard, and both saw

16
and heard the recordings. They w ere asked to rate the choir’s ability to express both

m usically and physically on a 5-point Likert sale.

Part One: Singers

A t a predom inantly white, m id-sized, private university located in Southern

C alifornia, 11 volunteer undergraduate male and female students participated in a two-

hour experim ent. A m axim um o f 11 participants were included due to the limitations o f

the A lba Em oting w orkshop. The researcher made announcem ents to various classes

(including music and non-m usic classes) on campus several weeks before the study took

place, inform ing the students about the study. Potential participants received an

inform ational letter and a flyer. To be eligible, participants had to be students enrolled at

the university, have the ability to m atch pitch, learn music quickly, and be 18 years o f age

or older. Participants w ere m usic majors and non-music majors. The possible risks

and/or discom forts associated with the procedures described in this study included

m inim al amounts o f nervousness, anxiety, and em barrassm ent depending on the

participant’s previous experiences with acting and performing.

The procedure o f the study was as follows:

1.) W hen the hum an subjects arrived, the 11 participants were given 10 minutes to

sign consent forms.

2.) The director o f music education at the university led the participants in warm ups.

He then taught and rehearsed a short excerpt o f a simple, unison song that was

sung together as a choir. The song was titled “Danny Boy,” and it was a

traditional, secular Irish folk song.

17
3.) The participants w ere video recorded singing the selected song as a group directed

by the conductor.

4.) Then they participated in an A lba Em oting workshop conducted by an Alba

Em oting specialist in certain A lba techniques and emotions relating to the

selected song. The w orkshop involved subjects looking in mirrors and

m anipulating their own facial expression and posture. Subjects were asked to

com plete certain activities individually, as partners, and in small groups.

5.) A fter the w orkshop was com pleted, participants were video recorded again

singing the selected song under the direction o f the conductor, but this time they

w ere asked to use the A lba techniques they ju st learned in the workshop.

6.) Participants then took a survey asking about their experiences in the study.

The possible benefits participants experienced from the procedures described in

this study include: free workshop in A lba Emoting, increased confidence while

perform ing, and im proved m usical and physical expression in musical performance.

Part Two: Survey

The researcher edited the video recordings and compiled them into a web-based

survey. The researcher also made announcem ents to various classes (including music

and non-m usic classes) on campus several weeks before the survey took place, informing

the students about the survey. Potential participants received a flyer. The survey was

adm inistered in a secure, controlled environm ent at the University. No cell phones were

allow ed as volunteer participants took the survey, so that the identities o f the singers were

kept confidential. The researcher recruited participants several weeks before the survey

was administered. The people taking the survey were not participants in the initial

18
experim ent. Participants were 18 years or older and enrolled at the University. Survey

participants included a variety o f majors, including dance, art, theater, music, and non­

perform ing majors. Subjects were m ale and female. Only English reading/speaking

individuals were eligible for this study. The researcher had a goal o f n=30 volunteer

participants, but were able to get n=61. Surveys took 10-15 minutes to complete.

1.) Participants were inform ed o f the confidentiality o f the survey and signed a

consent form.

2.) Participants took the survey individually on computers in the lab with headphones

adjusted to their personal com fort level. Questions were based on: audio only,

visual only, and audio/visual combination o f the recordings. Participants were

asked questions after each recording based on physical expression, musical

expression, and w hat specific emotion they believe the perform ers were

expressing.

As participants exited, they were rem inded to keep all information seen in the

surveys confidential. The possible benefits to music educators from participation in this

research included a successful acting technique that can be used by choir teachers to

encourage their students to emote. Other benefits included a greater understanding o f

how em otion is shown non-verbally and perceived by audience members.

19
Chapter Four: Results

The researcher chose to do a descriptive analysis only due to the multiple

response m odes and lim ited samples. Therefore, a statistical analysis, like a Chi-square

analysis, w ould have lacked sufficient power. The online survey was adm inistered to 61

participants at the university. The first portion o f the survey gathered background

inform ation o f the survey participants, and can be seen below in tables 1.1-1.2. O f these

participants, 77% were between the ages o f 18-24, 18% were betw een the ages o f 25-34,

and 5% w ere betw een the ages o f 35 and 54. The gender was almost evenly split, w ith 32

male (53% ) and 29 female (48% ) participants.

Table 1.1
W hat is your age?

Response Chart Percentage Count


18-24 77% 47
25-34 ■ 18% 11
35-44 ■ 2% 1
45-54 ■ 3% 2
55-64 ■ 0% 0
65 or Above ■ 0% 0
Total Responses 61

Table 1.2
I identify my gender as...

Response___________________________________ Chart_________ Percentage Count


Male I 53% 32

Transgender I 0% 0
Total Responses 61

20
Tables 1.3-1.5 exam ine the perform ance experience o f the participants. Students

taking the survey had a variety o f m ajors, but m ost were in the school o f Business and

Econom ics (30% ) and Science and Technology (20%). Although only 7% o f participants

w ere from the College o f Perform ing Arts, 38% claim ed to have experience singing in

choir. Out o f all participants, 80% claim ed to have some sort o f perform ance experience

including theater, dance, instrum ental music, and solo singing. As shown in Table 1.5,

only 20% claim ed to have no perform ance experience at all. The results o f this survey

may have varied if a greater num ber o f participants had more experience singing in choir,

how ever, the varied experience o f the participants make this a more neutral and balanced

study w ith little bias.

21
Table 1.3
A t H H H University, what is your school or college?

Response Chart Percentage Count


Argyros School of Business & Economics ■hr 30% 18
College of Educational Studies ■ 8% 5
Dodge College of Film and Media Arts ■ 15% 9
Wilkinson College of Humanities and Social Sciences
School of Law
m 13%
0%
8
0

College of Performing Arts m 7% 4
Schmid College of Science 8t Technology m 20% 12
Undecided B 0% 0
Other, please specify... m
Total Responses
8% 5
61

At Chapm an University, w h a t is your school or college? (O ther, please specify...)

# Response
1 Leatherby Libraries
2 Physical Therapy
3 Psychology
4 applied linguisitic major, phd studnet. ABD
5 Patron of the library

Table 1.4
Have you ever sung in a choir?

Response Chart Percentage Count


Yes 38% 23
No 62% 38
Total Responses 61

22
Table 1.5
Do you have any performance experience in the follow ing areas?
(choose all applicable boxes)
Response___________________________ Chart Percentage Count
Choir ■ l 34% 21
Theater 38% 23
Dance Ml 31% 19
Instrumental music ■ P 39% 24
Solo singing
Other, please specify...
m
B
20%
3%
12
2
1don't have any performance experience M 20% 12
Total Responses 61

Do you have any p e rfo rm a n c e experience in th e follow ing areas?


(choose all applicable boxes) (O the r, please specify...)
#___________________________ Response
1 Improv Comedy
2 DJ

Tables 1.6 and 1.7 examine the preference o f the participants when seeing a live

choral perform ance. M ost participants enjoy listening to and watching the choir (56%),

rather than only listening (31% ) or only w atching (5%), leaving 7% with no opinion. As

show n in Table 1.7, an overw helm ing num ber o f the participants agreed that the way the

singers sound is very im portant (88.5% ), w hich is not surprising since choral music is

usually recognized as a listening experience. However, results show that the majority o f

participants also agree on the im portance o f visual aspects o f the perform ance. M ost

participants (63.9% ) agreed that facial expression is important or very im portant when

w atching a live choral perform ance. Even more participants (77% ) agreed that body

language is im portant or very important.

