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DATE: 02/04/2014 DOC. MSE20080 REV.6.5.

DISTANCE 21
ENHANCED TESTING OF DISTANCE RELAYS
USER MANUAL
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REVISIONS SUMMARY VISA


N. PAG. DATE
4.0.0 All 30/03/2006 Issued Borrielli
Puricelli
4.0.1 64 30/06/2006 Digital inputs IMP1 , IMP2 Puricelli

5.0.1 20,61,64, 04/10/2007 Modifications for IEC61850 handling. Morandi


65, 81,82, Redefined the Printing chapter
103-
5.0.2 100, 102 24/10/2007 Included handling of SCD files Morandi
106
5.2.0 59-63 31/10/2008 Added Morandi
 Verify Nominal Times Test
 Multiple Contacts Test
 Stress Test
 Power Line Synchronization Tests
Refined description of GPS Intertrip
5.2.1 Appendix 16/02/2009 Revised algorithm Verify times and IEC61850 Lodi
description Morandi
5.2.5 45 05/08/2009 Automatic Time Zone test: parameters Zmin Rossoni
and Zmax now are Zstart and Zfinish (step can
be a negative value)
6.4.0 All 20/07/2011 Added Morandi
 Definition of 20 zones
 Description of Special Distance menu
 General Starter Characteristic
 Load Encroachment Characteristic
 IEC61850-8 Goose Publisher
Updated to version 6.4.0
6.5.1 All 06/05/2013 Updated to version 6.5.1 Ali

6.5.2 All 02/07/2013 Updated to version 6.5.2 Lodi

6.5.4 48 2/4/2014 Updated to version 6.5.4 Lodi


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1 INTRODUCTORY NOTE ........................................................................................................................... 7

1.1 Program presentation ........................................................................................................................................... 7

1.2 Test approach ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

2 SOFTWARE INSTALLATION ................................................................................................................... 9

3 DISTANCE 21 .......................................................................................................................................... 10

3.1 Menu File ................................................................................................................................................................... 11


3.1.1 New ...................................................................................................................................................................... 11

3.1.2 Open ............................................................................................................................................................. 11


3.1.3 Save results ................................................................................................................................................... 12
3.1.4 Save to TDMS .............................................................................................................................................. 13
3.1.5 Z_design .............................................................................................................................................................. 13
3.1.5.1 Zones Characteristics .................................................................................................................................... 14
3.1.5.2 General Starter .............................................................................................................................................. 23
3.1.5.3 Load encroachment ................................................................................................................................... 25
3.1.5.4 Power Swing ............................................................................................................................................. 27
3.1.6 Notes to the test ................................................................................................................................................... 27
3.1.7 Company logo ...................................................................................................................................................... 28
3.1.8 Print .............................................................................................................................................................. 28
3.1.9 Export graph in BMP ........................................................................................................................................... 28
3.1.10 Special Distance ................................................................................................................................................. 29
3.1.11 Import from DRTS66 ......................................................................................................................................... 31
3.1.12 Export to DRTS66 ............................................................................................................................................. 31
3.1.13 Exit..................................................................................................................................................................... 31

3.2 Menu Header .................................................................................................................................................... 32

3.3 Menu Info ........................................................................................................................................................... 32

3.4 Menu Languages ....................................................................................................................................................... 33

3.5 Other tools ................................................................................................................................................................. 33


3.5.1 Connect – disconnect ................................................................................................................................... 33

3.5.2 Set digital inputs ........................................................................................................................................... 34


3.5.3 Switch V DC on ........................................................................................................................................... 37
3.5.4 Generate prefault .......................................................................................................................................... 37
3.5.5 Test Start, Stop, Reset ................................................................................................................... 37

3.5.6 IEC 61850-8 ............................................................................................................................................... 37


3.5.7 IEC 61850-9 ................................................................................................................................................. 37
3.5.8 TRANSCOPE ............................................................................................................................................. 37

4. THE PROGRAM MAIN PAGE ................................................................................................................. 38

4.1 NETWORK ............................................................................................................................................................... 38


4.1.1 Source parameters ......................................................................................................................................... 39
4.1.2 Line parameters ................................................................................................................................................... 40
4.1.3 Test mode............................................................................................................................................................. 43
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4.1.4 CT side ................................................................................................................................................................. 43


4.1.5 Nominal Values ................................................................................................................................................... 44
4.1.6 Zone tolerances and time delays .......................................................................................................................... 46
4.1.7 CT and PT Ratio‟s ............................................................................................................................................... 47

4.2 TEST SELECTION .................................................................................................................................................. 49


4.2.1 General functions: Click and test ......................................................................................................................... 50
4.2.2 General functions: Sequence................................................................................................................................ 51
4.2.3 General functions: Search the R/X characteristic ................................................................................................ 52
4.2.4 General functions: Verify the R/X characteristic ................................................................................................. 55
4.2.5 General functions: Verify nominal values (R/X) ................................................................................................. 58
4.2.6 General functions: Verify blinders ....................................................................................................................... 60
4.2.7 General functions: Automatic time zone test Z-t ................................................................................................. 61
4.2.8 General functions: Verify Nominal Times test .................................................................................................... 63
4.2.9 Advanced functions: Power swing blocking test ................................................................................................. 64
4.2.10 Advanced functions: Synchronized End to End test ......................................................................................... 66
4.2.10.1 Test purpose ................................................................................................................................................ 66
4.2.10.2 Test execution ............................................................................................................................................. 67
4.2.11 Advanced functions: Auto recloser test ............................................................................................................. 71
4.2.12 Advanced functions: Developing fault test ........................................................................................................ 73
4.2.13 Advanced functions: Switch onto fault .............................................................................................................. 74
4.2.14 Advanced functions: Fuse failure ...................................................................................................................... 75
4.2.15 Advanced functions: General Start test .............................................................................................................. 75
4.2.15.a Overcurrent ................................................................................................................................................. 76
4.2.15.b Overcurrent 2 thresholds ............................................................................................................................ 77
4.2.15.c Overcurrent stepwise .................................................................................................................................. 77
4.2.15.d Current Angular ......................................................................................................................................... 78
4.2.15.e Zero-sequence ............................................................................................................................................ 79
4.2.16 Advanced functions: Weak infeed test ............................................................................................................... 80
4.2.17 Advanced functions: Cycle editor ..................................................................................................................... 81
4.2.17.a Impedance injection .................................................................................................................................... 81
4.2.17.b Impedance ramp .......................................................................................................................................... 82
4.2.17.c Voltage and current injection ...................................................................................................................... 82
4.2.17.d General parameters ..................................................................................................................................... 83
4.2.17.e Modify, Add, Delete buttons ....................................................................................................................... 83
4.2.17.f Exit button ................................................................................................................................................... 84
4.2.17.g Transfer table for execution button ............................................................................................................. 84
4.2.18 Advanced functions: Multiple Contacts test ...................................................................................................... 85
4.2.19 Advanced functions: Stress test ......................................................................................................................... 85
4.2.20 Advanced functions: Power line synchronization test ....................................................................................... 88

4.3 TEST .......................................................................................................................................................................... 89


4.3.1 Fault ..................................................................................................................................................................... 89
4.3.1.1 Test Sequence ............................................................................................................................................... 89
4.3.1.2 Fault type ...................................................................................................................................................... 90
4.3.2.1.Pre-fault time ................................................................................................................................................ 92
4.3.2.2 Maximum time .............................................................................................................................................. 92
4.3.2.3 Hold time ...................................................................................................................................................... 92
4.3.3 Fault Impedance ................................................................................................................................................... 92
4.3.3.1 Fault Impedance ............................................................................................................................................ 92
4.3.3.2 Insert in the test list ....................................................................................................................................... 92
4.3.4 Over-reach Setting ............................................................................................................................................... 92
4.3.4 Vector diagram and phase measurements ............................................................................................................ 94
4.3.5 Test results tables ................................................................................................................................................. 94
4.3.5.1 Store all tests ................................................................................................................................................ 96
4.3.5.2 Delete all tests ............................................................................................................................................... 96
4.3.5.3 Table functions ............................................................................................................................................. 97
4.3.6 Test control screen ............................................................................................................................................. 100
4.3.6.1 Zoom and scale ....................................................................................................................................... 102
4.3.6.2 Zone display................................................................................................................................................ 102
4.3.6.3 Control buttons ........................................................................................................................................... 104
4.3.6.4 Re-execution of a test point ........................................................................................................................ 105
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4.4 Results ...................................................................................................................................................................... 106


4.4.1 Fault type ........................................................................................................................................................... 106
4.4.2 Diagram representation ...................................................................................................................................... 106
4.4.3 Operative buttons ............................................................................................................................................... 106
4.4.4 Printing results ................................................................................................................................................... 107
4.4.4.1 Toolbar........................................................................................................................................................ 109

4.5 Import results in Excel ........................................................................................................................................... 111

APPENDIX 1: FAULT SIMULATION METHODS ......................................................................................... 115

APPENDIX 2 FAULT CALCULATION FORMULAS .................................................................................... 119

A2.1 PHASE TO GROUND FAULT .......................................................................................................................... 119


A2.1.1 ZS SELECTION ............................................................................................................................................. 119
A2.1.2 Ifault SELECTION ......................................................................................................................................... 119

A2.2 PHASE TO PHASE FAULT ............................................................................................................................... 120


A2.2.1 ZS SELECTION ............................................................................................................................................. 120
A2.2.2 Ifault SELECTION ......................................................................................................................................... 120

A2.3 THREE PHASE FAULT ..................................................................................................................................... 120


A2.3.1 ZS SELECTION ............................................................................................................................................. 120
A2.3.2 Ifault SELECTION ......................................................................................................................................... 120

A2.4 PHASE TO PHASE TO GROUND FAULT ..................................................................................................... 121


A2.4.1 ZS SELECTION ............................................................................................................................................. 121
A2.4.2 Ifault SELECTION ......................................................................................................................................... 121

APPENDIX 3: AUTOMATIC TESTS VERIFICATIONS ................................................................................ 122

A3.1 ZONE DEFINITION ........................................................................................................................................... 122

A3.2 SEARCH OF A DISTANCE RELAY CHARACTERISTIC ........................................................................... 123

A3.3 VERIFICATION OF A ZONE GIVEN A NOMINAL VALUE...................................................................... 123

APPENDIX 4: ARC RESISTANCE COMPENSATION ................................................................................ 125

APPENDIX 5: IEC61850-8 ............................................................................................................................ 126

A5.1 Relay connection .................................................................................................................................................. 126

A5.2 File Menu .............................................................................................................................................................. 127

A5.3 Main Area ............................................................................................................................................................. 128


A5.3.1 Exploring Goose ............................................................................................................................................. 128
A5.3.2 Filters .............................................................................................................................................................. 131
A5.3.3 Virtual Contacts .............................................................................................................................................. 132
A5.3.4 Substation files (SCD) .................................................................................................................................... 134
A5.3.5 Virtual contact test example ............................................................................................................................ 135
A5.3.6 Publishing Gooses ........................................................................................................................................... 138

APPENDIX 6: IEC61850-9 ............................................................................................................................ 143


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Disclaimer
Every effort has been made to make this material complete, accurate, and up-to-date. In addition, changes are periodically added
to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated into new editions of the publication. ISA S.R.L reserves the right to
make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this document without notice, and shall
not be responsible for any damages, including but not limited to consequential damages, caused by reliance on the material
presented, including but not limited to typographical errors.

Copies, reprints or other reproductions of the content or of parts of this publication shall only be permitted with our prior written
consent.
All trademarks are the property of their respective holders.

Copyright 2012© ISA S.R.L. Italy – All rights reserved.


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1 INTRODUCTORY NOTE

1.1 Program presentation

DISTANCE 21 has been designed as a watch and play software, so the user should not need for a
manual very often. Theoretically, from the beginning the user is driven throughout all steps in
simple way, in order that he has the feeling that everything is under control.

It is like playing with a fully manual test equipment with very powerful tools. The following are
just some of the many features available:
- Capability to load a .RIO format file (up to format version 2.1), generated by the software
used to set-up the relay (Siemens, Alstom…)
- Capability to load a result generated with DISTANCE 21 and repeat all the tests
included. Results are saved in a database format (.MDB as defined by Microsoft Access®).
Full backwards compatibility is provided for older .BPR formats
- Capability to define a specific characteristic using our built-in graphic editor
- Capability to test a relay when its nominal characteristic is unknown

The program also features the following:


- Possibility to define up to 20 zone plus one controlled zone (ex: overreach), a general starter
and load encroachment characteristics;
- Handling of 4 fault types: LN, LL, LLL, LLN. Possibility to define a different characteristic
for each fault type, with different trip times and different pass/fail tolerances;
- Possibility to define different earth factors for each zone;
- Possibility to define the parameters RE/RL and XE/XL used by Siemens 7SA5xx;
- Possibility to test using constant current/voltage or source impedance;
- Possibility to test quadrilateral characteristic given in terms of Rloop, or Xloop, or both;
- Test in an easy way the power swing feature, recloser, general starter;
- Inter-trip tests synchronizing two test equipment;
- Test defining an evolution fault ;
- And many more.

1.2 Test approach


The problem of testing a distance relay is made difficult by the fact that there is no international
standard defining how to set the relay parameters. The first problem for relay testing is therefore
how to input the setting parameters, which have been defined in completely different ways, even by
the same manufacturer.

There are four possible cases.


 You have a setting table with all basic parameters; you also have a table with the nominal
settings for some fault types, at some given angles. The following is an example of a setting
table.

1. KE given as RE/RL, XE/XL. RE/RL = 1, XE/XL = 1.


2. VN = 57.7. V; in = 1 A; Frequency = 50 Hz.
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3. Test mode: I constant; test current = 2 A.


4. Tolerances: 5%.
5. Time settings: see the table.

ZONE 1 2 3 4 5
TIME (s) 0.05 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 (Tmax)

6. Zone settings: see the table, for phase to ground and phase to phase faults.

ANGLE/ZONE 1 2 3 4
0° 1.5 2 4 6
80° 1.52 2.04 4.06 6.08
90° 1.5 2 4 6
Based upon this information, once input the basic data, it is possible to select “Verify
nominal values”, which allows to perform these tests.

 The relay is set using an .RIO file. This is the only exception to what was stated above, but
the international definition of this format is still lacking. At any rate, if this is the case, you
can open the file and proceed.

 The relay is included in our relay library. Go to File, and select Special Distance: the
following window is opened.

Select your relay, and press Open. The following is the example of the programming
window for the ABB REL 670 distance relay.
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Input the setting data: you can find them in your relay setting file, with the same names.
This accomplished, press Distance 21 >

The program displays all settings values, in the format that is suitable to DISTANCE 21 to
perform the tests.

 Last instance: you don‟t have neither a setting table nor an .RIO file, and the relay is not in
the library. In this case, you can:
o Draw the characteristic with Z-Design: you need the relay manual, to recover the
data;
o Test or find the time settings with the Z-t diagram;
o Find the relay characteristic with the Search characteristic command.
At the end of your tests, you need to compare test results to the information about the relay
setting.

For further information, please refer to the manual MIE11170: Distance relay testing application
guide.

2 SOFTWARE INSTALLATION

The program runs under the Windows© environment and is part of the TDMS Test & Data
Measurement Software suite.
The installation is described in document MSE10060.

Note: Windows and ACCESS are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.


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3 DISTANCE 21

When you first run the program you‟ll see the program main page.

At the top there are a menu bar and a toolbar that allows to access the various functionalities of
DISTANCE 21. The toolbar is a shortcut to the most important menu bar selections.

In the middle, the main screen is divided in two parts to easily access the test capabilities of the
software.
LEFT: by selecting one of the four tabs it is possible to input all the parameters needed in order to
execute the test, and the type of tests to be performed.
1. Network: here it is possible to define the network parameters, such as: nominal voltage,
frequency, earth factors.
2. Test selection: here it is possible to define the type of test to perform on the relay (verify the
characteristic, generate a specific fault in a specific point of the graph).
3. Test: On this screen it is possible to monitor the test in progress (voltages and currents in
graphic and numeric form, pre-fault times, maximum time).
4. Results: The tab is used to store and/or print and/or export test results.

RIGHT : here it is possible to:


1. See the test results in graphic form;
2. Start/stop the test;
3. Reset the machine.
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3.1 Menu File

3.1.1 New
This menu item resets all the parameters, clears data from tables and graphs, and prepares the
software for a new session of tests.

3.1.2 Open
When you click this button you get the standard WINDOWS communication window opened. Here
you can select the type of file you want to open. Clicking to the right, you get the following
selection.

These extensions have the following meanings.


- MDB means result files, created by DISTANCE 21: the file includes the distance relay
characteristic, and may include the test result.
NOTE. If you download a .MDB result, you already have all graphic information as well as
all test information; this means that, if you click immediately the button START, the test
will be repeated.

RIO files are automatically generated by the control software of relay manufacturers such as
Siemens (7SA511, 7SA513…), Alstom (EPAC3000, LFZR…).

NOTE. If the file being opened does not include the nominal characteristics of some fault
types, the following message will be shown:
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If you choose No, the software will open Z-Design and let the operator to define the
characteristics for these type of faults; otherwise, they remain undefined.

- SET files have been created using Z-Design (see afterwards). The following ones are
available in the directory XTEST / ZPRO / SET; they can be used as examples for further
modifications.
o Z-DESIGN.PRG o REL511.PRG
o 7SA511.PRG o REL316.PRG
o EPAC300.PRG o LZ92.PRG
o LFZR.PRG o DLP21.PRG
o QUADRAMHO.PRG o TLS1B.PRG
o MICROMHO.PRG o RXAP33.PRG
o OPTIMHO.PRG o SEL 321
o P441 – P332

- BPR result files were created by older revision of DISTANCE 21: they have similar
characteristics as .MDB files, and can be used the same way.

