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By A. J. Schleiss

l1li

article presents the summarized results of a study carried out by the author on the

into account seepage forces and secondary permeability in lining and rock. The UUUIILUUIII

traditional tunnel statics" which assume lining and rock as impervious, is discussed. New

f

11Y\''''''''~'''1f''n"

compared with the rock

is in lining, accordmctv

lining transmits only mechanical nounoarv

mass. If the is """"UH'P'Upermeable

Fig. 2) the pressure

the outside of the lining. In the

",..,,,,,,I,-t,,~C}t-,,",,,,, continues to be used, because ofthe and its reach depends on internal pressure

uncertainties in describing in situ behaviour. in the rock. A single rock mass element

!\/lr,.. "".,",u,"'" there are no adequately realistic criteria for Fig. 2) is loaded on all sides by a U"?'U'r1'O

n""rrnp",lhlp pressure tunnels. This article presents a new design resulting force (the seepage nrpee11,'p

which takes into account the pressures and dimension, like a body quantrtatrve

influence of fracture deformation on permeability seepage pressures on pressure tunnels

rock masses. Until now, these papers have given no inducement

ing new design procedures for pervious pressure tunnels.

Problematic nature of pressure tunnels Fractures and pores, which cause the of the rock

U/-,',<4n,<");;,, water on an impervious mass, are deformed by the forces.

nenaves as a load; uniformly distributed and rock mass around the pressure tunnel will be ' .... r» ..""·"",,'r1

perpendicular the surface (Fig. la). If the medium is internal pressure. This change in permeability, in turn,

permeable, water infiltrates cavities (pores, cracks, fissures, and the seepage flow and therefore, the seepage forces. This

and again exerts a surface pressure (Fig. 1b). In this case mechanical-hydraulic coupling is shown schematically in Fig.

water pressure is gradually reduced by friction within the 3. Due to the latest scientific findings, in rock mechanics and

cavities. The force applied to the structure is transmitted along above all in rock hydraulics, such coupled can be

lines of seepage as a body force I. A permeable medium is solved theoretically", Inspite of this,

therefore not loaded by the purely mechanical effect of water coupling is rarely considered in pressure tunnel

the boundary loading, but by hydraulic body forces.

forces can be illustrated for a concrete-lined pressure The porous, thick-walled cylinder

tunnel (Fig. Differential equation for the radial The state of

The traditional' 'pressure tunnel statics" theory is based on stress due to internal water pressure in a porous cylinder, with

homogeneous, isotropic material behaviour, is radially

symmetrical. In contrast to the impervious cylinder, the

elementary volume of the permeable cylinder is loaded not only

by radial and tangential stresses but also by pore pressure (Fig.

4). The efficiency of this water pressure can be reduced by

factor y/(O ~ Y/ ~ 1). In the past the factor Y/ was often equated with

the superficial porosity of the material". In the meantime,

experimental work has shown that Y/ is equal to unity, if rupture

conditions are considered" 8. 9 The same is valid in highly

I1

r1n'pr>t",An for the

rock hydraulics

R

/ 7](p +

(per cent)

derived from Hooke's law gives the following relation for the

unknown radial displacement u(r):

... (1)

2

r dr r dr2 dr E(1-v)

the gradient of pore pressure in the cylinder, which, in the

radially symmetrical case, is proportional to the hydraulic

gradient. According to the permeability properties of the thick-

walled cylinder, one can imagine different pore pressure

distributions (Table 1). If the cylinder has a high porosity, theory

would, potentially, lead to a logarithmic pore pressure

distribution. If the permeability is caused by a great number of

radial cracks, the pressure distribution would be linear,

assuming laminar flow in the cracks. In a cylindrical zone of . - impervious cylinder (ry = 0)

highly fractured rock mass, pore pressure distribution would be pervious cylinder (ry 0.9 and rl = 1.0)

somewhere between these two assumptions. linear pressure gradient

--Iogarithmical pressure gradient

Fig. 5: Radial stresses in a thick-walled cylinder under internal and

Deformations and stresses. Inserting one of the pressure external pressure.