23
Table 1.6
When seeing a live choral performance, I most enjoy:

Response Chart Percentage Count


Listening to the choir 31% 19
Watching the choir ■ 5% 3
Both listening to and watching the choir H N V -- 57% 35
No opinion 7% 4
Total Responses 61

T a b le 1 .7
In y o u r o p in io n , h o w i m p o r t a n t a re t h e f o llo w in g w h e n w a t c h in g
a c h o ra l p e r f o r m a n c e :

Not at all Somewhat Very Total


Important Important Neutral Important Important Responses
Facial E x p ressio n 4 ( 6 .6 % ) 6 (9.8%) ; 1 2 ( 1 9 . 7 % ) 2 4 ( 3 9 .3 % ) 1 5 ( 2 4 .6 % ) 61
Body L a n g u a g e 2 ( 3 .3 % ) 4 ( 6 .6 % ) 8 ( 1 3 .1 % ) 3 1 ( 5 0 .8 % ) 1 6 ( 2 6 .2 % ) 61
T he w a y t h e s i n g e rs s o u n d 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 7 (11.5%) 5 4 (88.5%) 61

The rem aining questions in the survey analyze opinions o f the participants based

on audio only (AO) exam ples, visual only (VO) examples, and audio/visual exam ples

from before and after the A lba Em oting W orkshop. All participants saw all examples,

but did not know w hich exam ple they were examining because the exam ples were shown

in a random order.

The m ost striking result to emerge from the data occurred when participants were

show n the visual only examples. Based on their agreem ent with the statem ent “the choir

looks expressive based on facial expression and posture,” participants increased in their

overall agreem ent after seeing the after example with Alba Em oting (42.7% ), as

illustrated in Table 2.1. A small am ount o f the participants who were originally “neutral”

changed their m inds (9.8% ) while a good portion o f those who disagreed also changed

their m inds (32.9% ). W hen it com es to visual only expression based on facial expression

24
and posture, A lba Em oting increases the am ount o f facial expression and posture

perceived by the audience.

Table 2.1: Comparison of VO expression before and after Alba Emoting treatm ent
Before: Visual Only After: Visual Only
Please a g re e or d isagree with th e following Please ag ree or disagree with th e following
s t a t e m e n t : The choir looks expressive ba se d on s ta te m e n t: The choir looks expressive based on
facial ex pressio n an d p ostu re. facial expression and posture.

Response Chart Percentage Count Response Chart Percentage Count Difference


Strongly Agree
Agree
1
m
2% 1 Strongly Agree m 15% 9 13.20%
21% 13 Agree ■HB 51% 31 29.50%
Neutral ■ ■ 30% 18 Neutral HI 20% 12 -9.80%
Disagree ■n 33% 20 Disagree 10% 6 -23.00%
Strongly Disagree m- 15% 9 Strongly Disagree ■ 5% 3 -9.90%
Total R esponses 61 Total R esponses 61

W hen asked to guess w hat em otion was being portrayed in the example, 53%

thought that the before video represented sadness (Table 2.2). However, after seeing the

video w ith A lba Em oting, participants identified m ore joy (36%) and tenderness (9.8% )

and less sadness (34.5% ), fear (8.2% ) and anger (3.3%) com pared to the clip w ithout

A lba Em oting. W ith this particular folk song, “Danny B oy”, it seems that participants

identified more positive em otions and less negative em otions in the A lba Emoting clip

com pared to the clip without.

Table 2.2: Comparison of VO emotion before and after Alba Emoting treatm ent

Before: Visual Only After: Visual Only


G uess t h e e m o tio n t h e singers w e re portraying Guess t h e e m o tio n th e singers w e re portraying

Response Chart Percentage Count Response Chart Percentage Count Difference


Joy b w :t ' 7% 4 Joy 43% 26 36.00%
Sadness ■■B 53% 32 Sadness m 18% 11 -34.50%
Fear ■ 10% 6 Fear ■ 2% 1 -8.20%
Anger • 3% 2 Anger 0% 0 -3.30%
Tenderness ■B ' 28% 17 Tenderness HHf 38% 23 9.80%
Total R esponses 61 Total R esponses 61

Table 2.3 com pares the enjoym ent o f the audience during the before and after

visual only examples. During the before video, 67% o f participants did not enjoy their

experience at all. H ow ever, when shown the visual example with A lba Emoting, only

36% did not enjoy the experience at all. There was a 16.3% increase o f those who

25
enjoyed the exam ple a little, and a total o f 24% who enjoyed the example som ew hat or a

lot. The overall enjoym ent o f the exam ple increased by 31.1% from the clip w ithout

A lba Em oting to the clip with. A lba Em oting provides audience m em bers with more

enjoym ent w hen they only have visual cues.

Table 2.3: Comparison of VO enjoyment before and after Alba Emoting treatm ent
Before: Visual Only After: Visual Only
How m uch did you enjoy w atching this How m uch did you enjoy w atching this
p e r f o rm a n c e ? p e rfo rm a n c e ?

Response____________ Chart___________ Percentage Count Response Chart Percentage Count Difference


I did not enjoy it at all K 67% 41 I did not enjoy it at all K 36% 22 -31.10%
I enjoyed it a little H i 23% 14 I enjoyed it a little HHR: 39% 24 16.30%
I som ew hat enjoyed it ( | ' ''> ■ - ■ . s \ . . v 8%- 5 I som ewhat enjoyed it H I „ 16% 10 8.20%
I enjoyed it a lot f 2% 1 I enjoyed it a lot B 8% 5 6.60%
Total R esponses 61 Total R esponses 61

W hen participants heard audio only examples, the trends were very unique. Table

3.1 displays participant opinion based on their agreem ent with the statem ent “the choir

sounds expressive based on tone quality and articulation.” Those who strongly agreed

increased by 5%, while those who ju st “agreed” decreased by 4.9%. This means that

85% o f participants agreed or strongly agreed that the audio only example was equally

expressive in both the before and after example. During the before example, there was 1

person who disagreed and 0 people who strongly disagreed. After the A lba Emoting

exam ple, there were 0 people who disagreed and 1 person who strongly disagreed. This

outlier does not affect the results very much. 13% o f participants rem ained neutral

during both before and after examples. These results suggest that the audience could not

tell the difference betw een the two audio examples, because the overall agreem ent and

disagreem ent rem ained exactly the same. This was probably due to the fact that only 7%

o f survey participants m ajored in perform ing arts. It is likely that the results would be

different if the survey had been restricted to music majors. Participants who have been

26
trained m usically w ould be more likely to distinguish the difference between the before

and after videos.

W hen asked to guess the em otion (Table 3.2), the trend was the same, w ith the

audience m aintaining the opinion that the em otion portrayed was either sadness or

tenderness during both before and after examples. However, this varied from the

em otions detected during the “visual only” examples. W hen listening to audio only,

participants identified less joy (4.9% ) and tenderness (1.6%) and more sadness (4.9%),

and fear (17% ) after listening to the A lba Em oting clip. Anger was not identified in

either clip.