3.1.3 Save results

The standard dialog window is opened; you can choose the name of the file to be saved. The file
will contain all the data, parameters, test data and graphical information.
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The default extension for test results is *.mdb. The result file is ready to be imported by Microsoft
Excel.

3.1.4 Save to TDMS

With this command, you can save the test result into the TDMS data base. The description of
TDMS is found in the document MSE10015.

3.1.5 Z_design

When choosing this menu item, the following window appears:


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There are four tabs, that allow the user to draw the characteristic of the: zones, general starter, load
encroachment and power swing, if present.
It is possible to define if the zone is enabled, the type of characteristic of the zone, and build a
characteristic for each type of fault.

IMPORTANT NOTE:
All value are intended as secondary side values. In case you want to test the relay with primary
side values, change the CT and PT ratio in the Network screen.

3.1.5.1 Zones Characteristics


Since we need to design a characteristic, we have simplified the procedure by providing the two
most common shapes: Mho and quadrilateral. In order to design a characteristic in Z_Design you
must consider the following.

 The selection Point by point allows to define the characteristic of any relay, but needs the
intersection point coordinates. This is significantly more difficult than with the other two
selections. These values must change if you change the relay settings and therefore must be
recalculated.
 With the other 2 selections, settings are just a few and can be easily changed.

- Characteristic: select the shape, Mho, quadrilateral or Point by point.

- Zone to edit: it allows to select the zone number on which to design the characteristic. The
complete characteristic is designed zone by zone, enabling the zones available on the relay.
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- Type of fault: it is possible to define different characteristics for single-phase (LN), phase-to-
phase (LL), three-phase (LLL) and phase-to-phase-to-ground faults (LLN).

- Quadrilateral characteristic or Mho or Point-by-point: this part follows the selection above;
see details in the following.

- Directionality: separately defined for each programmed zone.

- Blinder in the second and fourth quadrant: it limits (blinds) the characteristic in the second and
fourth quadrant.

- Trip time: must be different for each zone;

- OK: confirms the design, and returns to the main page of Distance 21 software.

- Cancel: cancels all modifications, and returns to the main page of Distance 21 software.

- Save characteristic: opens a standard dialog window where it is possible to define a filename and
save in .MDB format the characteristic.

3.1.5.1.1 Quadrilateral characteristic

The given parameters completely define a quadrilateral characteristic.


In this case the characteristic is delimited by four lines, that intersect the X and Y-axis in four
programmable points (Resistance and Reactance), positive and negative with respect to the origin
(Forward and Reverse), and with programmable angles with respect to the X-Axis (Resistive angle
and reactive, Forward and Reverse)

o The resistive reach represents the intersection of the characteristic with the X-Axis
o The reactive reach represents the intersection of the characteristic with the Y-Axis
o The Resistive angle represent the slope of the characteristic at points (Resistance;0) and (-
Resistance;0)
o The Reactive angle represent the slope of the characteristic at points (0;Reactance) and (0;-
Reactance)

The following picture explains the parameters to be programmed.


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Xav

Rsp 1 

2
Xsp Rav

Where:
Rav = Resistance forward; Rsp = Resistance Reverse;
Xav = Reactance forward; Xsp = Reactance Reverse;
: resistive angle forward; : resistive angle Reverse;
: reactive angle forward; : reactive angle Reverse;
1: blinder 2° sector; 2: blinder 4° sector.
Here is an example of diagram without blinders.

As an example, we can define a characteristic like this:


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These characteristics correspond to the non-directional settings of a zone; normally (with the
exception of the General Starter) the zones are limited in the first sector (forward) or in the third
sector (Reverse). For each zone it is possible to define whether its direction is forward or back
word, or non-directional.

Forward direction:
This selection allows the use of the blinders in 2nd and 4th quadrants to cut the characteristic.
Blinders are border angles, lines that cross the origin with programmable angles with respect to the
X-Axis.

Reverse direction
With the same blinder values, the portion of the characteristic in the 3rd sector will be considered, as
here displayed
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3.1.5.1.2 MHO characteristic

This section applies to relays that have as a characteristic a circle with its centre on the line defined
by the Line angle. The given parameters define completely a MHO characteristic.

 The Forward Reach and Reverse Reach are the impedance values of the zone at the specified
Line angle, respectively Forward and Reverse (in case the characteristic does not cross the axis
origin, as in the case of the General Starter)
 The Line angle is the angle of the Line that crosses the axis origin and the centre of the
characteristic;
 a/b is the ratio between two impedances, orthogonal to each other:
- with a/b = 1 it is a circle;
- with a/b < 1 it is lens shaped;
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- with a/b > 1 it is tomato shape.

Ratio < 1  Lens Ratio = 1  Circle Ratio > 1  Tomato

These characteristics correspond to non-directional settings for the zone; normally (with the
exception of the General starter) zones are limited to the first sector (forward) or to the third sector
(Reverse). For each zone it is possible to define whether it is Forward, Reverse or non-directional.
In case of Forward or Reverse, the zone is limited by two angles (Blinder 2nd sector and Blinder
4th sector. Blinders are border angles, lines that cross the origin with programmable angles with
respect to the X-Axis.

For instance, in old distance relays, the zone was a circle with its centre in the axis origin, limited
by blinders. To draw this shape it is necessary to program as in the following example.
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3.1.5.1.3 Point by point

Sometimes it is necessary to set mixed characteristics, quadrilateral and Mho at the same time. This
for instance happens on ASEA protections type RAZOA and RAZFE, on ENERTEC protections
type PXLP3000 and others. Notice that if the protection has a quadrilateral characteristic for the
zones and a circular General starter, there is no problem: it is enough to select the zones as
quadrilateral and the most external zone (which is the general starter) as Mho.

When it is necessary to define a characteristic point by point the window is the following:
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The input grid allows to edit a characteristic as a series of arches and lines positioned in any point
of the diagram, by inserting the Cartesian coordinates of the intersections between the lines or
arches that make up the characteristic.

The drawing is executed by adding or deleting points. First of all you need to set the starting point
of the characteristic; initially the radius is zero. Each successive point must be defined via its
Resistance and Reactance values, and the radius (always positive) of the circle that connects the
points; radius 0 is a line. By introducing all points the program connects them and draws them on
the graph.

Every point is defined by:


- R: Resistance
- X: Reactance
- Radius
For the Radius, follow these rules:
- The radius of point n represent the radius of the arc between points n and n-1.
- If D is the distance between points n and n-1, then it must be Radius  D, otherwise it would
be set Radius = 0.
- Radius = 0 means a straight line between points n and n-1.

Please notice:
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- Points must be indicated in counter-clockwise order


- The characteristic must have a closed shape: for this reason the first point must have the
same coordinates as the last point.

Edit a point
1. Double-Click or press <Enter> on the parameter you want to change
2. Modify the value and the press OK

Add a new point


1. Click on the line where you intend to add a point
2. Then click on the button Add
3. A blank line will be created
4. Edit the line as you wish

Delete a point
1. Click on the line where you intend to delete a point
2. Click on the button Delete
3. Upon confirmation of the warning message, the point is removed, the others are renumbered.

To delete all
The button Clear all will erase all points displayed in the list, after confirming a warning message.

NOTE:
It‟s not common that you start defining the nominal characteristic from scratch. Depending on the
complexity of the characteristic, it would take a long time before you get a good result. What we
suggest is that you first define the characteristic using one of the Macro‟s (Mho or Quadrilateral)
and then modify the characteristics of each point.
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3.1.5.2 General Starter

The definition of a General Starter is optional. The setting of its characteristic follows the same
principles as the setting of any zone.

Please refer to paragraph 3.1.4.1 of this manual for an explanation of how to set a characteristic, be
it quadrilateral, mho or point by point.

The general starter corresponds to the tripping area of the relay. Outside the General Starter there is
no tripping; so, normally the General Starter is wider than all other defined zones. In case the
General Starter is set up to an area that is smaller than the zones, the zones will be cut to the
General Starter.

Consider for example a relay with 4 quadrilateral zones (3 forward and one reverse, all in blue) and
a general Starter (in red) as per the following picture.
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The General Starter area is wider than that of the zones, so the relay will trip for each zone and
within the area described by the general starter, and will not trip outside it.
Now suppose the General Starter is a bit smaller and it encroaches the zones defined for the relay.
As the following pictures shows, the actual tripping area is only within the General Starter (in red),
and therefore the zones are automatically limited to its definition.
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3.1.5.3 Load encroachment


The definition of a Load encroachment characteristic is optional and can be done by setting the
relevant parameters in the relative page.
The load encroachment defines an area of no tripping of the relay. So when the Characteristic
encroaches the zones characteristics, the zones will be cut to the Load Encroachment.

It is possible to set independently the two sides of the Load Encroachment characteristic. Each side
can be set according to the following parameters:

With the Mho-Quad selection it is possible to define the shape of the characteristic:
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Mho shape Quad shape

The following picture shows the meaning of the parameters ZLoad, Zangle and Rotation.

As an example of encroachment, consider the following:

As it can be seen, zones are cut by the load encroachment characteristic (in yellow) and therefore
the tripping area is restricted.
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3.1.5.4 Power Swing

In this window it is possible to enable the characteristic, and to enter the values of the Power Swing
zone. After that, select the Ok button located in bottom of screen.

The shape of the Power Swing characteristic is a rectangle, with four parameters in all: Outer and
Inner resistance; Outer and Inner reactance. The rectangle is centred on the origin.

Once enabled, the Power swing characteristic is displayed along with the distance relay
characteristic diagram. The characteristic controls the intervention of the Power Swing blocking
circuit; the behaviour of the circuit is explained later on.

3.1.6 Notes to the test


By selecting this menu the user can put some comments about the tests performed. This notes will
be included in the results file.
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3.1.7 Company logo


This item opens a standard dialog form to choose an image file. This image will be used as a default
logo for all the reports printed with DISTANCE 21.

A number of pre-designed logos are available in


C / XTEST / LOGO.

Adding your logo is simple: just create a file in format .BMP or .JPL.

3.1.8 Print
Please refer to the Print chapter for a further information.

3.1.9 Export graph in BMP


This item opens a standard dialog form to specify the graph file name. The graph currently
displayed by DISTANCE 21 is saved in bitmap format.
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3.1.10 Special Distance

This selection allows the user to select the


characteristic of a specific distance relay by
choosing it from the Special Distance software
library produced by ISA.

By selecting the desired relay and then pressing


the Open button, it is possible to insert the
parameters of the protection in the relay user
interface and then return to Distance 21 by
pressing the Distance 21 button.

For instance by pressing Open after selecting the RAZOA relay, the following window appears:
Doc. MSE20080 Rev. 6.5.4 Page 30/147

Notice in dotted blue the characteristic of the General Starter. Upon pressing the Distance21 button
the software will load this parameters to the main interface and use this as the relay characteristic.
According to the explanation given in paragraph 3.1.4.2, since the General Starter characteristic is
smaller than that of some of the zones, these zones will but limited to the size of the General Starter,
as displayed in the following picture.
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3.1.11 Import from DRTS66

Once a test has been executed on a DRTSXX test set, test settings and results can be saved and,
later on, transferred to the DISTANCE 21 program for final filing or printing. The transfer is
performed by saving the result into an USB memory key, and then moving it to the PC.

This selection opens a standard dialog form to IMPORT a file containing tests that have been
performed and saved with the Distance 21 module of the DRTSxx instrument. The file format is
ISA proprietary and the filename extension is .d66.

Once selected the file, the corresponding test result is shown on the PC screen.

3.1.12 Export to DRTS66

This item opens a standard dialog form and saves the tests in a ISA proprietary format (with
filename extension .d66) that can be reproduced by an instrument of the DRTSxx family.
Only some types of test can be reproduced with the Instrument, so the following message might
appear.

If the content of the file can be reproduced locally, the following message is displayed.

Copy the file onto a USB key, fit it into the test set, select DISTANCE 21, select Load file and open
it with: order to repeat the tests without the need of connecting a PC.

3.1.13 Exit

By selecting this item the program closes.


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3.2 Menu Header

By choosing this menu item, data regarding: plant, name of the feeder, relay and operator are
asked in a window. Furthermore, manufacturer, model and serial number of the relay under test
is stored. It is important to input the Serial Number of the instrument: it will be printed on the
results, allowing the traceability of the test performed.

Click on the logo when you want to change the logo to be printed on the test report, or if the
program is not able to find the predefined logo. Some reasons may include that the logo file has
been deleted from the PC or that the INI file is corrupted.

3.3 Menu Info

After having connected the PC to the test set, the window gives some information regarding the
type of connected instrument and some internal features, (RAM, Flash EPROM etc.).

The important information is the firmware revision number: keep your test set at best, by checking
it with the most recent issue, that you find in the ISA web site. If the firmware is not updated,
refresh it! It will add features, and/or clear possible bugs.

The window also informs about the presence of the IEC61850 board, and, if present, it indicates the
firmware revision. A picture of the connected instrument appears (in this case since the instrument
is disconnected, a default picture is shown).
Doc. MSE20080 Rev. 6.5.4 Page 33/147

It also contains ISA contact details.

3.4 Menu Languages

The menu gives the capability to change the language of DISTANCE 21 without closing the
program. The active language will be saved by quitting the program.

3.5 Other tools

The program displays some other tools, which are not associated to the menu bar we have explained
above. Their meaning and operation is the following one.

3.5.1 Connect – disconnect

Pressing this icon it is possible to connect the PC to the test set. Before connection, the icon is the
following one .

Once pressed, the following window is opened.


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The window allows selecting the test set being used, and tells also which are the possible ways to
perform the connection. For instance, for the DRTSXX series, there are two connections: USB or
ETHERNET. In this latter case, prior to select OK, you have to input the correct test set address.

After pressing OK, you come back to the main program page, but the icon is now the following
(pressed): pressing it again, the test set is disconnected.

3.5.2 Set digital inputs

When pressing the Set Digital Inputs button, the following window appears:

The window refers to a DRTS 66 with the TRANSCOPE option available: this is why C7 and C8
are not enabled. With different test sets, the number of inputs and the contact groups change
accordingly; also, the Contacts tracing selection is not available.
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For each type of fault, it is possible to select which Contact Input will be monitored: just click on
the grid cell corresponding to the type of fault (row) and the contact number (column). It is also
possible to add a title for the fault type: double click on the cell to enter the title and press Enter.
For each contact it is also possible to define whether it works Normally Close (NC) or Normally
Open (NO).

Inputs are divided into groups of contacts, and depending on the instrument they have isolated zeros
in groups of two or four. The following selections are independent for the groups. Their meaning is
as it follows.

 Threshold
Contacts can be set as: Dry; Polarized by a d.c. voltage; Polarized by an a.c. voltage. When the
contact is selected Polarized, it is also possible to select the threshold voltage: all inputs less than
80% of the selected value are sensed as zero. Move the cursor corresponding to the set of Contacts
in the dropdown menu to decide if it is dry or polarized, and the relative threshold. This serves to
avoid noise on the line, or in case there is a protective resistor in parallel to the contact driving the
coil, so that the Open contact does not correspond to zero volts. Available thresholds: 5 V (logic
input); 24 V; 48 V; 100 V. This selection should match the wetting voltage.

If the dry input is selected and a voltage is applied, the instrument does not suffer, provided that the
input is no more than 220 V; however, the contact would always be sensed as closed. If a voltage is
selected and the input is not polarized, the trip is not sensed.
If a wrong voltage threshold is selected:
. Threshold higher than the voltage: the trip is not sensed;
. Threshold lower than the voltage: the contact could be found closed when it is open.

Select the AC button to specify Ac polarizing voltage: in this case the de-bounce is forced to 2000
μs, to overcome the zero crossings of the input.

 Debounce.
The de-bounce is the time during which the instrument waits for the input to become stable: this
serves to avoid stopping the test because of noise, and also to ignore contact bounces. When a
transition is sensed the de-bounce counter starts: any opposite transition before the de-bounce
expires resets the counter. Only if the input does not change for the programmed duration the input
is accepted, and the timer stopped. Default value: 500 us. With electronic inputs the value can be
programmed to 0; with heavy contacts the de-bounce is better programmed to 2000 us (maximum).
The time measurement is not affected by this selection.

 Contacts tracing.
With DRTS XX test sets, this features allows to monitor the movements of all selected contacts,
during the programmed maximum time.
In the Label / Tracing line, it is possible to select the contacts that we want to monitor.

If you want to monitor all inputs, press Select all.


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When at least one contact is checked, the test will always last the maximum time. The result
diagram will report all changes of the selected inputs during this time. To access it, proceed as
follows.
 In the Test table, left click on the test you have performed: the list of selections is opened.

 Now, click on View signals: the following window is opened.

 Above you have the current and voltage waveforms; below, you have the behavior of the
selected trip inputs. In the example, the fault was L1N, and the recording confirms that only
C1 has tripped.

The feature is available only on the DRTS XX series, with the firmware revision from 1.23.
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3.5.3 Switch V DC on
The auxiliary DC voltage, which supplies the relay under test, is operated pushing this button.
NOTE: on the DRTSXX series, the DC voltage can be generated by a local command. Thanks to
this, it is possible to avoid removing the DC supply when leaving DISTANCE 21.

3.5.4 Generate prefault

With this command, all pre-fault values are generated. . If the user tries to start a test without first
pressing this button, the following message will appear:

3.5.5 Test Start, Stop, Reset

Please, see the Test chapter.

3.5.6 IEC 61850-8

When the option is available on the test set, the icon is displayed. The icon refers to the possibility
of reading end editing GOOSE messages. Please, see Appendix 5.

3.5.7 IEC 61850-9

When the option is available on the test set, the icon is displayed. The icon refers to the possibility
of generating numeric values for voltage and currents, at the same time or instead of analog
outputs. Please, see Appendix 6.