gradients from Table I in Eq. 1, gives the well known

inhomogeneous Euler differential equation. The general solution

is found by superposition ofthe homogeneous with a particular in the tension zone (see Fig. 5). On the other side, in an

solution. Eliminating the integration constants by the boundary impervious cylinder (YJ = 0) only radial compressive stresses are

conditions Or(n) = (1-YJ)Pi and Or(ra) (1-YJ)P a, deforma- possible. The linear pore pressure distribution causes greater

tions and stresses can be calculated. For the logarithmic and radial stresses (tension) than the logarithmic distribution. With

linear pore pressure distribution the corresponding relations are YJ< 1 the radial tensile stresses are somewhat reduced compared

summarized in Table 11. If the cylinder is impervious, ie, YJ = with YJ = I and displaced in the compressive zone towards the

0, the relations in Table 11 are reduced to the well-known Lame internal boundary of the cylinder. The maximum of the radial

formula. tensile stress is located throughout in the inner third of the

Fig. 5 shows the radial stress distribution in a thick-walled cylinder, but not at the inner surface as in the impervious cylinder

cylinder for logarithmic and linear pore pressure. If the pore (compressive stress).

pressure is fully effective (YJ = 1), the radial stresses lie entirely In Fig. 6, it can be seen that the tangential tensile stresses in

the permeable cylinder are always higher than in the impervious

Table I Distribution of pore pressure, pressure gradient and water

losses for thick-walled porous and cracked cylinders.

cylinder. Again the linear pore pressure distribution results in

higher tangential tensile stresses. The same can be noted for the

permeability

properties

radial

porous cylinder longitudinal stresses, whereby contrary to the impervious

cracked cylinder cylinder, considerable tensile stresses occur in the longitudinal

of cylinder

pore pressure Pi In(ra/r)+Pa In(r/ri) direction.

distribution per) p p

1n(ra/ri)

Influence of mechanical boundary loads. Mechanical

pressure gra- dp pa-pi dp pa-pi boundary loads pF(ri) and pF(r a) in addition to the water pressure

dientdp/dr dr ra-ri dr r'ln(r a/ fi) only change the boundary conditions. Therefore the

(Pi-Pa)2rc' K resulting stresses and deformations can be calculated for the

water losses q q impervious cylinder. The effect of mechanical loads at the

q Qw'g'ln(r a/ri)

internal and external surface can be considered in Table 11 by

(potential flow) (potential flow) adding the following expressions:

internal n .. o c:",,, .. ,,

tunnel

function of the

ratio

boundary stress is

would develop

r /r. greater the lining trnckness

higher is the tensile

tends to from the

is the rock mass.

similar to cooling of the

varying the ratio

in tensile stress between lining and rock if ~ . The

boundary stress lining-rock is not influenced by the ratio

if Kc/K r > l.

The natural tensile strength of the oounoarv 11n"n ....._ ..r'f>v

normally very small. High tensile

transmitted to the if the lining is nrestressed

... (4)

... (5)

Around a pressure tunnel there are zones with different

mechanical and permeability properties (lining, grouted zone,

cracked and fractured zones, etc). Ifthe zones are approximately

radially and have a homogeneous isotropic material

behaviour, they could be modelled with thick-walled cylinders. lining fair,

Furthermore, it is assumed that fractured roC;k masses behave Fig. 8: Concrete-lined pressure tunnel. Mechanical boundary-

stress between lining and rock versus lining thickness for different

ratio of elasticity modulus.

(per

rock zone.

the

at the inner (due

strength of concrete. The

the tensile

only

stresses and the pressure gradient seepage flow is

The head at the outside ofthe cracked lining (pa) or rock

mass is the continuity condition. Normally, the

head in the cracked zones (ie, unreinforced linings) is

neatunbte and therefore nearly the whole internal pressure

becomes effective the boundary of the uncracked zones +

(Pi ::::; p, ::::; Pf). The total width of the cracks in the lining has to

correspond with the tangential displacement of the rock mass.

This relation allows the estimation of crack width (Eq,

(2a) = u(ra)2rr/n . . . (7)

New cracks develop only in unfractured (bulky) rock mass.

Otherwise the existing fractures are opened radially so much that

they loose any contact. In such cracked or fractured zones the

relation between width and tangential displacement is given by linear pore pressure gradient

Contrary to concrete linings (Eq. 7), the fractures in rock masses

are enlarged only by a part of the tangential displacement. This

reduction, due to the elastic compression strain, is considered

in Eq. 8 with the factor x, which is approximately 1 Er/Eh.

Normally the rock modulus Eh (measured from hand-piece)

exceeds considerable the rock mass modulus Er and therefore x

is near 1.

The cracked or fractured zones in rock will expand as far as

the natural compressive rock stresses surrounding the tunnel are

greater than the stresses from the internal pressure. If the natural

rock stresses cannot restrict the cracked zone, the bearing

f"H'V""1h, of the rock masses is exceeded.

in an unreinforced concrete

transition floor-wall.