In contrast to the “visual only” examples, during the “audio only” examples

participants identified more negative emotions and less positive emotions. This could

suggest that A lba Em oting intensifies the sound o f the song, magnifying the sad em otions

while prom oting jo y in the facial expression. Overall, this could prom ote an

overw helm ingly contrasting emotional experience if com bined together.

Table 3.3 shows the overall enjoyment o f the participant when only hearing the

audio example. Again, the results did not change much between before and after

exam ples, although there was a small decrease in enjoyment. Those who “somewhat

enjoyed” decreased (6.5% ) and those who “enjoyed a lot” also decreased (3.3%).

Participants who “enjoyed a little” increased by 8.2%, but those who “did not enjoy at

all” increased by 1.6%. This could be related to the fact that the emotions that were

identified were more negative, causing participants to enjoy it less. The com bined results

from these three tables indicate that w hen only listening to audio examples, Alba

Em oting does not affect the way that the audience perceives the expression, emotion, or

27
enjoym ent o f the song. Again, results could be different with a more musically

experienced pool o f participants.

Table 3.1: Comparison of AO expression before and after Alba Emoting treatm ent
Before: Audio Only After: Audio Only
Please a g r e e or d is a g re e w ith t h e following Please a g re e o r d isag re e with t h e following
s t a t e m e n t : The ch oir s o u n d s expressive based s t a t e m e n t : The choir so u n d s expressive b ased
o n t o n e q uality an d articulation. on t o n e quality an d articulation.

Response Chart Percentage Count Response Chart Percentage Count Difference


Strongly Agree 18% 11 Strongly Agree 23% 5.00%
Agree H H H K 67% 41 Agree ' 1H P ' 62% 38 -4.90%
Neutral 13% 8 Neutral 13% 8 0.00%
Disagree I 2% 1 Disagree 1 0% 0 -1.60%
Strongly Disagree k * 0% 0 Strongly Disagree 2% 1 1.60%
Total Responses 61 Total Responses 61

Table 3.2: Comparison of AO emotion before and after Alba Emoting treatm ent
Before: Audio Only After: Audio Only
G u ess t h e e m o t io n t h e singers w e re G uess t h e e m o tio n t h e singers w e re
portrayin g portraying

Response Chart Percentage Count Response Chart Percentage Count Difference


Joy 16% 10 Joy 1 12% 7 -4.90%
Sadness HK 36% 22 Sadness HH 41% 25 4.90%
Fear 2% 1 Fear a 3% 2 1.70%
Anger i 0% 0 Anger i 0% 0 0.00%
Tenderness HH£ - 46% 28 Tenderness 44% 27 -1.60%
Total Responses 61 Total Responses 61

Table 3.3: Comparison of AO enjoyment before and after Alba Emoting treatm ent

Before: Audio Only After: Audio Only


How m u ch did you enjoy listening t o this How m uch did you enjoy listening to this
p e r f o rm a n c e ? p e rfo rm a n c e ?

Response Chart Percentage Count Response Chart Percentage Count Difference


1did not enjoy it at all 1 3% 2 1did not enjoy it at all i . 5% 3 1.60%
1enjoyed it a little H K 34% 21 1enjoyed it a little H H 43% 26 8.20%
1somewhat enjoyed it BHK 43% 26 1somewhat enjoyed it HK 36% 22 -6.50%
1enjoyed it a lot m 20% 12 1enjoyed it a lot m 16% 10 -3.30%
Total Responses 61 Total Responses 61

The next set o f graphs compares before and after results from examples with both

audio and visual com ponents. Table 4.1 shows a comparison o f before and after

exam ples based on the participant agreement with the statement “the choir looks

expressive based on facial expression and posture” during an example with both audio

and visual com ponents. Overall, those who agreed increased (18.6% ), while those who

w ere neutral decreased (3.2%). Participants who disagreed decreased (14.7% ), and those

who strongly disagreed rem ained the same. W hen it comes to the visual component,

28
audience m em bers are more likely to identify the choir as being more expressive once

they have had experience w ith A lba Emoting.

Table 4.2 shows a com parison o f before and after exam ples focused on the

agreem ent o f the statem ent that “the choir sounds expressive based on tone quality and

articulation.” Overall, those who either agreed or strongly agreed increased from 79%

w ithout A lba Em oting, to 84% with A lba Emoting. This is reflected by the decreasing

trend in participants who were neutral (1.6%) or who disagreed (3.3%). N o one strongly

disagreed. W hile m ost participants already agreed with the statement, after the Alba

Em oting exam ple, there was an even stronger agreement. However, it seems that survey

participants noticed a bigger difference looking for visual expression, rather than aural.

V isual expression is the more dom inant effect.

In Table 4.3, the participants were asked about their overall opinion o f the

expressiveness o f the choir based on both aural and visual components. Overall, those

who agreed increased (14.8% ), as reflected by the decrease o f those who were neutral

(3.3% ), those who disagreed, (9.9% ), and those who strongly disagreed with the

statem ent (1.6% ). W hen looking at both audio and visual com ponents, these results

suggest that A lba Em oting is effective in displaying expression overall.

Table 4.1: C om parison o f visual expression b efore and after Alba Emoting trea tm en t (w h en sh ow n a
clip w ith both audio and visual com p on en ts)
B e fo re : A ud io a n d Visual
P le a s e a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e w ith t h e After: A ud io a n d Visual
fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t : T h e c h o ir looks P le a s e a g r e e o r d is a g r e e w ith t h e follo w ing
e x p r e s s iv e b a s e d o n facial e x p r e s s io n a n d s t a t e m e n t : T h e cho ir looks e x p re s s iv e
posture. b a s e d on facial e x p re s s io n a n d p o s t u r e .

R esponse Chart P ercentage C ount R esponse Chart P ercentage Count Difference


Strongly Agree 1— 10% 6 Strongly Agree T ~ 20 % 12 9.90%
Agree 34% 21 Agree 43% 26 8 . 20 %
Neutral 26% 16 Neutral 23% 14 -3.20%
Disagree 26% 16 Disagree 12 % 7 -14.70%
Strongly Disagree | 2 Strongly Disagree f 3% 2 0 .00 %
Total R esponses 61 Total Responses 61

29
Table 4.2: C om parison of a u ra l expression b efore and after Alba Emoting tre a tm en t (w h en sh o w n a
clip w ith both audio and visual com p on en ts)
B e fo re : A u d io a n d Visual
P le a s e a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e w ith t h e A fter: A u dio a n d Visual
fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t : T h e c h o ir s o u n d s P le a s e a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e w ith t h e fo l lo w in g
e x p r e s s i v e b a s e d o n t o n e q u a lity a n d s t a t e m e n t : T h e c h o ir s o u n d s e x p r e s s iv e
a r t ic u l a ti o n . b a s e d on t o n e q u a lity a n d a rt ic u l a ti o n .