3.5.8 TRANSCOPE

This selection is available only with the DRTS66 series test sets, when the option is available. As
pressed, the TRANSCOPE program is opened, while DISTANCE stays active. The option allows
performing measurements on inputs C1 to C6; C9 to C12. TRANSCOPE and DISTANCE together
allow monitoring and recording test currents and voltages generated by the program, and the
corresponding relay response.

The explanation of the TRANSCOPE program, and of how it is operated in conjunction with
DISTANCE, can be found in chapter 6 of the document MSE10101 TRANSCOPE, which provides
also all the details of the program.
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4. THE PROGRAM MAIN PAGE

Let us proceed now with the study of the main page. We will start with the left part, which shows
four tabs: Network, Test selection, Test, Results.

4.1 NETWORK

After starting the program, the Network selection is the following one.

Faults can be executed in two ways: by keeping constant the test current, or computing the fault
current, based upon the fault impedance and the source impedance: we call this simulation the
Constant Source Impedance method. With constant test current we simulate a fault as we did with
older relay test sets; with the constant source impedance we simulate the exact conditions in the
field, and this selection should be preferred. In case the source impedance value unknown, it is
usually safe to keep the default values.

Appendix1 explains in greater details the difference between the two methods; appendix 2 shows
the currents and voltages calculation formulas for the various types of test.
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4.1.1 Source parameters

The source impedance must be entered in case you wish to test the relay using the Constant Source
Impedance method. Please note that, if you select ZS constant in the Test screen, and ZS = 0, you
will be invited to enter the ZS value, otherwise the test will be performed at Constant Current.

The most important parameters to be entered are:


- ZS: Source impedance, in Ohm;
-  (ZS): Angle of the source impedance, in degrees;
- KES: Source earth factor (if it is unknown, program the same value of the line earth
factor);
-  (KES): Angle of the source earth factor: if it is unknown, program zero.

The last two parameters are necessary to simulate earth faults. Sometimes, instead of KES and its
argument, you may have other parameters, which are mathematically correlated to KES and
argument; they are: the zero sequence source impedance ZoS and its argument, or the ground
source impedance ZNS and its argument, or the loop source impedance ZloopS and its argument.

The program computes KES and its argument starting from these parameters. To this purpose, you
should double click on any input field: you get the following window, that allows you to input the
available parameter. The program computes the earth factor KES and its argument from the source
parameters plus any one of the other related parameters.

Computations are performed using the following formulas:


Doc. MSE20080 Rev. 6.5.4 Page 40/147

1 ZoS  ZS
K ES  x
3 ZS
Z S
K ES  N
ZS
Z loop S  ZS
K loooS 
ZS

Where:
- KES: Source earth factor;
- ZOS = 3 x ZNS + ZS : zero sequence source impedance. From ZoS we compute KES with
the first formula;
- ZNS: ground source impedance. From ZNS, we compute KES from the second formula;
- ZLoopS = ZNS + ZS : loop source impedance. From ZloopS we compute ZNS, and then
KES, as above.

Notice that the input fields above recalculate each other, and that the values are vectors therefore
needing module and phase:
- set the source impedance in module and phase angle, resistance and reactance are calculated
and vice-versa
- if you set ZS and KE  ZO, ZES and ZLoopS are calculated
- if you set ZS and ZO (or ZES or ZLoop)  KE is calculated

4.1.2 Line parameters

CAUTION: we are referring to the parameters of the entire line, and not to the parameters to the
fault location. These parameters, along with Source parameters, allow computing the KE
coefficient.

The first frame “KE given as” refers to the protected line earth coefficient, which is necessary to
simulate earth faults. The parameter can be set either as ZE/ZL (or by the associated parameters, as
later described) or as RE/RL; XE/XL, as used by SIEMENS. The programming window is the
following one.

In the window, it is also possible to have the same the Earth factor for all zones (selection Same KE
for all zones), or to input different values for each individual zone. During tests, when the program
looks for the zone limit, it uses the corresponding earth coefficient, even when you are entering next
zone.

These parameters are necessary to simulate earth faults. Sometimes, instead of KEL and its
argument, you may have other parameters, which are mathematically correlated to KEL and
Doc. MSE20080 Rev. 6.5.4 Page 41/147

argument; they are: the zero sequence line impedance ZoL and its argument, or the ground line
impedance ZNL and its argument, or the loop line impedance ZloopL and its argument. The
program computes KEL and its argument starting from these parameters. To this purpose, you
should double click on any input field: you get the following window, that allows you to input the
available parameter. The program computes the earth factor KEL and its argument from the source
parameters plus any one of the other related parameters.

Similar to the previously described “Source parameters” window, it works exactly in the same
way. The only warning is that the line impedance to input is the value corresponding to the
protected line, and not the fault impedance: this parameter is homogeneous to the zero-sequence
line impedance , or to the earth line impedance, or the loop line impedance.

When selecting “RE/RL & XE/XL”, the window is the following one.

It is possible to directly set the parameters, for each zone. The program verifies the relay settings
starting from the nominal values R and X, and performing the test of the zone limits by using the
values of R‟ and X‟, which are computed with the following formulas.

R‟ = R * (1 + RE/RL)
X‟ = X * (1 + XE/XL)

Z = sqrt (R‟^2 + X‟^2)


FiZ= Atan (R‟/ X‟)
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When the selection is ZE/ZL, in some relays it is necessary to program the arc resistance. This
function is enabled checking the selections in the Separate arc Resist. area, separately for the
different fault types.

Another selection for some distance relays is to define the parameters X as fault impedances, and
the parameters R a sloop resistance. This function is enabled checking the selections in the Zloop
area, separately for the different fault types.

In both cases, the program will transform the nominal loop values into the corresponding line values
and the vice-versa. Please refer to the appendix 4 for the formulas used in these instances.
ADDITIONAL NOTES.
ZEZ0  Z L
The Earth Factor is normally defined as K E   , where ZE and ZL are the Earth and
ZL 3* ZL
the Line impedances, Z0 is the impedance of zero sequence.
Sometimes the earth factor is defined in a different way.

General Electric
Z0
For GE relays like DLP, TLS1b, ALPS, D60… the zero sequence factor K 0  is given instead
ZL
of KE. Since we have to enter KE, in order to get it from K0 is the following:

Z0 3* Z E  Z L K 0 1
K0    3 * K E  1 therefore, we‟ll enter K E 
ZL ZL 3
The difference is evidenced by the normal values.
 KE is a value normally between 0.5 on 1.6
 KO is a value between 3 and 5

In fact, if ZE = 8 ohm and ZL = 12 ohm, we‟ll have:


 KE = 8 / 12 = 0,666
 K0 = ( 3 * 8 + 12 ) / 12 = 3

As you see, ( Ko – 1 ) / 3 = ( 3 – 1 ) / 3 = 2 / 3 = 0,666

Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories


ZEZ0  Z L
The earth factor is defined as K 0   On SEL321 this is called KO1M and KOM,
ZL 3* ZL
respectively for zone 1 and then fore zones 2,3 and 4. Just pay attention that this is not the same
zero sequence factor as per GE relays and you must not change the value for our software.

Mitsubishi Relays
ZN
For MDT-H relay they call it KN, so you may think it is K N  , where ZN is the neutral
ZL
impedance, same as the earth impedance. But you are definitely wrong as it is like the Ko of GE:
K 0 1
you have to recalculate the K E  .
3
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For MDT-F relay these two parameters, KRN and KXN, are defined. The meaning of these
parameters is the following:
R R KRN  1
 KRN  0  E 
RL RL 3
X X E KXN  1
 KXN  0  
XL XL 3
therefore we must treat them as the Siemens relays 7SA511 or 513, but use the recalculated values
as per the GE relays.

ABB Relays
For most of the relays (Razoa, Razfe, LZ92, LZ96, REL316…) there isn‟t any specific problem. For
REL511 the user must provide R1and R0, X1 and X0, then calculate the KE for each individual
zone as follows:
1 ( R0  RL )  ( X 0  X L )
2 2

KE 
3 RL  X L
2 2

X0  XL X
phK E  atn  atn L
R0  RL RL

4.1.3 Test mode

As explained before, here you can select the mode for simulating the fault.
NOTE. If you select the I constant mode, the parameter I max in the Nominal values (see after) is
the test current, which will be used in all tests.

With the ZS constant mode, I max is the maximum test current, and will change at each test.
Beware that the 2nd method may lead you to different results from the nominal characteristic, if the
characteristic is MHO (self / auto polarized characteristic).
NOTE. If you click on ZS constant, The source impedance must be set ZS  0 otherwise the
selection would be rejected.

4.1.4 CT side

This selection allows testing and displaying test results in the first quadrant, no matter if the relay is
selected for forward (Line) operation or Backwards (Busbar) operation.
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4.1.5 Nominal Values

In this frame it is possible to program the nominal values of the plant; the meaning of the
parameters is the following.

- Nominal voltage (Vnom): it is the secondary side nominal phase voltage of the voltage
transformers of the plant, here named also healthy or pre-fault voltage, at which the distance relay
does not see any fault. It can be selected between 1 V and the maximum voltage of the instrument.

Default: 57.8 V (Voltage transformer with secondary side 100 V). If the relay load is high, it is
possible to select a lower value (40V) to heighten the current obtainable from the instrument.
During ground fault tests, the fault voltage is less than Vnom; during phase-faults it remains below
1.73*Vnom.

- Maximum voltage VMAX: it is the maximum phase voltage that the instrument outputs will
reach, for instance voltages not directly involved in ground-fault tests. The maximum allowed
voltage is 125 V, which is available on all ISA relay test sets. Range: 50 V - 125 V. Default: 100 V.
Whenever the fault simulation needs a voltage greater than Vmax, it will be limited to Vmax
automatically.

In case the relay causes an overload with Vmax 100 V, it is possible to select VMAX = 62,5 V and
VNOM = 40 V. The protection error difference is negligible. It is possible to select VMAX = 12,5
V and VNOM = 10 V, but in this situation the protection error may be significant.

- Nominal current (Inom): it is the nominal secondary current of the relay: can be 1 A, 2 A or 5 A.

- Maximum current (Imax): it is the maximum test current in case of constant Zs fault mode, or
the test current in case of constant I fault mode selection. In the first case, it is better to set Imax to
the maximum possible value, taking into account the test instrument capabilities and the load
impedance (typically: 12.5 A with DRTS and DRTS.3; 15 A with DRTS.6; 30 A with DRTS 66).

- 3X30 A.
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With this selection it is possible to double the output test current, on all test sets having 6 current
outputs. The selection implies that current outputs are put in parallel prior to testing.

The selection follows the type of test set: it is 3X30 A for DRTS6, while it is 3X64 A for DRTS 64
or 66. As a consequence of the selection, the test current will go up to 30 or 64 A.

- Prefault current (IPre): it is the current that will be applied during the prefault. By default is set to
0 A. NOTE: at the moment of a fault, the pre-fault current is removed; the corresponding
impedance, which is in parallel to the fault impedance, is not considered.

- Auxiliary voltage (Vdc): it is the auxiliary DC voltage used to power up the protection. Range 0 -
260 V. Default: 110 V.
In the DRTS XX relay test sets, it is possible to program the DC supply on the front end: with this,
the supply is not removed when leaving the program. In this situation, this option will not available
for editing.

- Nominal frequency (Fnom): 50 or 60 Hz. Default: the last selected frequency.

- Line angle: it is the reference angle for Separate Arc resistance calculations, and for tolerance
calculation of relative % values.

- Use Current Zero Crossing: when this option is selected, the fault starts
always at the zero crossing of the current. The reason for this selection is the following one.

During its normal operation, the test set does not consider at which value the fault current is
injected. In the real fault, it is possible that the current starts at zero, but it cannot start sharply at its
maximum value, as the line impedance limits the slope.

Current starting at zero: possible

Current starting at peak: not a real case

In the real fault, instead of a sharp current ramp there is a smoothed ramp. The current waveform is
the sum of a sinusoidal waveform plus a decaying exponential, with time constant of about 30 ms:
the current reaches close to twice the sinusoidal peak value, and is again sinusoidal in two – three
periods.
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Now, the point is that some relays could not react correctly to a waveform such as the second one:
they could exhibit a somewhat longer trip delay in the first zone. Also, the first zone trip delay is
more consistent when the current waveform is exactly the same on all tests.

In conclusion, we suggest to check this box for more consistent test results. This is true even if the
zero starting value is true for single phase and phase to phase faults: with three phase faults, the I1
current starts at zero, while I2 and I3 start at 2040° and 120° respectively.

- Divide char by Inom. If you click here , the nominal characteristic is


scaled by Inom. This is to be used very carefully. It normally helps when the nominal characteristic
depends on the nominal current; for example:
 The user got to test two relays with the same setting but with different nominal current;
 The nominal characteristic was created for a 1 A relay but the user got to test a 5 A relay.

- Apply Vdc with a ramp: If the power supply of the relay is filtered with a heavy capacitor, as the
DC voltage is applied with a step, an high current is required to charge it. This current, and its
duration, may trigger the overload protection of the test equipment V DC generator. If this occurs
when trying to energize the relay, the solution is to apply the DC voltage with a ramp instead of a
step. Click here in case .

4.1.6 Zone tolerances and time delays

Tolerances
It is possible to define zone tolerances for up to 20 zones, one overreach, and one General Starter,
with two components:
 In absolute values, defining the tolerance in Ohm. Range (0.01-100 Ohm)
 In relative values, range (0.5-100 %). In this case the parameter Line Angle is important.
The tolerance calculation will be executed for each zone, by taking into account the zone
impedance at the line angle given the following formula:
tol(n) = Zchar(n,line) * tol%(n) / 100 where:
n is the number of the zone
tol is the calculated tolerance
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Zchar is the impedance of zone n at the angle line


tol% is the relative tolerance defined by the user

For each zone, the calculated tolerance is the highest between the two. Example: for a zone
impedance of 1Ohm (at line angle), if the relative tolerance is 5% and the absolute one is 0.1Ohm,
the resulting tolerance is 0.1Ohm, since the calculated relative tolerance would be 5/100 * 1 =
0.05Ohm. If instead the relative tolerance was 20% and an absolute of 0.1Ohm, then the program
would use 0.2Ohm.

There are four tables: LN, LL, LLL, LLN, where different tolerances can be programmed. By
selecting the option , the LN tolerance values are copied to all fault types.

Times
The time setting is defined for each zone; the value can be different for the different fault types.

Nominal times are fundamental to verify the nominal curve of the relay, or to find the
characteristic (see relative paragraph).

There are four tables: LN, LL, LLL, LLN, where different times can be programmed. By selecting
the option , the LN times apply to all fault types.

Please note that if the nominal times differs from the real values of more than 30%, the program
will not be able to find the correct zone limits. In case of doubt, it is advisable to perform a trip
time test as the first thing.

4.1.7 CT and PT Ratio’s

- PT Ratio:
Primary side values:1 - 9999 kV; with 1 kV resolution; Default: 1 kV
Secondary side values: 0,01 - 9999 kV; with 0,01 kV resolution; Default: 1 kV
Tests executed with ratio = 1 is the same as having set secondary values parameters.

- CT Ratio:
Primary side values: 1 - 9999 A; with 1 A resolution; default: 1 A
Secondary side values: 1 - 9999 A; with 1 A resolution; default: 1 A
Tests executed with ratio = 1 is the same as having set secondary values parameters

Both ratios can be entered in case the user is willing to test the relay by using the primary side
values. Remember the following: all characteristics are recorded in the memory in terms of
secondary side values. When you set the CT and PT ratio, the characteristic will be scaled
accordingly, but all currents and voltages are, of course, secondary side. The nominal characteristic
is scaled only after you click on
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IN1 CDG is an external option which allows boosting the output power at low currents. The option
is made of a set of current transformers, having a number of primary and secondary windings. The
selection applies also to the HPB 400 booster.

If the option is used, the selection allows to select the ratio to be used during the
test.

The selected ratio corresponds to the test set cabling. For instance, if you need to boost the power at
2 A, and you have DRTS6, select the ratio 15//2, then connect the 15 A primary to the test set, and
the 2 A secondary to the relay. As a consequence of the selection, a test current of 2 A means that
the test set is generating 15 A.

If you have DRTS 64, and the HPB 400 option, you can select the ratio 32/20. As a consequence of
the selection, a test current of 20 A means that the test set is generating 32 A.
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4.2 TEST SELECTION

By clicking on “Test selection” it is possible to select the type of test to be performed. Tests are
divided in two main lists:
 General functions; two instances. If there is no nominal characteristic selected, the general
functions list is the following one.

If, instead, the relay characteristic has been opened, the general function list is the following
one.

The difference is in three selections.


o If there is no characteristic, you can Search for it; else, you can Verify it;
o If there is no characteristic, you can Verify the nominal values;
o If there is the characteristic, you can Verify nominal times.

 Advanced functions
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In this list, the Stress test is displayed only if the characteristic curve is available.
The Power Line Synchronization test is available only if the corresponding option is connected
to the test set.

4.2.1 General functions: Click and test

It‟s the simplest test. After the selection, press the “Confirm” button

or click on the “Test” tab. By moving the mouse on the graph it is possible to start a test (with the
characteristics selected into the Test tab) with a simple click; the result will be added the tests list.
The only thing to do is to select the type of fault to be simulated under Fault.

As you move on the R-X plane, two cursors move with the mouse, and identify the fault point.
To the left, below Fault Impedance, the exact values of the fault are displayed. Below left, you may
watch at the vector representation of the corresponding voltages and currents; their values are
shown to the right.

Click & Test is useful for a quick verification that there are no mistakes in the connections, that trip
times are correct, that zone limits are not very wrong. If a nominal characteristic is loaded and
various earth coefficients have been set for the zones, the program uses the relative coefficient.