It can be medium rock

reduces the

~ .. £,,'tin~ (per cent) r-r-:- -,-- -,

cracks. Grouting is most effective in 400 1--... ..- ----------+- --..... 1

rock masses (see Fig. 11 right).

economical depth of grouting is

about 1 to 2 radius of the tunnel. The

influence of grouting quality is more

important than the grouting depth (see

Fig. 11). Therefore it is better to lessen

the distance between the boreholes than

to lengthen the boreholes.

Mechanical-hydraulic coupling

Influence of fracture deformation on

secondary permeability. Due to internal.

water pressure around the -nmnel, the

width of the fracture will increase. In the

following it is assumed that the natural

rock stresses exceed the stresses due to

internal pressure. Thus the fractures are

able to transmit restricted tensile

stresses, otherwise a "cracked" zone

(see "Influence of cracks") would be

formed.

The coupling between stresses or

deformations and rock mass permea-

bility is based on the following statement: In a fixed circle Naturally the coupled calculation is only sensible if the permea-

around the tunnel the total sum of change in fracture width bility properties of the rock masses are known adequately.

is equal to the tangential displacement due to internal water

pressure. Assuming laminar, parallel flow in the fractures this Design criteria for pervious pressure tunnels

relationship is: For designing pervious pressure tunnels, three criteria are

important:

K(r) Km + --=---'-'--- ... (9) • Avoiding cracks in the lining;

3( 1 1 )2 • Limiting water losses;

6Vw ttr 7i; + 7h • Ensuring the bearing capacity of the rock masses.

Which one of these criteria governs the design in a particular case

With the above equation the change in permeability in fractured depends on the respective boundary conditions.

rock masses is proportional to the cube of the radial displacement

u(r) and inversely proportional to the square of fracture density Avoiding cracks in lining. Cracks in the lining caused by

(l/b, + l/b2)2. Eq. 9 is only valid for high fracture density (see internal water pressure can be prevented either by reducing

earlier section). forces in lining or by increasing resistance of the lining.

Measures for reducing forces in lining are: increasing thickness

Thick-walled cylinder with stress-dependant permeability. of lining , rock grouting, drainage and controlled commencement

Assuming Darcy flow, the pressure gradient dp/dr in the of operation. These measures are successful only at relatively

cylinder with variable permeability K(r) is derived from the small internal pressure head (Pi < 20 bar) and good rock quality

continuity condition: (Ei/E, < 3). At higher pressure heads cracks can be avoided

1 only by increasing lining resistance, which is possible by

dp prestressing. Different prestressing techniques have been

dr - (Pi pal r, . . . (10) developed: prestressing by rock grouting'? or gap

dr

f

r.

K(r).r

Eq. 1, gives a differential equation which can be solved only with

E

a numerical method, for example with the finite difference E

method. Fig. 12 shows the calculated distribution of radial

displacements in a thick-walled cylinder; the permeability is

dominated from two fracture sets. The mechanical-hydraulic

coupling results in an increase of radial displacement compared

with the cylinder with constant permeability. The difference is

obvious above all towards the outside.

mentioned before, in the radial-symmetrical case, pressure

tunnels can be modelled with several thick-walled cylinders.

Detailed studies of the main parameters have shown that the

radius r (m) ra

effect of mechanical-hydraulic coupling is insignificant in

Fig. 12: Distribution of radial displacement in a thick-walled,

calculating pure mechanical data such as stresses and fractured cylinder. Comparison of deformation-dependent with

deformations of pressure tunnels. However for the quantitative constant permeability.

description of water losses and reach of seepage flow pattern it (Assumed parameters: E/Pi 1000, U 0.2, Ko = 10- 6 m/s,

is essential to use a stress-dependant permeability (see Fig. 13). "L1/bi 10,y/ x 1.0)

Conclusions

The consideration

mathematical rennement

Laboratory of

Ee/Er 3.0;

and active

losses. of a

pressure tunnel is dictated and depth under

water table as well as long as the safety of the

1973.

nr~'CC'lT'''' tunnel is not the allowable amount of water 6. BROWN, E. T., AND BRAY ,J. W., "Rock-support interaction calculations

determined only by economic considerations. Besides for pressure shafts and tunnels. " ISRM Symposium Aachen , Vol. 2; 1982.

limiting water losses should ZIENKIEWICZ, O. "Stress of hydraulic structures including pore

r!1c,,,,,t,,,,,,,'r<:>t',nn of some (anhydrite, rI'\'I'lrwl1t"" pressure effects." 1963.