R esponse Chart P ercentage Count Response Chart P ercentage Count Difference


Strongly Agree 18% .,,.11 Strongly Agree 25% 15 6.60%
Agree H HHF 61% 37 Agree H I ’ 59% 36 -1.70%
Neutral ■ 16% 10 Neutral m 15% 9 -1.60%
Disagree » 5% 3 Disagree i 2% 1 -3.30%
Strongly Disagree | 0% 0 Strongly Disagree 0% 0 0.00%
Total Responses 61 Total R esponses 61

Table 4.3: C om parison o f overall expression b efore and after Alba Emoting trea tm en t (w h en sh ow n a
clip w ith both audio and visual com p on en ts)
B e fo re : A u d io a n d Visual A fter: A ud io a n d Visual
P le a s e a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e w ith t h e P le a s e a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e w ith t h e follo w in g
fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t : Overall, t h e ch o ir s t a t e m e n t : O verall, t h e c h o ir l o o k e d a n d
lo o k e d a n d s o u n d e d e x p r e s s iv e b a s e d on s o u n d e d e x p r e s s iv e b a s e d o n all e l e m e n t s
all e l e m e n t s o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e . of th e p erfo rm an ce.

Response Chart P ercentage Count R esponse Chart Percentage Count Difference


Strongly Agree i 10% 6 Strongly Agree m 13% 8 3.30%
Agree HK' 46% 28 Agree HHI 57% 35 11.50%
Neutral W B "■ 23% 14 * Neutral 20% i 12 > -3.30%
Disagree m 20% 12 Disagree * 10% 6 -9.90%
Strongly Disagree | 2% 1 Strongly Disagree K 0% 0 -1.60%
Total R esponses 61 Total Responses 61

Below, Table 4.4 compares the audience perception o f w hat em otion was being

portrayed in both before and after videos, with and without A lba Emoting. Overall,

participants identified more joy (8.2% ) in the Alba Em oting clip than without. However,

sadness and tenderness were the most prom inent emotions in both examples. Fear and

anger were not identified in either. W hile visual only with Alba Emoting (Table 2.2)

identified m ostly joy (43% ) and tenderness (38% ), audio only (Table 3.2) identified

mostly tenderness (44% ) and sadness (41%). W ith both components combined, joy still

increased to a total o f 21%, but tenderness and sadness tied with 39% for most prom inent

em otions overall. This means that w hen both com ponents are com bined, the audio

30
com ponent com plicates the exam ple as a whole, and is regarded more prom inently by the

audience.

Table 4.5 presents the overall enjoym ent o f the audience in both exam ples with

both audio and visual components. Overall, audience mem bers seem to enjoy seeing and

hearing a choral perform ance much more than ju st watching a perform ance with no

audio, or listening to a perform ance with no visual reference. In Table 4.5, those who

enjoyed the perform ance either a little, somewhat, or a lot, increased by 4.9%, for a total

o f 97% who enjoyed the perform ance in some way. Table 3.3 (audio only) sim ilarly

shows that 95% enjoyed the perform ance in some way. D ata from these tables can be

com pared w ith the data in Table 2.3 (visual only), w hich shows only that only 64%

enjoyed the perform ance over all. This is important because it means that audience

enjoym ent relies mostly on the audio component.

Table 4.4: C om parison o f em otion b efore and after Alba Emoting trea tm en t (w hen sh ow n a clip w ith
both audio and visual com p on en ts)
B e fo re : A u d io a n d Visual After: A ud io a n d Visual
G u e s s t h e e m o t i o n t h e s in g e rs w e r e G u e s s t h e e m o t i o n t h e s i n g e rs w e r e
portraying p o r t r a y in g

R esponse_______Chart____________ P ercentage Count R esponse________ Chart P ercentage C ount Difference


Joy 1 13% 8 Joy B 21% 13 8.20%
Sadness H E 46% 28 Sadness H R 39% 24 -6.60%
Fear | 0% 0 Fear i 0% 0 0.00%
Anger B 0% 0 Anger | 0% 0 0.00%
Tenderness H E 41% 25 Tenderness H E 39% 24 -1.70%
Total R esponses 61 Total R esponses 61

31
Table 4.5: C om parison of enjoym ent b efore and after Alba Emoting trea tm en t (w h en sh ow n a clip w ith
L „ * l ________ l : __________I i _____________________ .
b oth audio and visual com p on en ts)\
B e fo re : A u dio a n d Visual A fter: A u dio a n d Visual
H o w m u c h did y o u e n j o y listen in g t o a n d H ow m u c h did y o u e n j o y liste n in g t o a n d
w a t c h i n g th i s p e r f o r m a n c e ? w a t c h i n g th i s p e r f o r m a n c e ?

R esponse________C hart P ercen tag e C ount R esponse Chart P ercentage C ount Difference
I did not enjoy it at I 5% 3 I did not enjoy it at H \ jg.;* i y 3% 2 -1.60%
I enjoyed it a little ■ ■ 41% 25 I enjoyed it a little H F 38% 23 -3.30%
I som ewhat enjoyef 39% 24 I somewhat enjoye R 43% 26 3.30%
I enjoyed it a lot R 15% 9 I enjoyed it a lot R 16% 10 1.60%
Total R esponses 61 Total Responses 61

In conclusion, the most significant find was the increased visual only expression

w ith A lba Em oting. W hen presented w ith audio only to this pool o f participants, A lba

Em oting has little to no effect on expression, and may even hinder enjoyment. These

results m ight differ with more m usically inclined participants. However, w hen both are

com bined, all areas o f expressiveness increased, along with an increase o f enjoyment.

32
Chapter Five: Discussion

This conclusion explores the potential consequences that A lba Em oting may have

for m usic educators by introducing the data found in this study to the limited data that

exists in the field. First, the lim itations o f the study are discussed. Then, there is a

discussion o f the im plications o f both the singer survey results and the online survey

results. This is follow ed by suggestions for future studies.

This study was lim ited in several ways. This Alba Em oting W orkshop was only

one session that was two hours long, but this technique is generally supposed to be taught

during several sessions over a longer period o f time. Alba Em oting also suggests a

sm aller num ber o f participants. W hile this suggestion o f small num bers was respected

during this experim ent, this w ould not be as realistic in a choral situation because many

choirs have 30+ singers. As for the online survey, there are also several possible

limitations. The survey participant may have already been fam iliar with the popular song

“Danny B oy,” m aking their response biased. This m eans they may have already formed

their own opinions on the em otion o f the song prior to seeing the video clips. This could

affect the outcome o f these results. Also, m ost o f the survey participants were not music

m ajors and therefore m ay not have had academic training in music. A larger num ber o f

m usic majors m ay have provided different results.

The results from the singer survey show that singer participants were pleased with

the discovery o f an alternate strategy for emoting during a choral performance. O f the 11

singers, 3 initially felt very uncom fortable, 3 felt somewhat comfortable, and 5 felt very

com fortable expressing emotion in a choral performance. W hile using Alba Em oting

during the final recording o f the experiment, 6 participants felt a little more confident,

33
and 5 participants felt much more confident in their ability to express emotion. All 11

participants agreed that Alba Em oting is an effective tool for expressing during a choral

perform ance.

D uring the workshop, the singers were asked to sing a shorter portion o f the song

with m any different emotions, and with no pause betw een emotions. This caused an

interesting change in audio quality from a darker, heavier sound for sadness, to a brighter,

lighter sound for happiness. This video was not shown during the online survey due to

the fact that you could hear the conductor dictating which emotions to try. It was

surprising that with longer examples, there were no noticeable differences in aural quality

perceived by the respondents o f the online survey, w hen the researcher saw an immediate

difference in shorter audio examples. It would be interesting to see if the audience could

perceive a change in em otion with shorter audio clips like the ones m entioned above. To

see if the audience perception o f expression does increase with shorter audio clips, further

research could be conducted in a survey similar to the one used in this study. Singers

were asked to give feedback for the workshop and their feelings on A lba Em oting in the

“com m ents” section o f the survey. M any o f the singer participants com m ented on how

A lba Em oting affected the sound quality o f the choir.