When you insert a point in the list by clicking on the graph, provided that you have the nominal
characteristic of the relay, the program detects in which zone you clicked and sets the corresponding
Earth Factor for the test (for Phase to Ground fault). This is helpful to detect wrong operations like:
fault in 1st zone – trip in 2nd zone.
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4.2.2 General functions: Sequence

The Sequence allows you to program a number of tests, and then to execute them one after the
other. After the selection, press the “Confirm” button or click on the “Test” tab.
The sequence can be created by clicking on the graph the desired test point: unlike “Click and
Test”, the point will be added to the test list, for further execution.
In addition or in alternative to clicking on the diagram, you can go to “Fault impedance” and input
the impedance of the fault you want to simulate. Then, press “insert in the list:

A new test line will be added.

Besides, a yellow dot will be displayed on the relay diagram.

After some clicks, the table will include the tests you have programmed, and the diagram will look
like the following one.
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All tests (the yellow dots) are inserted into the test list; a simple press of the button will
execute the sequence. After the execution of all the tests, the points are represented with the
relative zone colour, as shown.

The test table is now including test values and the corresponding trip delays.

Please note that, for each point you insert in the list, in case there‟s a nominal curve, the program
detects in which zone you have clicked, so that, at the end of the test, you can determine whether
the relay correctly tripped.

4.2.3 General functions: Search the R/X characteristic

This selection is available only if there is no nominal characteristic. Purpose of the test is to find is
the relay characteristic, even if you don‟t know anything about it. This selection is useful if you
have the setting table of your relay, and you want to know more about other angles.

The first message displayed after selection is the following one.


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The message reminds you that, if trip times are wrong, there is no way for the program to correctly
find the characteristic curve. In case of doubt, please use the Click and test function. Please be
careful that if timings are more than 30% off the real values, the search may lead to wrong
results.

With this selection the following frame appears at the bottom, and the graph will display as here
below.

The meaning of the parameters is as it follows.

- Fault: the following selections are available


. L1, L2, L3: ground-phase faults 1, 2, 3;
. L12, L23, L31: phase to phase faults 1-2, 2-3, 3-1;
. L123: three-phase fault;
. L12n, L23n, L31n: phase to phase to ground on phases1-2, 2-3, 3-1;
. All ph-gnd; All ph-ph; All ph-ph-gnd; All faults.
Depending on the selection more than one test will be executed. Obviously in case of single-phase
test instrument (UTB-MT), it will not be possible to execute LLN and LLL faults. Default: L1.

- Start angle. It defines the first angle at which the search is performed. There are no limitations on
this parameter; please consider that with Zs constant fault mode selection, there are problems in
finding the point situated at - Zs; these problems do not occur with Iconst fault mode selection.
Default: -10°. The R/X diagram displays accordingly to this parameter changes.
- Stop angle. Defines the last angle at which the search is carried out: Default 110°.
- Step. It is the angle between two searches. Default: 10°.
- Test at this angle only. Adds a test only for the specified angle
- Zones to test. Selects the zones for which the test must be executed; it is also possible to select the
first extended zone.
- Border test. With this selection, two more tests are added for each search test. At the end of the
searches the software executes shots at higher “Border +” and lower “Border –“ impedance with
respect to the resulting threshold. This function is particularly useful when displaying results in
the Z-t graph. It is possible to select a border test only for the zones under test.
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The search of the nominal characteristic is executed in the angular sector defined by the start and
stop angle. The first verify is executed at the start angle, then up to the stop angle by means of the
steps indicated by Step. In case the stop angle does not correspond to the last step of the test, the
search is stopped at the next step greater than Stop angle. For instance: if start angle is 0°, stop
angle 110°, step 20°, the test will stop at 120°, and not at 110°. For further information on search
algorithm please refer to Appendix 3.

By pressing the OK button all the points to be verified will be added to the test list in the Test tab,
no point are yet displayed on the R/X graph.

By pressing the Start button the test is started; as it progresses found values are displayed into the
grid and on the graph as it follows.

If the option “Perform border test” was selected, the graph would have been like this:
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Please notice that after each search the grid


includes rows of type Border (+ and -). Border tests
does not include a Pass/Fail information.

The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1.

4.2.4 General functions: Verify the R/X characteristic


This selection is available in case the nominal characteristic is known. Purpose of the test is to
verify the characteristic at points you can select; the result tells you if the setting is correct, within
the specified tolerances.

The following frame appears at the bottom: it is identical to the Search R/X characteristic, but the
graph displays the nominal char of the relay and the nominal values of the various zones at the
angles selected.
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As described in the Search R/X paragraph, by modifying Start, Stop and Step angle, it is possible to
select the test area. Differently than “Search R/X” tough, the nominal values of the zones are
known. The search follows a different algorithm.
It is also possible to define a different impedance as a starting point of the search, by setting the
Offset Z and Offset phZ values. Compare the following pictures for a more detailed explanation.

Offset Z=0 Offset Z= 5 45°

By pressing the OK button all the points to be verified will be added to the test list in the Test tab:
nominal values are displayed in the grid and points are displayed on the R/X graph.

By pressing the Start button the test is started; as it progresses found values are displayed into the
grid and on the graph as it follows.
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The result table shows the obtained result and the absolute error with respect to the nominal. The
column Pass / Fail also shows if the search is within the tolerances that have been set. On the graph
this information can easily be seen by the colour of the point: if it assumes the same colour defined
for the zone than it is a pass otherwise it is displayed as “out of tolerance”.

It is also available the option Perform Border Test. In this type of test, Border tests can be executed
independently from zone verifications. If selected, two points for each fault angle will be added, one
at lower impedance than the nominal impedance of the characteristic (“Border –“) and one at higher
impedance “Border +”. The trip times of these tests must respect the nominal times for the zones.
That is, “Border –“ tests must trip within the zone nominal time, “Border +” tests must trip within
the nominal time of the immediately greater zone.

In the example here pictured, the Border Test has


shown that most of the characteristic lies within
the tolerances, since Borders assume the colour
of the relative zone. A few points are painted as
out of tolerance, which may mean that the
characteristic is not within tolerance. For these
fault angles it is suggested to run a Verify test.
These Border Tests include therefore a Pass/Fail
information in the relative column of the grid.

The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1.
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4.2.5 General functions: Verify nominal values (R/X)

This selection is available only if there is no nominal characteristic. Purpose of the test is to verify
the setting values which are included in the setting table, which lists:
 General values: Nominal current, frequency, direction,..
 The value of the earth coefficient. This is a fundamental parameter for phase to ground tests;
see the chapter 4.1.
 Trip times of the different zones.
 The nominal zone limits for a number of faults and at some specified angles.

After selection, the following window appears:

Parameters are the following:

- Fault. these selections are available:


. L1n, L2n, L3n: ground-faults for phases 1, 2, 3;
. L1..L3: all ground-faults;
. L12, L23, L31: phase to phase faults on phases 1-2, 2-3, 3-1;
. L12..L31: all phase to phase faults;
. L1..L31: All ground-faults and phase to phase faults;
. L123: three phase fault;
. L12n, L23n, L31n: phase to phase to ground faults for phases 1-2, 2-3, 3-1;
. L12n.. L31n: All phase to phase to ground faults.

- Angle: it is the angle at which the test is performed.

- Zones to test (Ohm): these are the expected values of the zones impedance at the given angle.
Different values should be set upon changing angle. For instance, is the value represents the line
reactance, it is necessary to divide this value for the sin(angle) to obtain the corresponding
impedance. This reactance does not match the impedance at 90° except for characteristics
horizontal in that portion (RAZOA)
The program verifies that the impedances are appropriately decreasing: .. Z4  Z3  Z2  Z1over 
Z1 and displays an error message if needed.
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Usually a complete “Verify” test involves the angles: 0°; line angle; 90°. To do this it is necessary
to:
. program the values at the first angle, for the desired faults;
. press Ok: the “Test” folder shows the points in the test table with their nominal values and the R/X
diagram shows the corresponding points;
. select the folder “Test selection”, and insert new values for a different angle;
. press Ok: the new test values are inserted in the test table;
. select the folder “Test selection”, and insert new values for a different angle;
. after the last insert is made, the test table in the “Test” folder contains all the “Verify” tests to be
performed. This is how it would appear for tests at 0°; 75°; 90°, of fault L1.

To execute the tests in the list, the button must be pressed: as the test progresses the
found values are shown both on the test table and on the R/X graph.

The result table shows the obtained result and the absolute error with respect to the nominal. The
column Pass / Fail also shows if the search is within the tolerances that have been set. On the graph
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this information can easily be seen by the colour of the point: if it assumes the same colour defined
for the zone than it is a pass otherwise it is displayed as “out of tolerance”

It is also available the option Perform Border Test. It can be run independently from the Verify test
and, if selected, two tests will be added, one at lower impedance than the nominal (“Border –“) and
one at higher impedance “Border +”. The trip times of these tests must respect the nominal times
for the zones. That is, “Border –“ tests must trip within the zone nominal time, “Border +” tests
must trip within the nominal time of the immediately greater zone. They show a Pass/Fail
information in the relative column of the grid and are coloured as “Out of tolerance” if the nominal
trip times are not respected.
The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1

4.2.6 General functions: Verify blinders


Blinders are lines, at a certain angle, which are
normally used in distance relays to clearly
separate the forward zones from the reverse.
They are normally used with quadrilateral
characteristics. Example of blinders is in the
graph here on the right hand side. The test can
be performed either with or without a nominal
characteristic.

If the nominal characteristic is available, the


programs detects all blinders for each individual
zone and type of fault. Then they are presented
in a table where the user must select the blinders
to be checked. For the example above, the table
on the right is processed.

 Select the blinder to test: just double click on


the Check column of the one you want to
test
 Unselect a previous selection… just double
click again
As you may see, in order to help you choose the
right blinder, the selection is made according to:
 Zone number
 Type of fault
 Blinder angle
The user must choose which digital contact is associated with the blinder search, as different fault
types may trigger different contacts.
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If the nominal characteristic is not available you


have to enter the blinder values by yourself.
 Zone nr: Select the zone number (this will
establish the maximum testing time)
 Test at: Select the Impedance value for the
test… it must be within the above Zone
number selection.
 Fault type: single phase, phase to phase…
 Blinder location: here you select
o the relative blinder value
o the position
O and the zone number
 Max Error: this is the maximum acceptable error in degrees when searching for blinders.
When all selection are done, press ok to confirm and prepare the test table.
The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1

4.2.7 General functions: Automatic time zone test Z-t


This type of test enables you to perform a series of injections at a specified angle. It is possible to
verify the zone thresholds as a function of the fault impedance and check them both on the R/X and
Z/t diagrams.

The following window appears.

The meaning of the parameters is as it follows.


- Fault: the following selections are available
. L1, L2, L3: ground-phase faults 1, 2, 3;
. L12, L23, L31: phase to phase faults 1-2, 2-3, 3-1;
. L123: three-phase fault;
. L12n, L23n, L31n: phase to phase to ground on phases1-2, 2-3, 3-1;
. All ph-gnd; All ph-ph; All ph-ph-gnd; All faults.

- Z start, Z end: start and end value of the test impedance


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- Step: Impedance increase or decrease between consecutives tests (positive if Z start is less than Z
end; negative if Z start is greater than Z end)
- Angle: it is the test angle.
- N. of tests: this field is not enabled, it shows the number of tests that will be performed with the
displayed parameters.

By pressing the OK button all the points to be verified will be added to the test list in the Test tab:

To execute the tests in the list, the button must be pressed.


If the nominal characteristic is known, the graphs will display points with the same colour of the
zone in which they lie.
R/X graph Z-t graph

If the nominal characteristic is not known, the graphs will display point with the colour of the
estimated zone depending on their tripping time.
R/X graph Z-t graph
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The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1

By comparing the nominal trip times and those obtained it is possible to understand if the settings
are correct.

4.2.8 General functions: Verify Nominal Times test

The selection is available only if you have open the nominal relay characteristic. With this option it
is possible to verify the trip times at the center of the zones, and to check the results against the
nominal times. By center of the zones we mean that the fault value is the average of two zone
limits: the purpose is to measure at best the trip delay for the zone to be tested. In the following
drawing, the fault impedance Ztest = (Z2+Z3)/2, is used to measure the delay t3.
t
t4

t3

t2
t1
Z
Z1 Z2 Ztest Z3

The user has to select the Fault type, the Maximum accepted error (that will determine whether a
test is a pass or a fail), the Test angle to which the tests will be performed and the Zones that will be
tested.
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Upon pressing the Ok button, the result diagram shows the tests that will be performed.

As it can be noted, tests are performed at the center of the zone, to make sure that the trip time is the
closest to the nominal.

The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1.

4.2.9 Advanced functions: Power swing blocking test

This selection, and the following ones, are reached selecting the Advanced functions folder.

The power swing block is a circuit that understands if the protection is sensing a developing power
swing rather than an actual fault. The operation criteria of the circuit is the following one.
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 First of all, there are two additional characteristic in the R-X plane, with the shape of centred
rectangles; they are called outer and inner limits.
 When a fault has an impedance less than the outer limit, the circuit measures the time it takes to
enter the inner limit (transit time), and then:
o If the transit time is less than the programmed value, the relay behaves as usual: it is a
fault;
o If the transit time is more than the programmed value, the circuit blocks the trip, for a
programmed value, called PSWB blocking time;
o However, if the fault persists within the protected area for more than the blocking time,
the circuit removes the block, and the relay trips.

The test can be performed going to File > Z-Design, and designing the blocking characteristic as
explained before: once programmed, selecting the Power swing test, the zone limits will be
displayed on the R-Z characteristic.

The simulation of the power swing is performed with three tests.


In the first test, a negative impedance gradient (/s) starting from Z Start to Z End will be
performed. In this test, the fault evolution is faster than the programmed transit time: the relay will
trip.

In the second test, the fault evolution is slower than the programmed transit time; the fault reaches
its minimum and then leaves again, in a time less than the blocking time: the relay will not trip.

In the third test, the fault is slower than the programmed transit time, but it stops as reached the
minimum for a time more than the blocking time: the relay will trip.

The following is the programming window.


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Input Z Start (greater than the outer limit) and Z end (usually, in the first zone). The angle is usually
close to 0°. Input the transit time, as programmed in the relay, and the blocking time: the program
computes and displays the (negative) impedance ramp. In the picture, the red line represent the start
and stop of the impedance gradient.

The OK button must be pressed to put this test into the list. The test will be a three phase fault, as
this is the typical behaviour of the power swing. NOTE: upon selection of this test, the diagram will
display the three phase characteristic, that can be different from the single phase one.

By pressing the OK button, the following message is displayed.

Actually, going to the Test table, you will find three lines, which make the test.

The test will then be executed upon pressing the button. The program shows:
- In the first line, the trip delay of the Z End zone (in our instance, zone 1 delay);
- In the second line, no trip;
- In the third line, the blocking time delay.

The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1

4.2.10 Advanced functions: Synchronized End to End test

4.2.10.1 Test purpose

The test purpose is to verify that the system made of two distance relays connected together with
any scheme (blocking, permissive) works correctly. To do this you need two three-phase ISA test
instruments (UTB, UTS, ART/3, DRTS, DRTS.3,DRTS.6, DRTS XX), both controlled by
DISTANCE 21.

The following scheme shows the network situation that has to be verified. With any connection
scheme, it must be that:
. With faults occurring in zone 1, both relays trip in zone 1;
. With faults occurring after B, relay A trips in second zone, while B trips in the overreach zone (if
enabled);
. With faults before A, relay B trips in second zone, while A trips in overreach zone (if enabled).
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First overreach zone


of relay 1
First zone of relay 1

85%
115%
A B

1 2

To execute the test we need a device that guarantees the synchronization of the test start on the two
instruments. For all test sets unless the DRTS XX series, we provide the GPS option, which gives
synchronization pulses with selectable period; any other system that provide a synchronization of at
least 20ms is valid. If it is available a communication channel quick enough, it is possible to use
contact A2, which is closed upon test start: A2 can be connected to the generating instrument, while
the remote instrument can be connected to the communication channel.

The DRTS XX series has two options which allow performing the test without the need of the
external GPS option; they are: IRIG-B or internal GPS synchronization.

IRIG-B is a system widely used in substation for the synchronization of all devices of interest; if it
is available, it is better to use it, as there is no need to locate the antenna. If IRIG-B is not available,
the best alternative is to use the internal GPS synchronization: you need the antenna, but then the
software takes care of GPS.

The two DRTS XX test sets may have different synchronization means: for instance, one may have
IRIG-B, and the other one the internal GPS. The test will be executed with no problem.

The two operators connect the test instrument to the distance relays by leaving intact the system that
connects them. DISTANCE 21 can be started in different moments at the two ends of the line: it is
not necessary to be synchronized at this time. But after pressing the OK button, then the instruments
will wait for the synchronization pulse and will launch the fault. The operators must be in touch
with the telephone to start the test and the synchronization system at the same time.

4.2.10.2 Test execution

Upon selecting the option “Inter-trip” the following window appears


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The program requires the following parameters.


. Fault: type of fault (phase-ground, phase-to-phase..).
. Synchronization signal: for the DRTS XX series there are two choices: GPS or Integrated
synchronization.

Selecting GPS (that is, the external one), you can select the Intertrip delay.
Selecting Integrated synch, the Sync icon turns on: the program will take care of delays.
. Line impedance: (magnitude and angle) impedance of the line to be tested. If the nominal
characteristic of the relay is known, it is possible to calculate the Line impedance automatically by
checking the box: this is usually the impedance corresponding to the
distance between the two substations.
. Test 1-5: it is possible to add 5 possible tests given the selected Line impedance. The impedance
of each point can be manually selected or automatically distributed given the Line impedance
parameter and by pressing the button .