8. ROBINSON, L. H. , "Some interpretation of pore fluid

etc) or washing out of joint-fillings">'. In addition, effects in rock failure." 11th Rock Mechanics, Berkeley,

water losses reaching the natural ground surface have California, USA; 1969.

occasionally in the past produced landslides-l-":". Water losses 9. SERAFIM, J. L., "Influence of joint water in the stability of structures in rock

can be limited avoiding cracks in the concrete lining (see drainage measure." Proceeding ISRM-Symposium: Percolation through

fissured rock, Stuttgart T4 (General Report) 1972.

above) and to some extent by reinforcing as well as rock 10. WITTKE W., Felsmechanik, "Grundlagen fur wirtschaftliches Bauen im

grouting. If these measures are not effective, special sealings Fels.' Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo; 1984.

such as plastic sheeting or thin steel tubes have to be used 27 ,13,2o . 11. G. , "Wirkung des Kluftwasserdruckes auf einen

Felskorper. Felsbau 2 No. 1984.

12. SCHLEISS, A., "Bemessung von Druckstollen. Teil I: Literatur,

Bearing capacity ofrock masses. If the stresses in rock due to Grundlagen, Felshydraulik insbesondere Sickerstromungen durch

internal water pressure are greater than the natural stresses, the Auskleidung und Fels." Mitteilung der Versuchsanstalt fur Wasserbau,

tunnel will probably fail because the expansion of the "cracked" Hydrologie und Glaziologie an der ETH Zurich, Switzerland, No. 78; 1985.

rock zone cannot be limited. Considering a single fracture, for 13. SEEBER, G., "Power conduits for high-head plants." Water Power & Dam

Construction, June 1985; July 1985.

example in the tunnel roof, this hydro-fracturing is often 14. BouvARD, M., "Les fuites des galeries en charge en terrain sec. Role du

compared with the effect of a hydraulic press": 13. Assuming revetement, des injections, du terrain." In Houille Blanche, No. 4; 1975.

that natural (primary) stresses in rock masses are influenced 15. BOUVARD, M., AND NIQUET, J., "Ecoulernent transitoires dans les massifs

mainly by overburden, the criteria of bearing capacity is autour d'une galerie en charge." In Houille Blanche, No. 3; 1980.

16. PONIMATKIN, P. U. "Calculation of pressure tunnels with a concrete lining

normally reduced to a criteria of minimal overburden28,29,3o . But and grouting considering the formation of cracks in the lining and rock. "

such rule-of-thumb criteria are bound up with the local Hvdrotechnical Construction, No. 3; March 1977.

geological situation and therefore are not generally applicable. 17. KUNJUNDZIC, IVANOVIC, K., 0., AND

Of course the natural stresses in rock masses can be influenced

storage hydroelectric

locating the tunnel deep enough 18. KIESER, A., "Druckstollenbau.

capacity of 19. H., 'Vorspanninjektion

'rI'\1'\""rUl'Ar.c tunnels with No.

of influence around the tunnel

Scandinavia. "

in Druckstollen.' und

tngenieurueotogte . Supplement IV; 1968.

Auskleidung von Druckstollen und Druckschachten."

Verlag Berlin W. Germany; 1926.

26. J., "Wassersprengung und Sprengwasser." Geologie

Bauwesen, Vol. 22, No. 2; 1956.

WENZEL, K., "Neue Moglichkeiten zur wasserdichten

Stollenauskleidung." Nos. 26,27,28; 1963.

28. BROCH, E., "The development of unlined pressure shafts and tunnels in

Norway." ISRM Symposium Aachen, Vol. 2; 1982.

BROCH, E., "Unlined high tunnels in areas

phy." Water Power & Dam November;

30. SHARP, J. C., AND GONANO, C. P., ing

concrete lined pressure tunnels of Drakensberg. " IS1W-Symposium

Vol. 2; 1982.

31. JAEGER, C., "Present trends in the design of pressure tunnels and shafts for

underground hydroelectric power stations. " Paper No. 5978, Proceedings

Institution Civil Engineers, Part I, Vol. 4, March; 1955.

32. KASTNER, H., "Statik des Tunnel- und Stollenbaues." Springer-Verlag

Berlin/Gottingen/Heidelberg, W. Germany 1962.

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