• “A lba Emoting was a great way to change the tone quality o f the

ensemble. Also, I found that I was able to use these techniques to emote

m uch more than internalizing an experience in my life. This was really

fun!”

• “I found it useful singing with emotions. The sound was changing as the

emotions changed.”

34
• “It was cool how the different emotions affected our sound as a group.”

• “I loved this technique and thought it very applicable to em oting through

music. I love how it also changed the tone and body language

im m ediately.”

Respondents also gave positive feedback, suggestions for using this technique,

and raised questions about how else Alba Emoting could be used.

• “G reat idea! This should be standard practice w ith vocalists and choirs.”

• “This seems like a great technique to do research on. I w onder if it is

applicable to instrum entalists.”

Other participants com m ented on how Alba Em oting was an effective tool for

com m unicating emotions.

• “I felt like this technique would be very useful for those days w hen I am

having a hard tim e getting in touch with my emotions. This will also be

very useful for students who have a hard time emoting or expressing

em otion on their face. I will definitely use this with my students because

it is an easy way to make sure everyone is on the same page and that it is

captivating for the audience.”

• “ I feel like this technique is something that can be used as a supplem ental

tool for emoting and acting. For me personally, I w ouldn’t use it alone,

but as an extra tool while I am performing. I think that it is great,

however, to help express the emotions you are feeling to the audience. I

see it as a more effective way o f communicating emotions, not fabricating

them .”

35
One participant questioned the motives o f the director o f the ensemble, im plying

that ultim ately it is the decision o f the director to decide if or how em otion should be

expressed. A nother participant reiterated the fact that there is no acting method that is set

in stone or used regularly in choral situations. One person left no comments.

• “Regarding question #3 {Based on yo u r experiences today, do yo u think

A lba Em oting is an effective tool fo r expressing during a choral

perform ance? [T hisparticipant responded “y e s ”]), I also think it depends

on w hat the director wants, but if he/she wants m ore expressiveness, “yes”

is the answer. I am very interested in this physiological approach to acting,

and I hope to hear more about it in the future. I have never taken an acting

class, and this was comfortable for me to incorporate acting into my

singing.”

• “I ’d already had this explored, not this specific method, but various

manners o f expression, throughout my choral career, but there has never

really been a set way. They ju st sort o f said ‘Try and think like th is’ or

som ething.”

This study found positive results that could benefit the field o f music education.

The online survey was effective in finding w hat makes Alba Em oting most successful

w hen broken into audio only, visual only, and combined audio and visual sections.

W hile listening to audio only examples during this experiment, the audience could not

differentiate between the before and after videos and thought they were equally

expressive (Table 3.1). The audience may have perceived different results if they had

more academic experience with choir. W hen presented with visual only examples, and

36
no audio, participants ranked the A lba Em oting example 42.7% higher than the exam ple

w ithout A lba Em oting (Table 2.1). Although the statistical significance o f this data

cannot be confirm ed due to the m ulti-responsive modes and lim ited samples o f this study,

it seems apparent that A lba Em oting has a large impact on how the audience perceives

visual inform ation alone. However, when audio inform ation is com bined with visual

inform ation, it complicates the audience perception. It seems w hen audio is added, the

audience only noticed a small difference in the perform ance, but the result did increase.

Results showed an increase (19%) in visual expression from 44% to 63% (Table 4.1) and

an increase (14%) in overall expression from 56% to 70% (Table 4.3).

Alba em oting is an excellent technique for educators who are searching for

alternate expression tools. W hile using Alba Emoting alone increased expression, Alba

Em oting could be even more effective when combined with other emoting and acting

techniques, like m em ory recalling methods. One positive outcome from this study is

awareness o f the effects o f facial expression and posture on the experience o f a

perform ance. Before this study, it was anecdotally implied that visual aspects o f a

perform ance make a difference to the audience. W ith results from this study, we now

have tangible evidence that facial expression and posture can improve the overall quality

and experience o f a performance. M ost survey participants (57%) said they prefer both

listening to and watching a choral performance, rather than only listening to or only

w atching the choir (Table 1.6). Results show that the visual aspect is just as im portant as

the aural aspect. As noted above, the visual component o f choral expression is certainly

increased through the use o f Alba Emoting.

37
There are few studies related to nonverbal com m unication in choral music. The

gap in research in this field could be filled with m any more experiments and research. In

the future, this study could be im proved in several ways to find more in depth results.

D uring a typical A lba Em oting certification course, it is recom m ended that participants

m eet for 30 hours total, usually in tw o-hour sessions over several weeks. Therefore, Alba

Em oting m ight be a more effective tool for singers if the choir m et on several occasions

over a longer period o f time in order to more closely replicate an official A lba Em oting

training course. Since a typical sized choir is usually more that 11 singers, results may be

m ore realistic if the researcher used a choir o f 30 singers. Results m ight also change if

the song used during the experim ent was shorter, or had more contrasting emotions.

Perhaps this w ould allow the audience to perceive a larger difference in the audio only

exam ples. Because Alba Emoting is such a m ethodical acting technique, it w ould be

interesting to see the results o f this study if instrumentalists were given a lesson in Alba

Em oting instead o f singers. O ther possible studies might look at how these results

change across gender, type o f singer, type o f song, length o f song, and type o f emotions.

38
References

Bloch, S. (1993). A lba Emoting: A Psychophysiological Technique to Help Actors Create

and Control Real Em otions. Theatre Topics, 3(2), 121-138.

B roughton, M., & Stevens, C. (2009). M usic, m ovem ent and marimba: an investigation

o f the role o f m ovem ent and gesture in com m unicating m usical expression to an

audience.

Coward, H. (1914). A choral technique and interpretation. London, New York: Novello

and Co.

Davidson, J. W. (1993). Visual Perception o f Performance M anner in the M ovem ents o f

Solo M usicians. Psychology o f Music, 21(2), 103-113. doi:

10.1177/030573569302100201

Elson, L. C. (1933). Elson's music dictionary : containing the definition and

pronunciation o f such terms a n d signs as are used in modern music : together

with a list o f foreign composers and artists ... and a short English-Italian

vocabulary o f musical words and expressions. Boston: O. Ditson Co.

Fink, T. J. (2006). A lba Emoting: A New Technique for Emotional Projection. Opera

Journal, 39(4), 3-28.

Huang, J., & K rum hansl, C. L. (2011). W hat does seeing the perform er add? It depends

on m usical style, am ount of stage behavior, and audience expertise: M usicae

Scientiae.

Juchniew icz, J. (2008). The influence o f physical movement on the perception o f musical

perform ance. Psychology o f Music, 36(4), 417-427. doi:

10.1177/0305735607086046

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K arlsson, J., & Juslin, P. N. (2008). M usical expression: an observational study o f

instrum ental teaching. Psychology o f Music, 36(3), 309-334. doi:

10.1177/0305735607086040

K ennedy, M., & K ennedy, J. B. (2004). The concise O xford dictionary o f m usic (4th ed.).

Oxford; N ew York: O xford U niversity Press.