Upon pressing the Ok button, the tests will be added to the test list and displayed on the graph.

In this case the Line impedance selected is equal to (Z1+Z2)/2.


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The operators must decide the fault parameters before executing the tests: these values are different
at the two sides of the line and must be coherent to obtain correct results. For this reason it is also
necessary to select the local side of the test, A or B.

A) Test with an external GPS

The external GPS is to be connected to the antenna, and powered-on. The option has an output,
which must be connected between the input C5 and the corresponding zero socket.

Now, it is necessary to start the synchronization device: in case a GPS solution is used, it must be
started at about the same time, with the same period (ex: 1 pulse every 30 s). The output of the
synchronizer must be connected to C5 (if the trip input is connected to C1-C4): the software waits
for maximum 1 minute for the pulse.

Press the START on both GPS: before the first synchronization pulse, 1 to 2 times the programmed
time elapses. When the pulse turns off, press START on both computers: the program applies the
healthy values, and when it gets the synchronization input on C5 it generates the fault values. Once
the measure is done, both relays trip and on the screen appears the measured trip time.

B) DRST XX series: test with the internal IRIG-B or GPS

The IRIG-B optical fibre, or the antenna for the internal GPS option, are connected to the rear panel
of the test set.

On the program, select the Integrated sync:

Then, press the Sync icon: the following window is opened.


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Selectng IRIG-B, the display tells you the absolute time of your site. If you have the GPS option,
selecting GPS will give you the same window.

Now, the two operators at the ends of the line have to agree with the time they want the first test to
be performed. To this purpose, check the START TEST AT checkbox, and input this time.

Now, both operators have to press OK and wait: the first test will be performed at both ends at
exactly the selected time.

In both situations, that is internal or external synchronization, it is also possible to prepare a series
of tests and launch the execution altogether: after the first synchronization, the following tests are
based upon the synchronizing pulses (for the external GPS), or upon the programmed Time delay
between tests (DRTS XX with options).

For this reason the operators must define the programming values prior to execution. The test
criteria can be the following; the other tests are added optionally.

Let‟s assume that the nominal impedance ZN corresponding to the protected line is:
ZN = (Z1 + Z1L)/2
This is normally true; if the nominal value is known, it can be used.
If 1 and 2 are the protection relays, the crucial values to be verified are:
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. Fault between 1 and 2: 1 and 2 trip in the first zone;


. Fault immediately after 1: 1 and 2 trip in the first zone;
. Fault immediately before 2: 1 and 2 trip in the first zone;
. Fault immediately after 2: 1 trips in second zone and 2 trips in overreach;
. Fault immediately before 1: 2 opens in second zone and 1 trips in overreach.

The following table summarizes the above considerations.


TEST Setting Direction. Triptime Side Setting. Direction. Triptime. SideT.A
NO. RELAY A RELAY NOM. 1 T.A. 1 RELAY 2 RELAY 2 NOM. 2 .2
1
1 0.5* ZN Forward T1 L 0.5* ZN Forward T1 B
2 0.95* ZN Forward T1 L 0.05* ZN Forward T1 B
3 0.05* ZN Forward T1 L 0.95* ZN Forward T1 B
4 1.05* ZN Forward T2 L 0.05* ZN Reverse T4 B
5 0.05* ZN Reverse T4 L 1.05* ZN Forward T2 B
The following picture shows a list of tests on side A with ZN = 1.

The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1.

4.2.11 Advanced functions: Auto recloser test


Purpose of the test is to verify the base timings of the recloser connected to the distance relay (or
integrated into it). The verification is executed by simulating trips and verifying trip times.

The meaning of the parameter is as it follows.

. Z: fault impedance to be simulated.


. Angle: fault angle.
. Recloser time: Nominal trip time of the recloser.
. Reclaim time: the reclaim of the recloser after the first fault.
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For this test more cycles are performed:

1. First cycle: Single phase fault (L1), impedance and angle specified by the two fields Z and
Angle. The program will wait for the protection trip. The time delay must be less than the
Recloser Time.
2. Second cycle: Generating the pre-fault values, wait for the contact of the recloser, that
nominally must trip in the Recloser Time.
3. Third cycle: Generate the pre-fault values till the specified Reclaim Time +5 s (that is, if
the reclaim time is 30 s, for 35 s)
4. Fourth cycle: Single phase fault (L1) 5 s after the reclaim time, impedance and angle
specified by the two fields Z and Angle. The program will verify if the recloser trips.
5. Fifth cycle: Generate the pre-fault values till the specified Reclaim Time -5 s (that is, if the
reclaim time is 30 s, for 25 s)
6. Sixth cycle: Single phase fault (L1) 5 s before the reclaim time, impedance and angle
specified by the two fields Z and Angle. The program will verify if the recloser doesn‟t trip.
7. Seventh cycle: Generate the pre-fault values

DISTANCE 21 will take care of the results of the cycles 3 to 6 only if the first two cycles were
successful, that is the protection trips and the recloser sends the command.

If the recloser runs correctly, the results of the cycles are:


1. First cycle: The protection trips, normally in the 1st zone.
2. Second cycle: The recloser trips in the Recloser Time.
3. Third cycle: No trip
4. Fourth cycle: trip from the recloser, because the fault is injected 5 s after the reclaim time
5. Fifth cycle: No trips
6. Sixth cycle: no trip from the recloser, because the fault is injected 5 s before the reclaim
time

FAULT 1 2 3

OPEN 1 2 3

CLOSE 1 2

T1 TR TN TR

The OK button must be pressed to put this test into the list. It will then be executed upon pressing
the button. The table shows only the first 2 cycles
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Note: before the execution of this test DISTANCE 21 asks the user to enable the recloser function
and to connect the recloser contact on the trip input C5 (if the trip contact is connected to C1-C4) or
C4 (if the trip contact is connected to C5-C8)
After the test execution a recloser disable message will be shown.

The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1

4.2.12 Advanced functions: Developing fault test

Purpose of this test is to simulate the development of a fault and verify the behaviour of the relay in
this instance. It is important that fault development happens sequentially.

The meaning of the parameters is as it follows. For both faults first and second, it is possible to set:

. Z: fault impedance to be generated.


. Angle: fault angle.
. Fault: type of fault (phase-ground, phase to phase..).
. Duration: duration of the fault.
. Direction: direction forward or reverse.
. Dead time between two tests: the pre-fault conditions (that is, the nominal voltages) will be
generated, without the phase (or the phases) interested by the first fault. As an example, if the first
fault is L3, during the dead time the voltage on the phase V3 is zero; in this way a single phase
breaker open could be simulated.

The fault selection is free, it is possible to program any combination of faults, but meaningful
responses has to be expected only with: from phase-ground to phase-to-phase-ground or three-
phase; from direction forward to reverse etcetera.
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If a dead time is inserted after a phase-ground fault, the corresponding voltage is null: this simulates
the opening of the relay on a phase before a fault on another phase.

The OK button must be pressed to put this test into the list. It will then be executed upon pressing
the button.
The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.4.2

4.2.13 Advanced functions: Switch onto fault


To perform the following test, you need to enter the fault impedance, angle and fault type. The
impedance value is selected by clicking on the graph as reminded by the following message. It
appears when the user selects the Switch-on-to-fault option.

This is more convenient as the user has a better figure on which zone the test is performed.
When executing a click on the graph, the over-reach option in the Test page is automatically

selected and it is possible to select an auxiliary


contact to perform the test.

The test is executed in this way:


1. The values V=0 and I=0 are applied for about 1 second (pre-fault)
2. Then the fault is injected
3. At the same time, the chosen auxiliary contact changes status to simulate the manual switch
operation.
This is to simulate the fault is applied starting from an open line condition.
The relay should trips instantaneously for 1st, 2nd and 3rd zone. Sometimes the SOTF feature is
extended only to zone 2 and not up to zone 3, so that the relay tripping time for zone 3 is not
instantaneous but delayed.
The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1
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4.2.14 Advanced functions: Fuse failure


You get the following picture to enter the values:

During the Fuse failure detection time, the voltage of the selected phase is removed (V=0) whilst
the other voltages remain at healthy value. This is to simulate the loss of one phase.
Then the test current is applied on the same phase: the relay should not trip.

The OK button must be pressed to put this test into the list. It will then be executed upon pressing
the button.
The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1.

4.2.15 Advanced functions: General Start test

As the user selects the option General Start, the picture here below is displayed:

In the Settings tab, it is possible to define the settings of the starter:


 max error: it defines the maximum error which is allowed around the nominal value of a
threshold to consider the test as Passed or Failed. It is normally expressed in % of the
nominal value. When using a Current Angular starter, max error defines an absolute value in
degrees.
 Search range: it defines the range to be searched around the nominal value of a threshold. It
is normally expressed in % of the nominal value. When using a Current Angular starter, max
error defines an absolute value in degrees.
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For instance if we have a current threshold of 5A (see Tests tab), the user can define a Max
error = 2% (so the program will show a Pass if the real threshold is within the range 5A± 2%),
and a Search Range of 20%, which means that it will look for the real threshold between 5A-
20% and 5A+20%.

 Input contacts and phase have the same meaning as described previously.
 Angle V-I : defines the Voltage to current phase shift

If the programmed value exceeds the maximum values selected in the network tab of DISTANCE
21, the search for the threshold will stop.

By pressing on the Tests tab, the user can select which type of General Starter wants to test.

The program allows the testing of the following Starters:

4.2.15.a Overcurrent
As shown by the above picture, the Overcurrent starter has 1 current threshold to be tested.
- General start current. It is the current that makes the general starter to intervene. Range from 1
to the maximum available current for the instrument;
- Test voltage. It is possible to select the voltage level during the test. Selecting 0 V the unlock
current can be tested, also for under impedance relays. Default: 0 V.
- PT interlock on A2. During the test, A2 is switched, and the overcurrent threshold tested.
Default: 0 (no such test).
- Trip time. This is the nominal intervention time, used to calculate the maximum time for the test:
tmax = triptime*1.3.
By pressing the OK button, a line will be added to the test table for execution. The type of test is
defined as Gen_I.
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4.2.15.b Overcurrent 2 thresholds


This Starter has 2 current thresholds to be tested.

- Trip current at zero voltage. It is the current threshold when the fault voltage is zero. Range 1 to
the maximum available current for the instrument;
- Trip current at healthy voltage. It is the current threshold when the voltage is at nominal value.
Range 1 to the maximum available current for the instrument.
- Trip time at zero voltage. This is the nominal intervention time of the zero voltage threshold,
used to calculate the maximum time for the test: tmax = triptime*1.3.
- Trip time at healthy voltage. This is the nominal intervention time of the healthy voltage
threshold, used to calculate the maximum time for the test: tmax = triptime*1.3.

By pressing the OK button, 2 lines will be added to the test table for execution. Both type of tests
are defined as Gen_I.

4.2.15.c Overcurrent stepwise


This Starter has 3 threshold to be tested: 2 current thresholds and a voltage threshold.
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- Trip current at zero voltage. It is the current threshold when the fault voltage is zero. Range 1 to
the maximum available current for the instrument;
-Trip current at healthy voltage. It is the current threshold when the voltage is at nominal value.
Range 1 to the maximum available current for the instrument.
- Voltage threshold. This is the voltage threshold when the current is between the two current
thresholds.
- Trip time at zero voltage. This is the nominal intervention time of the zero voltage threshold,
used to calculate the maximum time for the test: tmax = triptime*1.3.
- Trip time at healthy voltage. This is the nominal intervention time of the healthy voltage
threshold, used to calculate the maximum time for the test: tmax = triptime*1.3.
By pressing the OK button, 3 lines will be added to the test table for execution. Two tests are
defined as Gen_I, and one as Gen_V.

4.2.15.d Current Angular


The angular overcurrent starter has an overcurrent threshold that is controlled by the current to
voltage phase angle. Usually the starting current inside the angular section is higher than the one
outside the angular sector; in the R-X plane the characteristic (at nominal voltage) is a circle with a
smaller radius inside the angular sector. This allows the protection to be less sensitive to the load
around the fault angle.
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- Trip current inside the angular sector. It‟s the current threshold at healthy voltage, that is at U
= UN, inside the angular sector. Range from 0.1 to the maximum available current for the
instrument.
- Trip current outside the angular sector. It‟s the current threshold at healthy voltage, that is at U
= UN, outside the angular sector. Range from zero to the maximum available current for the
instrument.
. Angle from. Range 0° to 360°. Default 40°.
. Angle to. Range from 0° to 360°. Default 80°.
- Trip time. This is the nominal intervention time of the angular thresholds, used to calculate the
maximum time for the test: tmax = triptime*1.3.

By pressing the OK button, 2 lines will be added to the test table for execution. The two tests are
defined of type Gen_Ang. Both tests are performed by generating the average current between the
nominal current inside the angular sector and the nominal current outside the angular sector for the
chosen angle thresholds.

4.2.15.e Zero-sequence

- Zero-sequence trip current. Range 1 A to the maximum available current for the instrument.
Default 1 A.
- Trip time. This is the nominal intervention time, used to calculate the maximum time for the test:
tmax = triptime*1.3.
- Test Voltage. This is the working voltage, select between 0V and Vnom.

By pressing the OK button, 1 line will be added to the test table for execution. The test is defined as
Gen_Io.
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4.2.16 Advanced functions: Weak infeed test

As the user selects the option Weak Infeed, the picture here below is displayed:

This test applies to distance relays located after a very long line: this causes an high source
impedance, hence a weak in-feed during the fault. In this situation, the fault generates a current that
can be less than the minimum general start one of the distance relay; so, the relay would not trip
even with the fault in the protected zone. To overcome this inconvenience, the general start can be
by-passed by a logic unlock signal that comes from the distance relay at the other end.
With this test the fault simulation is performed in the constant current mode: this allows
programming a fault current less than the minimum general starter one.
- Z. Defines the fault impedance;
- Line angle. It is the fault angle;
- tmax. It is the maximum test time;
- test current. It is the current that will be generated during the test;
- Carrier send & General starters coordination time. During the test, the switch of the auxiliary
A2 output simulates the unlock signal coming from the other end of the protected line. This value is
the total of the relay general start plus the transmission delay.
- Fault. It is the type of fault to be simulated (phase to ground; phase to phase; three phase).

By pressing the OK button, 1 line will be added to the test table for execution. The test is defined as
“Weak”.

After test start, the relay would not trip; it trips only as A2 closes, simulating the unlock coming
from the other end relay.
The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1
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4.2.17 Advanced functions: Cycle editor

All the tests described in this chapter are “fixed”, so the user can only set the required parameters. If
there‟s the need for a particular sequence , the Cycle editor allows to build test cycles quickly and
easily. Up to fifteen cycles can be defined into a sequence. By pressing the radio button “cycle
editor”, this screen will be shown:

Three kind of cycles are defined to test a distance relay:


 Impedance injection
 Impedance ramp
 Voltage and current

Depending upon this selection, a part of the screen will change accordingly (see below). The table
will contain all the defined cycles, that can be selected in order to be erased or modified.

4.2.17.a Impedance injection

It‟s the simple selection of a fault (single phase, phase to phase..), with its impedance, angle and
calculation method. The maximum duration and the selected contact are defined in the common

frame. Press the button in order to add the fault to the cycle list.
In the example is represented a L23 cycle with Z =1.5, ph=75 Tmax = 1.3 and C3 active.
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4.2.17.b Impedance ramp

If it‟s necessary to simulate an impedance swing, the user must select this kind of test. As shown,
the parameters are the starting and final impedance, the angle and the fault type.
Only single-phase and three-phases faults are available, and the ramp will be calculated using the
constant current method.

As for impedance injection, press the button in order to add ramp to the cycle list.
In the example is represented a three-phases impedance ramp with Zstart =2.5, ph=15 Tmax=
3.6 and C4 active.

4.2.17.c Voltage and current injection

Some distance relays have, in addition to an impedance general start, a current starter. Some of
these combine voltage and current with different thresholds. Combining some voltage/current tests
it‟s possible to verify the functionality of these starters. The Pre-fault button sets the voltages to
the nominal (UN) and the currents to 0. If the instrument has voltage output V4, the frame Phase4 is
visible (as in the picture that follows), otherwise only the first 3 frames are visible.

In the example is represented a simple sequence that tests a general start that has a current threshold
of 2.5 A; two tests will be performed:
one at 2 A and the other at 3 A. If the general start trips correctly, the expected results are
“timeout” for the test at 2A and instantaneous trip time delay for the test at 3 A.
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4.2.17.d General parameters

All the cycles have common part that is represented in this frame; maximum time, centre star point
and contact enabled.
Moreover, for each cycle is defined the auxiliary contacts status, so it‟s possible to define digital
sequences.

4.2.17.e Modify, Add, Delete buttons

Select with the mouse one cycle in the list to modify it. In the example the third cycle was selected

and the user may change some parameters. After, press this button in order to
change the cycle in the list.
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When one cycle is defined, press this button to add a cycle (of the selected type)
to the sequence list. It‟s possible to define up to 15 cycles per sequence.

The delete button is enabled if one or more cycles are selected in the list. Press
this button if it‟s necessary to erase some cycles.

With the button all rows inserted in the list are discarded.

4.2.17.f Exit button

By pressing this button all the defined cycles will be lost and no tests will be added to the test list in
the main screen.

4.2.17.g Transfer table for execution button

By pressing this button all the defined cycles will be added to the test list in the main screen, and
the sequence editor will be closed. In the picture is represented an example of a sequence after

having pressed the button Transfer….


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4.2.18 Advanced functions: Multiple Contacts test


Purpose of this test is to record the trip times of different contacts of the connected instrument, and
this independently from the test performed and therefore from its fault type.

By clicking on the icons besides the contact labels, it is possible to set the contact default status.
The test is performed as for the click-and-test by clicking on the graph, and it finishes when all the
enabled contacts actually trip. The results are shown in the T(s) column of the test table: for each
contact the relative trip time is shown.