Kundert-Gibbs, J., & K undert-G ibbs, K. (2009). A ctio n !: Acting Lessons fo r CG

Animators. Indianapolis, Indiana: W iley Publishing, Inc.

K urosaw a, K., & D avidson, J. W. (2005). Nonverbal behaviours in popular music

perform ance: A case study o f The Corrs. M usicae Scientiae, 9(1), 111-136. doi:

10.1177/102986490500900104

Livingstone, S. R., Thom pson, W. F., & Russo, F. A. (2009). Facial expressions and

em otional singing: A study o f perception and production with motion capture and

electrom yography. M usic Perception, 26(5), 475-488. doi:

10.1525/mp.2009.26.5.475

Lord, R. R. (2011). Bringing Theatricality to the Choral Arts: The Choral Conductor as

D irector and Acting Teacher. (D.M.A. 3483182), U niversity o f California, Los

Angeles, United States — California. Retrieved from

http://search.proquest.com /docview /902184317?accountid= 10051 ProQuest

Dissertations & Theses (PQDT) database.

M cGurk, H., & M acdonald, J. (1976). Flearing lips and seeing voices. Nature, 264(5588),

746-748.

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Quinto, L., Thom pson, W. F., Russo, F. A., & Trehub, S. E. (2010). A com parison o f the

M cG urk effect for spoken and sung syllables. Attention, Perception, &

Psychophysics, 72(6), 1450-1454. doi: 10.3758/APP.72.6.1450

Rix, R. (1993). A lba Emoting: A Prelim inary Experim ent w ith Em otional Effector

Patterns. Theatre Topics, 3(2), 139-145.

Rix, R. (1998). Learning Alba Emoting. Theatre Topics, 5(1), 55-71.

Thom pson, M. R., & Luck, G. (2012). Exploring relationships between pianists’ body

m ovem ents, their expressive intentions, and structural elements o f the music.

M usicae Scientiae, 16(1), 19-40. doi: 10.1177/1029864911423457

Thom pson, W. F., & Russo, F. A. (2007). Facing the music. Psychological Science,

18(9), 756-757. doi: 10.1111/j. 1467-9280.2007.01973.x

Thom pson, W. F., Russo, F. A., & Livingstone, S. R. (2010). Facial expressions o f

singers influence perceived pitch relations. Psychonom ic Bulletin & Review,

77(3), 317-322. doi: 10.3758/PBR.17.3.317

Thom pson, W. F., Russo, F. A., & Quinto, L. (2008). A udio-visual integration o f

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41
A ppendix A

Singer Participant Survey:

1.) W hat is your major?

2.) Before today’s workshop, how com fortable were you expressing em otion in a
choral perform ance?

1. very uncom fortable


2. som ew hat uncomfortable
3. no opinion
4. som ew hat comfortable
5. very comfortable

3.) Based on your experiences today, do you think Alba Em oting is an effective tool
for expressing during a choral performance?

Yes □ or No □

4.) W hile using Alba Em oting during the last recording, did you feel more confident
in your ability to express emotion?

1. No difference in confidence
2. A little more confident
3. M uch more confident

5.) Comments:

42
Appendix B

Online Participant Survey:

1.) W hat is your age?


a. 18-24
b. 25-34
c. 35-44
d. 45-54
e. 55-64
f. 65 or Above

2.) I identify my gender a s ,,,


a. M ale
b. Female
c. Transgender

3-) At University, what is your school or college?


a. Argyros School o f Business & Economics
b. College o f Educational Studies
c. Dodge College o f Film and M edia Arts
d. W ilkinson College o f Humanities and Social Sciences
e. School o f Law
f. College o f Perform ing Arts
g- Schmid College o f Science & Technology
h. Undecided
i. Other, please specify:

4.) Have you ever sung in a choir?


a. Yes
b. No

5.) Do you have any perform ance experience in the following areas? (choose all
applicable boxes)
a. Choir
b. Theater
c. Dance
d. Instrumental music
e. Solo singing
f. other (list here):
g- I don’t have any perform ance experience

43
6.) W hen seeing a live choral perform ance,
I m ost enjoy:
a. listening to the choir
b. w atching the choir
c. both listening and watching the choir
d. no opinion

7.) In your opinion, how im portant (1, 2, 3, or 4) are the following w hen watching a
choral perform ance: (1. not important 2. Somewhat im portant 3. Very important
4. No opinion.)
a. Facial expression 1 2 3 4
b. Body language 1 2 3 4
c. The way the singers sound 1 2 3 4

VISUAL: BEFO RE
W atch the following video to answer questions 6-8. There will be no audio.

8.) Please agree or disagree with the following statement: The choir looks expressive
based on facial expression and posture.
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

9.) Guess the emotion the singers were portraying:


a. Joy
b. Sadness
c. Fear
d. A nger
e. Tenderness

10.) Flow much did you enjoy watching this performance?


a. I did not enjoy it at all
b. I enjoyed it a little
c. I somewhat enjoyed it
d. I enjoyed it a lot

44
VISU A L: A FTER
W atch the following video to answ er questions 9-11. There will be no audio.

11.) Please agree or disagree with the following statement: The choir looks
expressive based on facial expression and posture.
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

12.) Guess the em otion the singers were portraying:


a. Joy
b. Sadness
c. Fear
d. Anger
e. Tenderness

13.) How much did you enjoy watching this perform ance?
a. I did not enjoy it at all
b. I enjoyed it a little
c. I somewhat enjoyed it
d. I enjoyed it a lot

AUDIO: BEFORE
Listen to the following audio example to answer questions 12-14. There will be no video

14.) Please agree or disagree with the following statement: The choir sounds
expressive based on tone quality and articulation.
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

15.) Guess the em otion the singers were portraying:


a. Joy
b. Sadness
c. Fear
d. Anger
e. Tenderness

45
16.) How m uch did you enjoy listening to this perform ance?
a. I did not enjoy it at all
b. I enjoyed it a little
c. I som ew hat enjoyed it
d. I enjoyed it a lot

AUDIO: A FTER
Listen to the following audio example to answer questions 15-17. There will be no video.

17.) Please agree or disagree with the following statement: The choir sounds
expressive based on tone quality and articulation.
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. N eutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

18.) Guess the emotion the singers were portraying:


a. Joy
b. Sadness
c. Fear
d. A nger
e. Tenderness

19.) How m uch did you enjoy listening to this performance?


a. I did not enjoy it at all
b. I enjoyed it a little
c. I som ewhat enjoyed it
d. I enjoyed it a lot

A U DIO/V ISU A L: BEFORE


W atch the following recording to answer questions 18-22. There will be both audio and
video.

Please agree or disagree with the following statements (18-20):

20.) The choir looks expressive based on facial expression and posture.
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

46
21.) The choir sounds expressive based on tone quality and articulation.
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. Neutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

22.) Overall, the choir looked and sounded expressive based on all elements
o f the perform ance.
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. N eutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

23.) Guess the emotion the singers were portraying:


a. Joy
b. Sadness
c. Fear
d. Anger
e. Tenderness

24.) How m uch did you enjoy listening to and watching this perform ance?
a. I did not enjoy it at all
b. I enjoyed it a little
c. I som ew hat enjoyed it
d. I enjoyed it a lot

A U D IO /V ISU A L: A FTER
W atch the following recording to answ er questions 23-27. There will be both audio and
video.