If the test lasts longer than the set Tmax time, the program will display No-trip.

4.2.19 Advanced functions: Stress test


This selection allows to define a “grid” of tests in order to verify if the protection runs properly in
the rectangle Start-R – Rmax , Start X – Xmax .
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The OK button must be pressed to put this test into the list. It will then be executed upon pressing
the button.
The result diagram after the generation of all the tests should be something similar:

in this picture the


protection runs correctly
for each test

The Stress Test adds only one line to the test table, but it contains all the information needed to
execute all the tests.

If the Stress Test is stopped before the execution of all tests included in the procedure, the test will
be displayed as executed if at least one point has been tested. This means that the Test can be
continued from the point where it was stopped or re-executed from the first point to the last. In line
with these special situations, the menu of the Test table is readjusted when a Stress test is selected.
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Please consider the following special rules that apply for the Stress test:
 Repeat Selected Tests: if the test was stopped, this menu item allows the user to continue the
execution from the last point that was tested before the test was stopped, but not to re-execute
all tests from the first.
 Display Stress Tests: a window opens to display a list of all the tests included in the procedure.

The pass/fail criteria is determined by using the trip time: a time corresponds to one of the
zones. So if the zone determined for the tested point (given the trip time) matches the nominal
zone for the point, the test is considered a Pass, otherwise it is a Fail. Tests that have failed are
highlighted in bold red font, and the buttons at the top of the page allow to scroll automatically
to the previous or next failed test for easy reference.
 Repeat All Tests of this Stress Procedure: This menu item allows to restart the execution of all
tests included in this Stress procedure from the first one.
The button Set digital Inputs opens the Digital Inputs contact page. Please refer to
par. 4.3.2.1.
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4.2.20 Advanced functions: Power line synchronization test

This test, valid only for DRTS6, generates faults synchronized to the mains supply .

Synchronizing to the power line can be necessary for those cases when it is impossible to use the
GPS option. In order to perform this test it‟s necessary to connect the instrument to the Mains
Synchronizer Option PII24156, following this picture:

The test will be executed with a simple click of the mouse on the graph, as “Click and test” (par.
4.3.1).
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4.3 TEST

The Test window is the following.

This window is to be considered together with the graph page. The window is divided in frames.

4.3.1 Fault
In this frame the following selections are found

4.3.1.1 Test Sequence

This allows selecting the following test evolutions:

. Pre-fault - Fault - Zero


With this selection, after test Start pre-fault values are generated during T Pre-fault; then fault
values are generated, and they last at maximum Tmax; after trip, parameters are held and return to
zero after T Hold. All parameters remain at zero until the next command from the PC; the minimum
zero duration depends on the transmission time between PC and instrument (0,5 s nominal).
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Fault

Prefault
Param

Timing Ts Tm Tt

Trip

Measure T1

. Pre-fault - Fault – Pre-fault


With this selection it is possible to better simulate the real behaviour of the system: after a fault the
breaker cuts voltages and currents. It is necessary to pay attention because with this selection it is
necessary to program the pre-fault time with a delay greater than the timing of the option Fault
recloser (if enabled); otherwise the protection will always trip with the time of the first zone.

Fault

Pre- Fault
Param.

Times Ts Tm Tt

Trip

Measures T1

4.3.1.2 Fault type

You can select between:


1. Phase 1 to ground
2. Phase 2 to ground
3. Phase 3 to ground
4. Phase to phase 12
5. Phase to phase 23
6. Phase to phase 31
7. Three Phase 123
8. Phase to phase 12 and ground
9. Phase to phase 23 and ground
10. Phase to phase 31 and ground
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Using this selection:


- for tests “Click & test” e “Sequence” the selection is for both the fault to be executed and the fault
displayed by the graph;
- With all other tests, the fault is selected when the test is inserted in the list, so the selection
modifies only the fault displayed b the graph.

The graph displays only tests executed with the selected fault. With all fault selection is possible to:
- Define different fault types (for instance , single-phase or phase-to-phase);
- Execute the test. During the execution the program selects automatically the graph corresponding
to the test, together with the nominal curve;
- To read the results, it is possible to scroll the table or select the type of fault, corresponding results
are displayed in the graph.

In the following example there are 4 L1 faults: the table and the corresponding diagram are
displayed.
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4.3.2 Timer and input contacts

4.3.2.1.Pre-fault time

Pre-fault time: it is normally used to introduce a delay between two following tests; it is necessary
for electromechanical relays. Normally can be zero. Default: 0.2 s.

4.3.2.2 Maximum time


Tmax: it is to be programmed greater than the longest trip delay; if no trip occurs during this time,
the result is no trip. It is normally used for manual tests or sequences, since the automatic search or
verification use a variable maximum time Tmax, according to the zone under test.

4.3.2.3 Hold time


THold: the purpose is to simulate the fact that, in real faults, the fault disappears after the trip, with
a delay equal to the CB open delay. When setting a Hold time greater than zero, the user chooses to
maintain the fault values for a time Thold before letting the test end. This applies both if the test
sequence is Pre-Fault-Pre or Pre-Fault-Zero. It could be said that with Thold, the test sequence
evolve into a Pre-Fault-Hold-Pre or Pre-Fault-Hold-Zero.

4.3.3 Fault Impedance


In this frame the following settings can be made

4.3.3.1 Fault Impedance


It is possible to program the fault impedance by using two out of the four values (Z,R,Fi,X), the
other two are calculated accordingly.

While moving with the mouse over the graph R/X, the relative impedance in module and phase
angle, as well as the resistance and reactance, are displayed. In case you want to test a particular
impedance value, you can set these values because it may be difficult to reach a specific point by
only using the mouse.

4.3.3.2 Insert in the test list


The above values can be edited and inserted in the test list in order to be tested. This may be
necessary when you want to test a specific value and you cannot get it with the mouse (if you don‟t
believe this, try to click exactly on Z=1, 75°).
Further to this, if you press the Start button, the test for that point will be executed.

4.3.4 Over-reach Setting


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Together with the other zones, it is possible to automatically verify the overreach zone by selecting
some additional options.
If this option is Always Enabled, during tests the selected contact switches to send the overreach
command to the relay before executing the test.
If the selection is Enable on command, the contact will close only when the over-reach test is
selected.
Usually, the relay input is polarized to the negative of the DC supply; so, the A1 common must be
connected to the Vcc output (+), while the A1 Normal Open contact will be connected to the relay
overreach input. This command substitutes the one coming from the recloser: if connected, to
execute this test it must be excluded.

Here are a few connection schemes for some distance relays.

Contact A1 position NO: for Siemens relay 7SL27, R3Z24; Landis & Gyr DAM 385; Daco
System RN1-ZH1.

Standard Connection Connection for overreach test to be polarized with 110V

Contact A1 position NC: ABB RAZOA.

Standard Connection Connection for overreach test to be polarized with 0V

For those distance relay without overreach zones, and whose recloser contact acts directly on the 1st
extended resistance, the overreach contact must not be polarized, but it is necessary to connect both
ends of A1, the contact C and NC.
Doc. MSE20080 Rev. 6.5.4 Page 94/147

Position N.C.: Siemens R1Z23, R1Z24.

Standard Connection Connection for overreach test to be polarized with 110V

4.3.4 Vector diagram and phase measurements

These values and vectors are updated every time the mouse moves over the R/X graph. During
click&test or sequence tests, the values are automatically updated.
Phase to neutral or Phase to phase voltage are displayed according to the selection.

4.3.5 Test results tables

The test and result tables store all the tests that are to be performed or already executed with the
results.

The tables are wider than as they appear on screen, and contain all the test data (voltages, currents,
contact conditions): these values can be read by scrolling the grid horizontally. When the tables
contain more rows than they can show a vertical scrollbar appears too.

The table format and the meaning of the data they contain may depend on the type of test. For all
tests anyway, a mark at the side of the test number (for instance 2*) means the test has already been
executed.
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Type of test Type Results Error Pass/Fail Notes


column ABS %
Click & Test “Shot” Trip Time T(s)
Sequence “Shot” Trip Time T(s)
Automatic “Shot” Trip Time T(s)
time zone test
(Z/t)
Verify the R/X “Search” Impedance Z X X X Table shows the nominal
characteristic Trip Time T(s) impedance: error in Ohms
and % between nominal
and found impedances
“Border +” Trip Time T(s) X Depending on trip times it
“Border –“ is a Pass or a Fail
(if
selected)
Search the R/X “Search” Impedance Z Table does not show a
characteristic Trip Time T(s) nominal impedance
“Border +” Trip Time T(s) Border tests does not show
“Border –“ Pass/Fail indication as they
(if are set depending on the
selected) resulting impedance of the
“Search” test.
Verify nominal “Verify” Impedance Z X X X Table shows the nominal
values Trip Time T(s) impedance: error in Ohms
and % between nominal
and found impedances
“Border +” Trip Time T(s) X Depending on trip times it
“Border –“ is a Pass or a Fail
(if
selected)
Power Swing “Psw_1” Trip Time T(s) Test data is stored in three
“Psw_2” adjacent rows.
“Psw_3”
Intertrip “Intertrip” Trip Time T(s)
Auto Recloser “Recloser” Trip Time T(s) X Test data is stored in two
test “Recl_2” adjacent rows
Blinders “Blinder”Blinder angle X X Error in ° between nominal
ph(Z) and found blinders
General starter “Gen_I” Threshold X X X Error in A between nominal
current and found thresholds
“Gen_V” Threshold X X X Error in V between nominal
voltage and found thresholds
“Gen_Io” Threshold zero- X X X Error in A between nominal
sequence current and found thresholds
“Gen_Ang Threshold angle X X Error in ° between nominal
” and found thresholds
Weak Infeed “Weak” Trip Time T(s)
Multiple “Mul” Trip times T(s)
contacts
Stress “Stress” Zone X If the zone corresponding to
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the trip time matches the


nominal zone for the point
it is a Pass
Power Line “PLSync” Trip Time T(s)
Syncrho

When opening a .BPR or .MDB file, the results are shown both in the Test table and in the Result
table. To repeat the tests just press start and the new results overwrite those existing in the test table.
At the end of the tests, it is possible to transfer these new results to the results table. This will
overwrite the results previously stored. No changes are made to the database files until such results
are stored into a file.

At the bottom of the table there are 2 buttons:

4.3.5.1 Store all tests

By pressing this button, the rows with an * mark are transferred to the result table and cancelled
from the test table. The transferred tests replace those tests with same number already in the result
table. A confirm must be done by clicking Ok on the subsequent message.

4.3.5.2 Delete all tests

By pressing this button the test in the test tables are cleared. The deletion must be confirmed with
by pressing Ok in the following message.
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4.3.5.3 Table functions

By Clicking on the Test Table, a popup menu appears.

The enabled items depend on the status of the test table:


 If the table is empty, by clicking on the header of the table, the only available items are
“Select columns to show” and “Set grid font”
 If more than one row is selected, the item “Comment to the test” is not enabled
 If the selected row (or rows) represent a Cycle built with the Sequence Editor, the item
“Modify Test” is enabled.

The tasks to be performed to the test table are:


 delete selected tests: deletes the selected rows from the test table regardless if they have
already been executed or still to be tested
 Mark as executed: this function puts a mark * beside the test number of the selected rows. In
this way it is possible to treat a not executed test as it has been executed and therefore save it
into a database.
 Repeat selected tests: repeats the tests corresponding to the selected rows
 Modify test: copies the selected rows into the Sequence Editor so that the user can edit them.
By clicking on the “Transfer table for test execution” button of the Sequence Editor, new
lines will be added to the test table. The user then needs to delete the lines that were to be
modified by means of the Delete selected tests menu item.
 Comment to the test: The following window appears:
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In the “Message” box, it is possible to define a comment to the test that must be displayed
prior to the test execution. The “Show this message” Checkbox allows the user to decide
whether to display the message when this test is executed. There is also a “Notes” box,
where other notes can be inserted. “Message” and “Notes” are stored together with the test
data and can contain also pictures.
By pressing the OK button, if the “Show this message” checkbox is set, an icon will appear
on the first column of the test table beside the test number. This means the comment is
active and will be shown when the test is executed.

If a comment has been inserted in the “Message” box, but the “Show this message”
checkbox has not been selected, the disabled icon will appear on the first column of the test
table. This means that the comment is present but will not be shown upon test execution.

 Store all tests: transfers all the test that have been executed (with the mark *) from the test
table to the result table
 Delete all tests: deletes all the rows in the test table
 Set columns to show: opens up a window, showing the columns available in the test table
and allowing the user to select which columns should be displayed.
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By pressing the Apply button, the columns of the test table will be updated consequently.
The configuration is saved in the .INI file so that when DISTANCE 21 is launched again, it
retains the settings.
 Set grid font: opens up a window, showing the type of font to use for the grid

 View signals: opens a window that displays the waveforms of the involved voltages and
currents and the enabled contact. This option is available only for test type “Shot” and
“Search”. In this window is possible to zoom in and out the waveform and make time
measurements by moving the cursors.
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4.3.6 Test control screen

The screen to the right allows controlling the test evolution.

The icon shows whether the test set is connected. The program continuously check (in a
few seconds) if the instrument is connected. In case it is disconnected, it will update the icon
accordingly.
In one situation Distance 21 does not continuously check if the instrument is connected: when at
program startup the instrument was not connected and the operator pressed “No” on the following
message.

At the top the selected type of test is displayed.

In the middle is displayed the R-X (or Z-t) diagram, according to the test selection. On the plane
move two cursors that address the fault impedance components: Z, Φ, R, X. With a click of the
right mouse button on this window or by clicking on the squares under the zone display selection,
you can gain access to the color definition window.
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Then click on the colour you want to change and get the following:

It is possible to change the colours and to confirm the changes.


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4.3.6.1 Zoom and scale

On the first line under the graph there are the minimum and maximum values displayed. If there is a
nominal curve the program computes these limits automatically; otherwise, they can be set
manually.

On the right there are the zoom-in and out commands. If the problem is to set the test point in the
close proximity of a desired point, proceed as follows:

 Press the zoom-in button ;


 Move the mouse in the proximity of the point;
 Click the mouse and keep it pressed moving it across the point;
 Release the mouse: the set area is displayed. The procedure can be repeated until the desired
resolution is obtained.

To restore the normal screen, click the zoom-out button . See the following pictures as a
reference.

To enlarge the graph limits, press the button

4.3.6.2 Zone display

At the bottom is available the following selection.

The table allows to control the zone displayed on the graph; this serves to increase the ease of
reading details for the desired zone.
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- the first column indicates if the zone is enabled or disabled .


Zone enabled Zone disabled

A disabled zone is shown on the graph but with a dotted style.


- the second column indicates the progressive number of the zone (and cannot be modified)
- the third column indicates the name of the zone, can be modified and when a RIO file is opened, it
contains the name of the zone as in the file.
- the fourth column shows the colour of the zone. By clicking on the cell the window to choose a
colour is displayed.
- the fifth column indicated if a zone has to be shown on the graph or not .
Zone displayed Zone not displayed

- The option Show Tolerances allows, in case the nominal characteristic is known, to display
tolerances around the characteristic. Please note the difference between the following two pictures,
the first does not highlight tolerances, whether the second does:
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When showing tolerances, the graph has the following characteristics:


- all zones are displayed with the same colour
- zone tolerances assume the colour of the characteristic
- test point are coloured as the relative zone colour
In the above graph, the test points are of type “verify the R/X char” and it can be noticed that some
points are of different colour than the zone, in which case they are displayed as “Out of tolerance”.
By zooming around these single points it can be noticed that they lies outside the tolerance
boundaries.

4.3.6.3 Control buttons


At the bottom of the screen are the test control buttons.

They are:
- Start: by pressing it faults are generated, starting from the first one on the list. The only exception
is the click and test selection: in this instance, the test is started with a click on the R-X plane;
- Stop: the test execution is stopped; parameters go to pre-fault values; the auxiliary supply is kept;
- Reset: all outputs go to zero.

If you press Start without having issued the Generate pre-fault command, in the Network selector,
the following message is displayed.

It is possible to confirm, or change parameters and transmit them.


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4.3.6.4 Re-execution of a test point

In case the selected display is of type R-X, when moving the mouse over a tested point the
following frame appears:

It shows the main characteristics of the point under observation, type of test, zone number, row
number and its impedance (in R,X format). By pressing the Repeat button it is possible to execute
again the test without scrolling the test table.
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4.4 Results

If you loaded a result file (in *.bpr or MDB format) or you transferred some tests from the Test tab,
the Results tab will be similar to the following picture:

Here is a brief description of the available selections :

4.4.1 Fault type


It is a list-box that changes the diagram according to the selected fault; of course, if there isn‟t any
result for the chosen fault, the relative diagram will appear empty (just the nominal curve, if
loaded). This may seem particularly strange in case the file has no tests of the fault type L1.

4.4.2 Diagram representation

By changing the representation from R-X to Z-T , the program shows the Z-T
diagram and the results for the angle selected in the textbox below ; to change the
diagram from an angle to an other, it is necessary to press Enter on the keyboard.
The diagram will appear empty if no result is available for the specified angle.

4.4.3 Operative buttons


The button perform the relative function as described in the following paragraphs.
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Delete all tests erases all lines from the Results table. Apart from this, deletion of rows in the results
table can be done on a row selection basis. By selecting one or more rows with a mouse click, the
following menu appears:

 Delete selected tests: deletes the selected rows from the result table. If a test is stored into more
rows (e.g. Recloser is made of 2 rows), all involved rows are deleted.
 Select columns to show: allows to select which columns of the result table are to be shown.

4.4.4 Printing results


Upon choosing the Print Results options of the File menu, the following selection window appears.