Please agree or disagree with the following statements (23-25):

The choir looks expressive based on facial expression and posture


a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. N eutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

47
26.) The choir sounds expressive based on tone quality and articulation.
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. N eutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

27.) Overall, the choir looked and sounded expressive based on all elem ents
o f the perform ance.
a. Strongly agree
b. Agree
c. N eutral
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree
28.) Guess the emotion the singers were portraying:
a. Joy
b. Sadness
c. Fear
d. A nger
e. Tenderness

29.) How much did you enjoy listening to and w atching this perform ance?
a. I did not enjoy it at all
b. I enjoyed it a little
c. I som ewhat enjoyed it
d. I enjoyed it a lot

48
Appendix C

Singer Participation Informed Consent Form

CHAPM AN UNIVERSITY
ONE UNIVERSITY DR.
ORANGE, CA 92866

PR IN C IPA L Dr. Angel M. Vazquez-Ramos, Faculty A dvisor


IN V ESTIG A TO R or College o f Perform ing Arts
FA C U LTY ADVISOR: Conservatory o f M usic
(714) 289-3562
vazquezr@ chapman.edu

STU DEN T Lindsie Hardy


IN V ESTIG A TO R College o f Educational Studies
(702) 496-5926
Hardy 107@ mail.chapman.edu

O TH ER Dr. Evelyn Carol Case


IN V ESTIG A TOR(S): CSU Fullerton, Theater and Dance Dept.

ecase@ fullerton.edu

You are being invited to participate in a research study. Participation in this study is
com pletely voluntary. Please read the information below and ask questions about
anything that you do not understand.

PU RPOSE.
The purpose o f this study is to examine whether Alba Em oting is an effective technique
for teaching m usical and physical expression in a choral performance. This research
question is relevant to choral music teachers interested in a.) finding a tool that m ight
enhance non-verbal behaviors that demonstrate students’ understanding o f the text in the
m usic, and b.) im proving the sound quality (overall performance) as perceived by their
approach to dynam ic contrast, tempo change, articulation markings, and com m itm ent to
the text. The literature review suggests a need for more research in this area that will
provide more specific techniques.

N U M B ER OF PA RTICIPAN TS & STUDY


LOCATION:
The study will enroll approxim ately 12 singer participants, both music and non-music
majors. This study procedure will take place at Chapm an University.

49
Q U A LIFIC A TIO N (S) TO PARTICIPATE:
Participants m ust be 18 or older and enrolled at Chapman University. Only English
reading/speaking individuals are eligible for this study. Participants m ust be able to
m atch pitch and learn music quickly.

PRO CED U RES:


Participation in the study will include a one-time visit and take a total o f about 2 hours.
Singers will be expected to participate in the following:
1.) U nder the direction o f Dr. Vazquez-Ramos, the participants will warm up, learn,
and rehearse a short excerpt o f a simple, unison song to sing together as a choir.
A pproxim ately 10 minutes in length.
2.) The participants will record their “before” video as a small ensemble directed by
Dr. Vazquez-Ram os. Approxim ately 10 minutes.
3.) A lba Em oting specialist Evelyn Case will lead a workshop in certain Alba
Em oting techniques and emotions relating to the selected song. W orkshop will
involve learning an acting technique which focuses on facial expression and body
posture. Participants w ill work in small groups, large groups, and pairs while
participating in activities led by Dr. Case. W orkshop involves the use o f mirrors
for m anipulating their own facial expression, posture, and for self-evaluation o f
progress. A pproxim ately 1 hour in length.
4.) A fter the workshop is completed, participants will record the “after” video. They
w ill sing the selected song under the direction o f Dr. Vazquez-Ram os, but this
time they will be asked to use the Alba techniques they ju st learned in the
w orkshop. A pproxim ately 10 minutes.
5.) Participants will then take a survey asking about their experiences in the study.
A pproxim ately 5 minutes.

BENEFITS:
The possible benefits you may experience from the procedures described in this study
include free A lba Em oting W orkshop; increased confidence while performing; improved
m usical and physical expression in musical performance.

The possible benefits to music educators from your participation in this research may be
a successful acting technique that can be used by choir teachers to encourage their
students to emote. O ther benefits may include a greater understanding o f how emotion is
shown non-verbally and perceived by audience members.

RISKS:
The possible risks and/or discom forts associated with the procedures described in this
study may include minimal amounts o f nervousness, anxiety, and embarrassm ent
depending on the participant’s previous experiences with acting and performing.

PRIV A CY & CONFIDENTIALITY:


The audio/video recordings that can identify you will be stored in a secure location and

50
retained w ith the other research data. These recordings will be used as samples in a
survey that will be adm inistered to unknown participants enrolled at Chapm an University
to help determ ine the effectiveness o f Alba Emoting in relation to choral singing.
A lthough the faces o f the subjects will be shown in the survey, names will not be linked
w ith participants. The researchers intend to keep the research data and recordings for 3
years after the research is published and/or presented. The recordings will then be erased.

A ny inform ation derived from this research project that personally identifies you will not
be voluntarily released or disclosed by the research team and authorized Chapm an
U niversity personnel w ithout your separate consent, except as specifically required by
law. Study records provided to authorized, non-Chapm an University entities will not
contain identifiable inform ation about you; nor will any publications and/or presentations
w ithout your separate consent. W hile research team members will make every effort to
keep your personal inform ation confidential, it is possible that an unauthorized person
m ight see it. W e cannot guarantee total privacy.

CO M PEN SA TIO N, REIM BURSEM ENT,


COSTS:
Y ou will not be com pensated for your participation in this research study.

A D D ITIO N A L INFORM ATION:


Y our involvem ent in this study is completely voluntary. You are free to w ithdraw from
this study at any time. If you decide to withdraw from this study, you should notify
the research team immediately. The research team may also end your participation in
this study if you do not follow instructions. If you elect to withdraw or are w ithdraw n
from this research study, the researchers will discuss with you what they intend to do
with your study data. Researchers may choose to analyze the study data already collected
or they m ay choose to exclude your data from the analysis o f study data and destroy it, as
per your request.

CO N TA CT
IN FO RM A TIO N:
Lindsie Hardy, Student Investigator
(702) 496-5926
hardyl07@ m ail.chapm an.edu

Dr. Angel M. V azquez-Ram os, Chapman Principal Investigator


(714) 289-3562
vazquezr@ chapm an.edu

Dr. Carol Evelyn Case, Guest Expert


ecase@ fullerton.edu

FO R Q U ESTIONS RELATED TO STUDY or TO REPORT A


CONCERN:
If you have any comments or questions regarding the conduct o f this research, please

51
contact the Principal Investigator or a designated member o f the research team listed
above.

If you are unable to reach any o f the researchers listed at the top o f this form or would
like to report a concern about the study or the inform ed consent process, please contact
C hapm an U niversity’s Institutional Review Board, Office o f Research and Sponsored
Program s A dm inistration by phone (714)-628-7392 or (714) 628-2805, by email at
jrb@ chapm an.edu, or by mail at Chapman University, ORSPA, One University Dr.
O range, CA 92866.