It is possible to select whether to include the graphs or the Notes page in the report.
Upon pressing the Ok button, the report is created and displayed in a separate window.
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The first page displays all the settings of the relay, and it is followed by the pages that display the
test results.
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Tests are grouped by test type and meaningful data is displayed automatically depending on the test
type.
At the top of the report window there is a toolbar to perform various activities.

4.4.4.1 Toolbar

By pressing this button it is possible to close the report window


By means of the navigation bar it is possible to scroll the report to the
first-previous – next-last page.
While the report is loading, if it takes a long time it is possible to stop the execution of the
report by pressing this button.
By pressing this button it is possible to define the printer and printer options
By pressing this button it is possible to start the printing job on the selected printer
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By pressing this button it is possible to refresh the report


By pressing this button it is possible to export the report into a variety of formats.

By selecting this menu it is possible to vary the zoom of the report page.
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4.5 Import results in Excel


MDB files
A result file is formatted as a data base file, ready to be used by Microsoft Access. Furthermore,
it‟s possible to import a result table in Microsoft Excel . In the following figures is explained
which are the selections in Excel:

 Define a new data base query:

 Data base type selection

 Select the data base file:


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 Select the columns:

 And, after the inclusion of all the columns without any filter, and ordering the rows by
“DBNumber”, the table will appear:

Please note that Excel will not interpret the column dbNr as numeric, therefore the rows
will be ordered as if the numbers where strings. String 10* is therefore greater than 1* but lower
than 2*.

BPR files
In the following figures is explained which are the selections in Excel:
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Fields delimited by
commas or tabs

Confirm and proceed :

No text qualifier, and


for delimiters
commas and tabs
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General data format


for the columns

Confirm and all the data concerning the tests (V,I, Z etc.) will be available in Excel.
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APPENDIX 1: FAULT SIMULATION METHODS

In DISTANCE 21 the fault is simulated computing voltages, currents and angles using the formulas
for a single ended fault. Given the source impedance Zs and the fault impedance Z, the fault current
(for phase to ground faults) is the following:

Ig = UN /(Zs (1+KES) + Z(1+KEL))

where all variables are vectors. Formulas for other fault types are reported in the following
Appendix.

When voltages and currents are computed, the following problems could arise:
1. Ig is greater than the maximum current Imax;
2. Ig is less than the minimum trip current;
3. V is greater than the maximum voltage Vmax.

Problem 2 means that no trip is detected: the operator can notice it and intervene.

Problem 3 is handled according to the type of simulation.


With constant Zs the program stops, and a message warns the operator, or the program limits the
voltage to the maximum, and continues.
With constant Ifault the program automatically reduces the test current and continues.

For problem 1, the program foresees three alternative selections:

. With the selection Zs constant the numerator UN is decreased, until Ig<Imax. The reduction of UN
is stopped at 1 V or at a fault impedance of 25 mOhm, whichever comes first.

. With the selection Ifault constant the parameter Imax becomes the test current. The computation
formula is simplified, Zs is ignored, and the fault voltage becomes:
Vg = Ig * Z * (1+KEL)

This is the simulation used by the manual test sets TZ/2 and TZ/3: this simulation is provided to
test Zs = 0 and Z = 0, and also to compare to former test results. From the relay standpoint this
simulation is favorable to an accurate measurement; however, in the reality the accuracy is a
function of the ratio Zs/Z.

This simulation would fail if the computed fault voltage is greater than the healthy value. In this
instance the program automatically reduces the selected test current, and continues.

The following figure displays current and voltage fault vectors with different type of faults and
different simulations.
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Fault I cost ZS, UN cost

VRN VRN

VR
VR  IR 
Single phase IR

VT VS VTN VTN VS VSN

VR VR

Phase to phase IT
IT
VT VST
VTN VST VSN VTN VSN
VT VS  VS

IS IS

VRN VRN

VR IT VR
IT  IR
 IR
Three phase
VT VS VT
VS
VTN IS VSN VTN IS VSN

VRN VRN

IT
IT

Two phase
to ground VT VS VT
 
VS
VTN IS VSN VTN IS VSN
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In order to decide about the type of simulation for single phase to ground faults, consider the
following.
X
X3

X2

X1

R1 R2 R3
R

-Zs

A) ZS = cost

X
X3

X2

X1

R1 R2 R3
R

B) I = cost
Characteristic curves of an ABB RAZOA relay
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. The Zs selection is to be preferred because tests simulate actual faults as seen by the distance
relay. If Zs is unknown, normal primary values range from 4 Ohm to 20 Ohm up for long lines. A
value of 10 Ohm primary is a reasonable default value; argument is the same as the line one (default
75°). With this simulation, if Zs secondary is > 1.2 Ohm with IMAX = 25 A (or Zs > 2.4 Ohm with
IMAX = 12.5 A), in first quadrant, any value of fault impedance would not cause Ifault > Imax, and
the nominal voltage would not be reduced.

. With MHO characteristics, the characteristic curve is altered by Zs, as the point where V and I
reverse their phase shift moves with Zs. In such instance the measured characteristic curve, that
corresponds to the actual relay behavior in the plant, would not match with the one declared by
the manufacturer, that usually ignores the source impedance. In such a case, if test result is to be
compared to the nominal, the constant current should be selected. Note that the law by which the
curve moves is complex, as it depends upon: the source impedance Zs and its argument, and also
the source residual coefficient KES and its argument.

The above figure displays the characteristic curve of a RAZOA distance relay with constant source
impedance and with constant current. With RAZOA, in the fist quadrant the shape of the
characteristic curve is not affected by Zs; however, with relays like RAZFE of ABB this occurs; all
circular MHO characteristics are affected also in first quadrant.

Note that the constant ZS diagram is obtained pretending that the source impedance does not
change in argument when the fault is moved in the four quadrants. Now, this is just a simulation,
but cannot occur in reality, as moving the fault to quadrants II and III implies that the source must
change its direction (and possibly that the source impedance module changes). If a zone is set
reversed, which is possible for RAZOA, the shift of the origin partly covers the reverse zone; if the
source impedance is larger than the set fault impedance, the reverse zone would disappear.

DISTANCE 21 does not automatically reverse the argument of the source impedance ; if there is a
zone in reverse direction, the correct way to test the relay is to find the characteristic curve with the
source impedance in forward direction for angles from –45° to 135°, and to reverse the source
impedance direction (and to correct the module) for angles from 135° to – 45°.

Last, note that phase to phase to ground faults are simulated as follows:
. With ZS, values are computed from vector computation;
. With constant current, the fault is two single phase to ground: with this simulation, relays with
more than one fault measurement circuit give false test results.
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APPENDIX 2 FAULT CALCULATION FORMULAS


This appendix summarizes the calculations performed in the various simulations of the program. At
the end there is also a summary of the vector diagram for the various fault types, depending on the
algorithm used.

A2.1 PHASE TO GROUND FAULT

In case of phase 1 to ground fault computation formulas are the followings.

A2.1.1 ZS SELECTION

I1 = U1N / (Z * (1+KEL) + ZS * (1+KES))

I2=I3=0

U1 = U1N * Z * (1+KEL) / ( Z * (1+KEL) + ZS * (1+KES))

U2 = U2N - I1 * ZS * KES

U3 = U3N - I1*ZS*KES

Case: I1 > IM

In this instance U1N, U2N, U3N are reduced until I1 < IM; the decrease of UN is stopped at 1 V.

A2.1.2 Ifault SELECTION

In this instance the computation formula is the following:

V1 = Z * Ig * (1 + KEL)

where all values are scalar. The program computes:


. V1; the angle is left unchanged;
. V2 and V3 do not change;
. I1 = Ig in module; the phase is fault impedance angle changed in sign;
. I2 = I3 = 0.

If V1 > VN, the program modifies Ig to 0.9*Ig and continues.


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A2.2 PHASE TO PHASE FAULT

In case of phase 1 to phase 2 fault, computation formulas are the followings.

A2.2.1 ZS SELECTION
I1 = (U1N - U2N) / (2 * (Z + ZS))
I2 = -I1
I3 = 0
U3 = U3N
U1 = ((U1N + U2N) / 2) + I1 * Z
U2 = ((U1N + U2N) / 2) - I1 * Z

With phase to phase faults, fault currents are equal in amplitude and opposite in phase. This is
simulated in the MT model by selecting the corresponding output sockets, and in the T model by
injecting two currents.

Case: I1 > IM
In this instance U1N, U2N, U3N are reduced until I1 < IM; the decrease of UN is stopped at 1 V.

A2.2.2 Ifault SELECTION


In this instance the computation formula is the following:

V21 = Z * Ig * 2

where V12 is the module of phase to phase voltage, V2 - V1. From this voltage the program
computes:
 Voltages V1, V2 = sqrt( (V12/2)^2 + (V3/2)^2), and the corresponding angles;
 V3 is unchanged in amplitude and phase.
 Current I1 is equal to Ig in module, and is phase shifted by the impedance argument plus
180° with respect to the phase to phase voltage V2 - V1.
 Current I2 is equal and opposite to I1;
 I3 is equal to 0.
If V1 > VN (V21 > 1.73 * VN), the program modifies Ig to 0.9*Ig and continues.

A2.3 THREE PHASE FAULT


In case of three phase fault, computation formulas are the followings.

A2.3.1 ZS SELECTION
I1 = U1N / ( ZS + Z)
I2 = U2N / ( ZS + Z)
I3 = U3N / ( ZS + Z)
U1 = U1N * (1 - ZS / ( ZS + Z ) )
U2 = U2N * (1 - ZS / ( ZS + Z ) )
U3 = U3N * (1 - ZS / ( ZS + Z ) )

Case: I1 > IM
In this instance U1N, U2N, U3N are reduced until I1 < IM; the decrease of UN is stopped at 1 V.

A2.3.2 Ifault SELECTION


In this instance the computation formula is the following:
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V1 = V2 = V3 = Z * Ig
The program computes:
 V1, V2, V3: angles are left unchanged;
 I1 = I2 = I3 = Ig in module; the phase shift is the fault impedance argument changed in sign.
If V1 > VN, the program modifies Ig to 0.9*Ig and continues.

A2.4 PHASE TO PHASE TO GROUND FAULT

A2.4.1 ZS SELECTION
Given:
j120°
a= e
Zo = ZS * (3 * KES + 1) + Z*(3*KEL +1)
Z1 = Z + ZS
Io = -U1N / (2*Zo +Z1)
ZoS = ZS * (3*KES +1)

With a phase to phase to ground fault on phases 2 and 3 formulas are the following:
I2 = (U2N - U3N) / (Z1 * (2* Zo + Z1)) * (Zo - a*Z1)
I3 = (U3N - U2N) / (Z1 * (2* Zo + Z1)) * (Zo - a ²*Z1)
I1 = 0
U1 = U1N + Io * (ZS -ZoS)
U2 = U2N + ZS*Io*( a ² - (a - a ²) * Zo/Z1) - ZoS*Io
U3 = U3N + ZS*Io*( a + (a - a ²) * Zo/Z1) - ZoS*Io

Case: I1 > IM
In this instance U1N, U2N, U3N are reduced until I1 < IM; the decrease of UN is stopped at 1 V.

A2.4.2 Ifault SELECTION

In this instance the computation formula is the following:

V1 = V2 = Z * Ig * (1 + KEL)

that is, two single phase to ground faults.


The program computes:
. V1 and V2: angles are left unchanged;
. I1 = I2 = Ig in module; the phase shift is the fault impedance argument changed in sign.
. I3 = 0.
If V1, V2 > VN, the program modifies Ig to 0.9*Ig and continues.
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APPENDIX 3: Automatic tests verifications

A3.1 ZONE DEFINITION


The zone verification can be executed by launching simulations of the various faults, by adapting
the module of the source impedance Zs if the found current with the fault impedance is greater to
the maximum allowed current. As previously described, the tests are repeated for all the angles.
First to be verified are zone extensions on output 1 (or 1-2); then on 2 and 3. Since a zone is defined
by its tripping time, we calculate a reference time to check when a zone starts and when it finishes.
If we suppose the operator has set trip times T2; T3; T4; T5; T6. Due to the uncertainty in the
distance relay response (especially if electromechanical) there is a rounding effect on adjacent
zones so that beyond the introduced values the relay may trip in many other intermediate times.

TS4
T4
TS3

T3
TS2
T2
TS1
T1

I° I° ALL II° III° AVV

To define where a zone ends and the next one starts, the instrument verifies that the tripping time
is above a threshold define as:

T(N+1)

TSN

TN

ZN Z

TSN = TN + 0,7 x ((TN+1) - (TN))

With this method, when searching a zone characteristic, the impedance value of the zone equates
to the minimum impedance whose tripping time is higher than TSN. If the relay does not trip, it is
considered as maximum time.
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A3.2 SEARCH OF A DISTANCE RELAY CHARACTERISTIC

Zone characteristics are verified starting from the zone with highest impedance, by means of a
series of successive shots.

Let‟s suppose we want to find the limits of zone1, 2, 3: give T1, T2, T3, TMAX, we calculate the
thresholds TS1, TS2, TS3, TSAVV. The search start with zone 3, because once it is found, the
search of zone 2 and 1 is made on a smaller impedance range.

As a start, the third zone may assume any value between 0 Ohm and ZMAX=VN/IMIN.

SEARCH OF A ZONE CHARACTERISTIC

X
ZMAX
1

2
4
5
7
6
3
TARATURA

R
At the end of the test these will be the performed measures:
- Impedances of the various zones at the selected angles;
- Trip times of the zones.
After the last verification, the outputs are set to 0.

A3.3 VERIFICATION OF A ZONE GIVEN A NOMINAL VALUE

After test start, the testset proceeds by verifying the steps and the tripping times, with the selected
fautls.

The verify test is executed by launching simulations of the various faults, and adapting the Zs
source impedance module if the current determined with the selected fault impedance is greater than
the maximum selected. As said before, the tests are repeated for all fault angles. The first tests to be
performed are on Phase 1 than on Phase 2 and 3.
The trips are verified close to the nominal values set, with a series of consecutive shots.

First of all the tripping times are calculated as the change between one zone and the next. If a
calculated voltage is above the maximum selected, the program will assign the maximum voltage.
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Once the fault parameters are calculated, the instrument executes the test in two separate steps.
Step “A”: quick search; the impedance Z separates zone N and N+1; the threshold time is TS1
- The fault is executed at Nominal Z, then:
- If it trips in less than TS1, the value is incremented of a 5%, until the trip happens in
more than TS1
- Otherwise, if it trips in more than TS1, the value is decremented of a 5% until the
trip happens in less then TS1
At this point the software has determined two different Z, one for zone N+1, the other for zone N.
The difference between the two zones is at best of 5%.

Step “B”: verification with the set accuracy.

A shot is made at the average value between the two impedances calculated with Step “A”, and the
test continues with the criteria described above, but this time with delta equal to 1/10 of the allowed
tolerance, and with an absolute minimum difference between two consecutive shots of 5 mOhm.

The nominal value of the impedance is the average of the last two shots; the timing is then
determined by executing a shot at the impedance equal to the average of two consecutive results: for
the first zone the shot to determine the tripping time is set to Z1/2.

At the end of the test, the following measures will be performed:


- Impedances of the various zones at the selected angles;
- Time delays of the various zones.
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APPENDIX 4: Arc Resistance compensation


The fault impedance measured by the relay is as follows:
o Ground Fault: Z Loop  Z D  Z E  Z A  Z D * (1  K E )  RA
o Phase Fault: Z Loop  2 * Z D  R A

For relays like Alstom P441, P442, P444,


SEL 311, 321, 421, and others, the setting is
given in terms of:
o Impedance reach Z1 at line angle
o Arc resistance compensation RA1
So, for any measured impedance value ZF,
the relay:
 extracts the arc resistance RA;
 calculates ZL;
 compares it with the setting Z1 and RA1.
The described method seems to be very simple. But when V & I must be generated starting from a
certain ZF taken in the relay characteristic curve, things are a bit different.
The known parameters are:
 The fault from the graph: ZF, phZF, and therefore RF and XF
 The line angle: phZL
 The earth factor: KE and phKE
To calculate the test values for V and I we first need to get:
Z Loop  Z D  Z E  Z A  Z D * (1  K E )  RA , therefore we have to extract the two elements ZD
and RA once we have RF and XF
XF
ZD 
sin (phZ F )
RD  Z D* cos(phZ F )
X D  Z D * sin( phZ F )
Once RD and XD are calculated, the arc resistance is easily calculated as follows:
RA = R F - R D

And then:
V  Z D * (1  K E )  RA * I
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APPENDIX 5: IEC61850 -8

By means of a dedicated module, ISA Instruments can expand their testing capabilities by handling
IEC61850-8 messages. One such message coming from a device connected to the substation
network (such as a relay) is called Goose.

To control the IEC61850 board, press the relative icon .

When the button is pressed the Goose Explorer window is opened.

By means of the Goose Explorer it is possible to explore the IEC61850 messages on the network.
The window shows a File menu, a main area divided in three pages (Exploring Goose, Virtual
Contacts and Goose Publishing) and an optional side that shows the Activity Log.

A5.1 Relay connection

Purpose of the test is to verify gooses sent by the relay on the Station bus. The connection is shown
in the drawing below.
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The connection to the relay is performed by connecting current and voltage outputs to the relay
under test. Also trip outputs are to be connected, so that it is possible to verify the trip delay.

Next, the instrument is to be connected to the Station bus. To this purpose, the instrument is
provided with an ETHERNET connector on its front. The connection to the Station bus can be
performed in two ways:
. A switch is available: connect the instrument to the switch, with the direct ETHERNET cable
provided. With this connection, very many messages will be seen by DRTS.6;
. A switch is not available: the relay is to be disconnected from the Station bus and connected
directly to the test set with the crossover ETHERNET cable provided. With this connection,
messages seen by instrument are only those coming from the relay.

The next paragraph will describe how to perform the tests.

A5.2 File Menu

A simple and basic menu is provided in order to handle the data that is captured by the Goose
Explorer window.
 Open Exploring File: opens a database file (.gse extension) containing the result of a
session of exploring of the IEC61850 network. It will also load the filters, virtual contacts
and publishers that have been previously saved in the file.
 Save Exploring File: saves a database file (.gse extension) containing the result of a session
of exploring of the IEC61850 network. The file contains also any info on filters, virtual
contacts or publishers that have been set up.
 Open Substation File: opens a substation setting file (extension .scd; .icd; .xml) containing
the configuration of the substation, including the gooses available for each IED on the
network. Please refer to paragraph A5.3.4 for a more detailed explanation of this menu
option.
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A5.3 Main Area


As it can be seen, the main Area is divided in three main pages, that become four when a substation
file is opened:
 Exploring Goose
This page controls the Exploring Options, displays the Goose List and the Goose details and
also handles the Filters.
 Virtual Contacts
This page displays and sets the Virtual Contacts.
 Substation File (only when selected from the File Menu)
This page shows the Goose List and details of gooses that are saved in a Substation file.
 Goose Publishing
This page displays and sets the Gooses that can be reproduced. Goose Publishing is only
available on DRTSxx instruments with IEC61850 board firmware revision from 1.00.

A5.3.1 Exploring Goose


The first action to perform in order to use effectively the Goose Explorer is to catch the messages
on the network. To this extent there are three Exploring options: Explore at START , Explore Now
and Use Virtual Contacts to STOP the test.

It is possible to Reset the Goose queue with the relative button. This will clear the IEC61850 board
from any previous goose still pending. Press this button when required, but when the Exploring
session is closed.

Explore at START
When the Explore at Start option is selected, the exploring is started by the test start.

The Exploring will be automatically performed during the execution of a Shot type test. This means
that, at the execution of the Shot, the software will:
 Open an exploring session just prior to the test start;
 Execute the shot test until the relay trips as normal;
 Close the exploring session;
 Get the IEC61850-8 messages that have been generated, and display them in the Exploring
Goose window;
 Display the results of the Shot in the main window of the software.
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Explore Now

When the Explore now option is selected it is possible to execute the exploring by pressing the
Start Exploring button. Choose appropriately the Exploring time by setting the relative box.
Upon pressing the button, the IEC61850 board mounted in the ISA Instrument starts to capture the
messages and these are immediately displayed in the Goose list frame.

The Start Exploring button turns Red and its caption is changed into Stop Exploring. The exploring
can thus be stopped at any moment by pressing the button.
The grid displays for each Goose:
 Source Mac Address: physical address of the generator of the message;
 Destination Mac Address: physical address of the destination of the message;
 Goose ID: Identifier of the Message;
 Data Set Reference: Identifier of the type of message created by the IED;
 Event TimeStamp: Universal Time that identifies the Goose.
Data in this grid can be ordered in various ways included in the Order Goose List by menu.

You can select this menu at any time, even during the download of gooses. It is possible to Order
data according to:
 Number: the actual sequence in which the goose has been captured. (not necessarily they
are received by Time Stamp);
 Time Stamp: the UTCTime identifier of the goose;
 Goose ID;
 Source Mac Address.

By selecting a row of the Goose List, it is possible to see the details of the Data Structure handled
by the selected DataSet Reference. The Goose Details grid is loaded accordingly.
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Use Virtual Contacts to STOP the Test

In this case, the exploring will not be shown in this window.

It is possible to select to use the standard trip inputs: if so, the trip time on the result table will be
the one measured on these inputs.

If you check to ignore the C1- C12 inputs, at the execution of the test, the software will:
 Set the virtual contacts as they have been selected by the user;
 Execute the shot test until the relay trips as normal (but taking into account not only the trip
contacts but also the virtual contacts);
 Get the trip times for the contacts monitored by the software and for the Virtual Contacts
enabled;
 Display the trip times in the Time columns of the table in the Virtual Contact page.








Do not Explore
Disables the IEC61850 option so that from now on it will not monitor the LAN for gooses.
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A5.3.2 Filters
The amount of messages that can travel on a IEC61850 network can be burdening due to the
amount of devices connected to it. In order to select a portion of the messages, especially only the
meaningful once, related to the device undergoing the test, it is possible to set Filters.
Once a number of messages have been received, typically through an Explore now session, it is
possible to select only those that match a selection.
In particular, by selecting one message from the Goose List and by right-clicking with the mouse, a
menu is opened:

Relating to Filters, it is possible to:


 Add filter as IED: extracts the IED of the selected Goose and use it as a Filter, in order to
capture only the messages with that same DataSet Reference.

The filter cannot be changed. A name can be given to the filter by selecting the Name
column and writing an appropriate name. Click on the En column in order to Enable the
Filter.

 Add filter as TIMESTAMP: extracts the timestamp of the selected Goose and use it as a
basis for a Filter. The Time can be edited.

The filter can be changed: click on the Value column and a box appears in order to edit the
time of the filter.

This will represent the minimum time after which messages will be sensed and captured by
the IEC61850 board. Any message with UTCTime prior to the Filter time will be discarded.
A name can be given to the filter by selecting the Name column and writing an appropriate
name. Click on the En column in order to Enable the Filter.
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It is possible to set up to 8 filters, although only one at a time can be enabled.


At the start of an Exploring session, if the filters have been changed, a message box will appear to
let the user choose whether to use the new filters or leave the previous filter condition.

A5.3.3 Virtual Contacts


Once the user has performed an Exploring of the messages, be it with or without Filters, it is
possible to set Virtual contacts. As the name describes, this is not a physical contact of the ISA
Instrument, but is a „virtual‟ contact or a condition that becomes true for a device on the network.
This condition is verified by means of the occurrence of a very specific goose.
After selecting a goose from the Goose List in the Exploring Goose page, the Goose details frame
is loaded with the details of the selected Dataset data structure. Each of the parameters in this data
structure can be set in order to define a virtual contact.
Right-click with the mouse on a parameter and a menu appears.

It is possible to set the parameter as a basis for a virtual contact. By choosing the menu item, a new
virtual contact will be added to the Virtual Contacts page. It is possible to add up to 8 virtual
contacts.
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A virtual contact is identified by a


 Name: it can be given by the user by editing the relative box in the grid. The same name
will appear in the lower frame that represent the Trip condition for the Virtual contact.
 Dataset Reference: it represents the exact goose that serves as the basis for the virtual
contact. The same device can and does produce more than one Goose ID, so in order to set
the virtual contact it is not enough to define the Goose ID, but the selection has to be made
on the Dataset Reference.
 Type: it can be Boolean, BitString, Unsigned, Signed, Float or UTCTime.
 Condition: depending on the type of the data it can be: Equal to, Less than, Greater than
or Not Equal to. It is set by default to Equal to, but it can be changed according to the data
type. Select the appropriate condition form the menu that appears when clicking on the
condition column.
 Value: together with the condition field, it defines the actual condition of the Virtual
Contact. In case of data type Boolean, it can only assume value True or False.
 Time: represents the actual „trip time‟ of the virtual contact, or the time interpreted from the
goose that the device produces when the condition is verified. It cannot be modified, it is
automatically set by the software when a test is performed and a virtual contact has tripped.

In the lower part of the page, it is possible to set the Virtual Contacts trip conditions.
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In the situation here pictured, the test will trip, apart from the Trip contact conditions set in the main
page of the software in this conditions:
 trip of virtual contacts 1 and 2;
 trip of virtual contacts 3 and 4;
 trip of virtual contacts 5, 6 and 8;
 trip of the only contact 7.

A5.3.4 Substation files (SCD)


By choosing the menu item File – Open Substation File, it is possible to explore the configuration
of the substation as provided by the manufacturer.
A standard dialog window appears to let the user choose the file. At the selection, a new page of the
Goose Exploring window called Substation File is opened.

This page can be closed by pressing the button that is shown on the header. The page is very
similar to the Exploring Goose page. It shows a table in the Goose List frame that can be ordered
by a dropdown menu, and for each goose that is displayed it shows the relative data structure in the
Goose Details table.
The list of gooses and relative details here shown are not the result of an exploring session, they
represent the nominal configuration of the substation.
Exactly as for the Goose List frame in the Exploring Goose page, it is possible to set filters by
choosing a Dataset Reference or to use a detail to add a Virtual Contact.
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This page can also be used by the operator to compare the contents of the SCD file with the results
of an exploring session as contained in the Exploring Goose page.

A5.3.5 Virtual contact test example

As an example, let us follow the procedure to use the virtual contact.


 Select Explore now, and press: ; in the Goose list, a number of
messages are displayed.
 In the easy case, as ours, there is just one type of message. If this is not the case, you have to
refer to the Substation manager to know the meaning of the messages and of the bits in the
message. In alternative, you can select Explore at start, and then start a “Click and test” test.
The recorded messages are those related to the trip, and you can find the bit to be used,
because it will change from False to True, and again to False.

In our case, the situation is the following.

We have selected one of the messages: the details are shown below.
 Now we have to assign to one of the bits the task of becoming the virtual contact. We know
that the bit no. 1 is the good one; so, we left click on it to select it; then, we right click on it:
the following message is displayed.

 You have to left click on the set virtual contact message: the message disappears; the contact
has been acquired.
 Now, select the Virtual contacts tab: it looks like the following.
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The Virtual contacts line diplays the contact we have selected. However, there is one thing
we have to modify: we have to say that the test is finished when the contact becomes True.

Then, on the AND-OR line, we have to say that the test stops on the OR (or AND) of input
1.

Eventually, select Use virtual contacts to stop the test, and check Ignore binary inputs.

Now, you can proceed with your tests, as usual. When a test is performed, the program
displays the vcirtual contacts window: it is possible to read the virtual contact trip delay.
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If you select the Verify characteristic test, on this window you will read all the different
delays of all tests.

The fact that the measurement comes from a virtual contact is shown on the test result table.
For isntance, this is the result of the Verify characteristic test, performed at 90° on four zone
limits.

Instead of the measured time alone, in the T(s) column it is written the Virtual Contact
which tripped: in our instance, VC1.
Doc. MSE20080 Rev. 6.5.4 Page 138/147

A5.3.6 Publishing Gooses


The Publishing Gooses functionality is available only on DRTSxx instruments with IEC61850
board firmware version 1.00 and following.

Publishing Gooses is a different activity than exploring. In this case, gooses are not simply
explored, but generated by the instrument and sent on the network to which the instrument is
connected.
The instrument can therefore be both a publisher of Gooses and an explorer of Gooses.
In order to Publish a Goose, it is essential to capture a goose first and use it as a basis for the
publisher. Gooses can be obtained by exploring what is circulating on the 61850 network or by
selecting one from the list of gooses provided when loading a substation file.

Both the Goose List grid in the Exploring Goose page and the Goose List grid in the Substation
File page, allow the user to set a goose for publishing. When selecting a goose and right-clicking on
the grid, a menu appears as shown in the following picture.
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The Goose menu allows the user to select a goose for publishing by choosing the Publish Goose
menu item. This will copy the goose to the Goose Publishing list as displayed by the following
picture.

It is possible to set up to 16 different publishers. If the user tries to publish more than the maximum
number of publishers, the following message appears.
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The Goose List grid enables the user to interactively define the publishing depending on the
selection performed in each column of the grid:
 #: it represents the publisher port. Up to 16 different ports can be used at the same time,
therefore it is possible to publish 16 different gooses. The port number cannot be selected by
the user, it is automatically selected by the software when a goose is added to the list of
goose to be published. The port number is not important to the end of the publishing, it is
displayed just as an information to the user.

 Enable : By clicking on the cell identified by this column, it is possible to disable


the publishing of a goose during a publishing session. If the publisher is disabled, the entire
row is greyed-out and it is not possible to make any change until the goose is enabled again

 Status : A publisher can be in any of the two states: Idle ( ) or Running ( ).


When the publisher is in running mode, then the goose is ready to be published according to
the other selections in the grid. The entire row is greyed-out and it is not possible to make
any change. By clicking the cell identified by this column, it is possible to change the status
of the publisher from Idle to Running and from Running to Idle.
 Publish Mode: When clicking on the cell identified by this column it is possible to select
the Running mode of the Publisher:

If the selection is continuous, as soon as the publisher is set to running mode (see previous
column) the instrument starts publishing the goose immediately and continuously with a
period of 5 seconds. The publishing ends when the publisher is set to Idle (see previous
column)
If the selection is During Test, then when the publisher is set to running mode (see previous
column) the instrument does not start publishing the goose. The publishing will be
synchronized to the fault development when a test is performed according to the conditions
set through the columns Pre-Fault, Fault and Post-Fault.
 Dest Mac Address: this displays the Mac Address to which the goose is going to be
destined. This parameter cannot be changed and is inherited by the original goose that has
been selected for publishing
 Goose ID: as for the Mac Address, this parameter cannot be changed and is inherited by the
original goose that has been selected for publishing
 Dataset Reference: as for the Mac Address, this parameter cannot be changed and is
inherited by the original goose that has been selected for publishing
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 Prefault : By clicking on the cell identified by this column it is possible to define


whether the goose will be published during the prefault section of the test. As soon as a test
starts, for as long as the prefault conditions are generated the goose will be published, with a
period of 5 seconds. Gooses published during this section will normally simulate the
presence of healthy values on the line.

 Fault : By clicking on the cell identified by this column it is possible to define


whether the goose will be published during the fault section of the test. As soon as a test
starts, for as long as the fault conditions are generated the goose will be published, with a
period of 5 seconds. Gooses published during this section of the test will normally simulate
the presence of faulty values on the line.

 Postfault : By clicking on the cell identified by this column it is possible to define


whether the goose will be published during the post fault section of the test. As soon as a
test ends, for as long as the post fault conditions are generated the goose will be published,
with a period of 5 seconds. Gooses published during this section will normally simulate the
activity of the relay at the time of tripping.

 Test Mode : By clicking on the cell identified by this column it is possible to


define whether the goose will be published with the Test mode field set to 1 ( ) or 0 (no
icon).

 Commissioning : By clicking on the cell identified by this column it is


possible to define whether the goose will be published with the Commissioning field set to 1
( ) or 0 (no icon).

When clicking on a row of the Goose List grid, it is possible to view the data composition of the
goose in the Goose Details grid.
In this case it is possible to change the value of the data in order to prepare a different Goose for
publishing, for example it is possible to change the Value of Boolean data (between True and False)
to simulate the trip contact of the relay, or change the Value of BitString data.

Upon right-clicking on a row of the grid the following menu appears:

The Remove Goose option deletes the goose from the list of the publishers.
The Duplicate Goose option creates a copy of the goose in the list of the publishers.
The Delete All Gooses option clears the publishers list upon confirmation of the following
window:
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In order to stop the publishing of every publisher that has been set, press the Kill Publishing button.
This will set all publishers in idle mode.
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APPENDIX 6: IEC61850 -9

The standard IEC 61850-9 defines the characteristics of digital data to be transmitted to protection
relays instead of analog currents and voltages.

On the DRTS XX series, it is available an option, whose purpose is to allow generating these digital
data alone, or the analog and the digital data at the meantime. It is also possible to monitor a
physical relay contact, or the GOOSE message exchanged on the IEC61850-8 interface.

The connection of the IEC 61850-9 digital signals to the relay under test is made of two optical
fibers, which are connected on the rear of the test set.

NOTE: The DRTS 66 TX connector is to be connected to the relay RX connector, and vice versa.

The operation is the following. Connect the PC to the test set, and then press the icon : the
following window is opened.
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The first operation is to select if we want to generate the Sampled Values and the normal currents
and voltages, or the Sampled Values only.

The selection does not affect the further selection; however, with the first choice, the optical fibers,
current and voltage outputs are connected to the relay under test, while with the second one only the
optical fibers are connected.

Next, it is necessary to input the address of the relay under test, and a number of data related to the
relay settings.

All the above information are to be asked to the Substation Manager.

This performed, there are three slots, 1, 2 and 3, where it is possible to program the digital output
generation. Each slot includes four currents and four voltages: therefore, with this kind of
simulation, the test set is capable of generating up to 12 currents and 12 voltages at the meantime.
The following is slot 1: thee three slots are identical.
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The slot is divided in two parts.

In the upper part there are other data to be asked to the Substation Manager.

NOTE: for the ISATEST relay, the critical parameters are the followings:
 Sampled Value ID: it must be 15 characters long;
 VLAN ID: 1 for Slot 1; 2 for slot 2; 3 for slot 3.

Enable the slot: outputs will be generated.

In the lower part there are the data related to the relay connection.
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 Nominal frequency: the nominal plant frequency; it can be 50 Hz or 60 Hz.


 Number of samples: the standard foresees 80 samples per period.
 Nominal primary L-L voltage: the unit of measurement is kV.
 Nominal secondary L-L voltage: the unit of measurement is V.
 Nominal primary current: the unit of measurement is A.
 Nominal secondary current: the unit of measurement is A.
 Number of phases. For the test of a distance relay, three phases on the slot no. 1 are enough
to perform the tests.
 Description of currents and voltages of the various phases.

This performed, come back to the Connected AP folder, and press OK: the bottom left of the
window displays the following message.

After the file has been transmitted, you can return to the normal test execution, like with the normal
current generation: instead of generating currents and voltage, the test set is transmitting digital data
to the relay under test, which will react as usual, and the usual tests will be performed: the test result
table and diagram don‟t change. The following result was obtained with sample values only.
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NOTE: it is understood that the relay has available a trip contact, which is connected by two copper
wires to an input; inputs selection are performed as usual. If the relay does not have this output, but
just a communication path on the IEB61580-8 interface, then you have to select the Virtual Contact,
as explained in Appendix 2.