A U D IO RECORDING:
I have received an adequate description o f the purpose and procedures for audio­
recording sessions during the course o f the proposed research. I give my consent to allow
m y self to be audio-recorded during participation in this study, and for those records to be
review ed by persons involved in the study, as well as for other professional purposes as
described to me.
Yes, I agree to allow the research team to audio record my interview(s)

Signature o f Participant Date

V ID EO RECORDING:
I have received an adequate description o f the purpose and procedures for video­
recording sessions during the course o f the proposed research. I give my consent to allow
m yself to be video-recorded during participation in this study, and for those records to be
review ed by persons involved in the study, as well as for other professional purposes as
described to me.

Yes, I agree to allow the research team to video record (the study procedures/m y
interview/etc.)

Signature o f Participant_____________________________ Date

52
Y ou should not sign this consent form until all o f your questions about this study have
been answered. You will be given a copy o f this signed and dated consent form to keep.
Participation in this study is completely voluntary. You may refuse to answ er any
questions or discontinue your involvement at any time w ithout penalty or loss o f benefits
to w hich you m ight otherwise be entitled. Your decision will not affect your future
relationship with Chapm an University, student status or employment.

I acknowledge that I have received a signed copy of this form and the Research
Participant’s Bill of Rights.

I have read the above information, understand it fully and have had any questions
regarding the study answered to my satisfaction. I hereby consent to participate in
the research.

Printed N am e o f Participant

__________ 10/21/13
Signature o f Participant Date

10/21/13

Signature o f Investigator Date

53
Appendix D

Survey Participant Informed Consent

CHAPM AN UNIVERSITY
ONE UNIVERSITY DR.
ORANGE, CA 92866

PR IN C IPA L Dr. Angel M. Vazquez-Ramos, Faculty Advisor


IN V ESTIG A T O R or College o f Perform ing Arts
FA C U LTY ADVISOR: Conservatory o f M usic
(714) 289-3562
vazquezr@ chapman.edu

STU D EN T Lindsie Hardy


IN V ESTIG A T O R College o f Educational Studies
(702) 496-5926
H ardyl07@ m ail.chapm an.edu

Y ou are being invited to participate in a research study. Participation in this study is


com pletely voluntary. Please read the information below and ask questions about
anything that you do not understand.

PURPO SE:
The purpose o f this study is to examine whether Alba Emoting is an effective technique
for teaching m usical and physical expression in a choral performance. This research
question is relevant to choral music teachers interested in a.) finding a tool that might
enhance non-verbal behaviors that dem onstrate students’ understanding o f the text in the
m usic, and b.) im proving the sound quality (overall performance) as perceived by their
approach to dynam ic contrast, tempo change, articulation markings, and com mitm ent to
the text. The literature review suggests a need for more research in this area that will
provide more specific techniques.

N U M B ER OF PA RTICIPA N TS & STUDY


LOCATION:
This study will involve potential subjects who are enrolled at Chapman University in a
variety o f majors. Study will involve as many o f these volunteers as possible, but the
study team is expecting approxim ately n=30 volunteers. This study procedure will take
place at C hapm an University.

Q U A LIFIC A TIO N (S) TO PARTICIPATE:


You can participate in this study if you are over 18 years old and enrolled at Chapman

54
U niversity. O nly English reading/speaking individuals are eligible for this study.

PRO CED U RES:


Participation in the study will include a one-time visit and take a total o f about 10-15
m inutes. Participants can expect the following:

1.) Participants will be inform ed o f the confidentiality o f the survey and sign a
consent form. A pproxim ately 5 minutes.
2.) Participants take the survey individually on computers in the lab with headphones
adjusted to their personal comfort level. Questions will be based on: audio only,
visual only, and audio/visual combination o f the recordings. Participants will be
asked questions after each recording based on physical expression, musical
expression, and w hat specific emotion they believe the perform ers are expressing.
A pproxim ately 10 minutes.
3.) As participants exit, they will be reminded to keep all information seen in the
surveys confidential. A pproxim ately 1 minute.

BENEFITS:
Y ou w ill not directly benefit from participation in this study. However, the possible
benefits to m usic educators from your participation in this research may be a successful
acting technique that can be used by choir teachers to encourage their students to emote.
O ther benefits may include a greater understanding o f how emotion is shown non­
verbally and perceived by audience members.

RISKS:
There are no know n harm s or discom forts associated with this study beyond those
encountered in norm al daily life.

PR IV A C Y & CO NFID ENTIALITY :


All identifiable inform ation collected about you will be removed at the end o f the data
collection. R esearch data will be m aintained in a secure location. Only authorized
individuals will have access to it. The researchers intend to keep the research data
indefinitely.

A ny inform ation derived from this research project that personally identifies you will not
be voluntarily released or disclosed by the research team and authorized Chapman
U niversity personnel w ithout your separate consent, except as specifically required by
law. Study records provided to authorized, non-Chapm an University entities will not
contain identifiable inform ation about you; nor will any publications and/or presentations
w ithout your separate consent. W hile research team members will make every effort to
keep your personal inform ation confidential, it is possible that an unauthorized person
m ight see it. We cannot guarantee total privacy.

55
C O M PEN SA TIO N , REIM BU RSEM EN T,
COSTS:
Y ou will not be com pensated for your participation in this research study.

A D D ITIO N A L INFORM ATION:


Y our involvem ent in this study is completely voluntary. You are free to w ithdraw from
this study at any time. If you decide to withdraw from this study, you should notify
the research team immediately. The research team may also end your participation in
this study if you do not follow instructions. If you elect to w ithdraw or are w ithdraw n
from this research study, the researchers will discuss with you what they intend to do
w ith your study data. Researchers may choose to analyze the study data already collected
or they m ay choose to exclude your data from the analysis o f study data and destroy it, as
per your request.

C O N TA CT
IN FO R M A TIO N :
Lindsie H ardy, Student Investigator
(702) 496-5926
hardy 107@ m ail.chapm an.edu

Dr. A ngel M. V azquez-Ram os, Chapm an Principal Investigator


(714) 289-3562
vazquezr@ chapm an.edu

FO R Q U ESTIO N S R ELA TED TO STUDY or TO REPO RT A


CO NCERN :
If you have any com m ents or questions regarding the conduct o f this research, please
contact the Principal Investigator or a designated m em ber o f the research team listed
above.

If you are unable to reach any o f the researchers listed at the top o f this form or w ould
like to report a concern about the study or the inform ed consent process, please contact
Chapm an U niversity’s Institutional Review Board, O ffice o f Research and Sponsored
Program s A dm inistration by phone (714)-628-7392 or (714) 628-2805, by em ail at
irb@ chapm an.edu, or by mail at Chapm an U niversity, ORSPA, One U niversity Dr.
Orange, CA 92866.

56
You should not sign this consent form until all o f your questions about this study have
been answered. You will be given a copy o f this signed and dated consent form to keep.
Participation in this study is completely voluntary. You may refuse to answ er any
questions or discontinue your involvement at any time w ithout penalty or loss o f benefits
to which you m ight otherwise be entitled. Your decision will not affect your future
relationship with Chapm an University, student status or employment.

I acknowledge that I have received a signed copy of this form and the Research
Participant’s Bill of Rights.

I have read the above information, understand it fully and have had any questions
regarding the study answered to my satisfaction. I hereby consent to participate in
the research.

Printed N am e o f Participant

Signature o f Participant Date

3/12/14
Signature o f Investigator Date

57