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MATH PHENOMENON 3

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Daniel Sitaru


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MATH PHENOMENON
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I – Famous Inequalities ............................................................................. 7

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CHAPTER II – Algebra ............................................................................................ 18

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CHAPTER III – Geometry ....................................................................................... 35

CHAPTER IV – Mathematical Analysis .................................................................. 41

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CHAPTER V – Solutions – Algebra.......................................................................... 53

CHAPTER VI – Solutions – Geometry ................................................................... 108

CHAPTER VII – Solutions – Mathematical Analysis ............................................. 128


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BIBLIOGRAPHY ....................................................................................................... 166
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FAMOUS INEQUALITIES 7

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Famous Inequalities

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Cauchy–Schwarz Inequality
2
§ n · § n 2 ·§ n 2 ·
¨ ¦ i i ¸  ¨ ¦ xi ¸¨ ¦ yi ¸
x y
©i1 ¹ © i 1 ¹© i 1 ¹
Minkowski Inequality

¦ ¦ ¦
1 1 1

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n n n

i 1
| xi  yi | p p
d i 1
| xi | p p
 i 1
| yi | p p
; for p t 1.
Hölder’s Inequality

¦ ¦
1 1
1 1
¦
n n n

i 1
| xi yi | d i 1
| xi | p p
i 1
| yi |q q
for p, q, > 1,  1.
p q
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Bernoulli Inequality
(1 + x)r t 1 + rx for x t 1, r   \ (0, 1). Reverse for r  [0, 1].
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(1 + x)r d 1 + (2r – 1)x for x  [0, 1], r   \ (0, 1).


1
(1 + x)n d for x  [–1, 0], n  .
1  nx
rx ª 1 ·
(1 + x)r d 1 + for x  « 1, ¸ , r > 1.
1  (r  1) x ¬ r 1¹
(1 + nx)n + 1 t (1 + (n + 1)x)n for x  , n  .
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(a + b)n d annb(a + b)n – 1 for a, b t 0, n  .


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p q
§ x · § x·
¨1  ¸ t ¨1  ¸ for (i) x > 0, p > q > 0,
© p¹ © q¹
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(ii) – p < –q < x < 0, (iii) –q > –p > x > 0. Reverse for:
(iv) q < 0 < p, –p > x > 0, (v) q < 0 < p, –p < x < 0.
Exponential Inequalities
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n n
§ x· § x· § x2 ·
e t ¨ 1  ¸ t 1 + x, ¨ 1  ¸ t ex ¨1  ¸ for n > 1, |x| d n.
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© n¹ © n¹ © n¹
x
n
xn § x· 2
e t x for x  , and
x e
+ 1 d ex d ¨ 1  ¸
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for x, n > 0.
n! © n¹
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x2
ex t 1 + x + for x t 0, reverse for x d 0.
2
x x
e–x d 1 – for x  [0, ~1.59] and 2–x d 1 – for x  [0, 1].
2 2

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1
< xx < x2 – x + 1 for x  (0, 1).
2 x
1 1

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x r (x – 1) d rx ( x r  1) for x, r t 1.
y
§ x·
xy

x + y > 1 and e > ¨1  ¸ ! e for x, y > 0.


y x x x y

© y¹
2
2 – y – x–x – y d 1 + x d y + ex – y, and ex d x + ex for x, y  .
Logarithm Inequalities
x 1
x
2x
d ln(x) d
x2  1

d ln(1 + x) d
2x
x
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§ 1 ·
d x – 1, ln(x) d n ¨ x n  1 ¸ for x, n > 0.
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for x t 0, reverse for x  (–1, 0].
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2 x x 1
1 n 1
ln(n + 1) < ln(n) + d ¦ d ln(n) + 1.
n i1i
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x
ln(1 + x) t for x  [0, ~2.51], reverse elsewhere.
2
x2 x3
ln(1 + x) t x –  for x  [0, ~0.45], reverse elsewhere.
2 4
x2 x3
ln(1 – x) t –x –  for x  [0, ~0.43], reverse elsewhere.
2 2
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Trigonometric Inequalities
x3 x cos x x3 x
x– d x cos x d d x 3 cos x d x – d x cos d sin x.
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2 x 6 3
1
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Hyperbolic Inequalities
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x cos x d
x3
d x 2§ x ·
d d
x cos x  2 x d x 2 .
cos ¨ ¸ sin x
sinh 2 x ©2¹ 3 sinh xc
§x· ª Sº
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2 x3
x d sin x d x cos ¨ ¸ d x d x + d tan x all for x  «0, 2 » .
S ©2¹ 3 ¬ ¼
§ x·
x ¨ D ¸
cosh(x) + D sinh(x) d e © 2¹
for x  , D  [–1, 1].
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Algebra

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a b c d 4
A.1. If a, b, c, d  (0, f), then:    t .
a  2b 2a  b c  2d 2c  d 3
A.2. If a, b, c  * \ {1}, then: §¨ 1  2 ·¸ §¨ 1  2 ·¸ §¨ 1  2 · 1
1 1 1
¸! .
© a ¹© b ¹© c ¹ 8

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A.3. If x1, x2, …, xn are positive real numbers; n  * and 4n ˜ x1x2 … xn = 1, prove that:
4n ( x12  x2 )( x22  x3 ) ˜ ... ˜ ( xn21  xn )( xn2  x1 ) t 1.
A.4. If x1, x2, …, x2n + 1  '; n  *; x1x2 ˜ … ˜ x2n + 1 = 1 then find x1, x2, …, x2n + 1 so that:
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|x1 – x2| = |x2 – x3| = … = |x2n – x2n + 1| = |x2n + 1 – x1|.
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§ S· § e·
A.5. Prove that: ¨1  ¸  ¨ 1  ¸ t 1024.
© e ¹ © S¹
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A.6. If x, y  '; |x| d 11; |y| d 100, prove that: x 5  y 7 ! .
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A.7. If x, y, z  (0, f) prove that:
x y z x yz
  d .
(1  x ) 2
(1  x  y ) 2
(1  x  y  z ) 1  x  y  z
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A.8. Prove that, for any x, y, z  (0, f).


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§ y 2 z 2 x x2 y 2 z z 2 x2 y ·
x3 + y3 + z3 + xyz(xy + yz + xz) t 8 ¨   ¸¸ .
¨ ( z  y )2 ( x  y )2 ( z  x)2
© ¹
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A.9. Prove that, for any x, y, z  (0, f).


§ x2 y y2 z z2 x ·
x3 + y3 + z3 + x + y + z t 4 ¨  
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¸.
©x y yz zx¹
A.10. Prove that in triangle ABC the following relation is valid:
¦ p  ab  ac d 2 ¦ a  b .
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A.11. If a, b, c  [2, 4] then: (a + b + c) §¨   ·¸ d .


1 1 1 81
©a b c¹ 8
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ALGEBRA 19

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A.12. Solve the system for real numbers:
­ x12  1
° x2
° 2
° x2  1
2

° x3

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° 2
°
®      ; n  `; n t 3
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°x xn21  1
° n
2
°
° xn  1
2

°̄ x1 2

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A.13. Prove that if a, b, c  (0, f), abc = 1, then:
a3(b2 + c) + c3(a2 + b) + b3(c2 + a) t 6.
Generalization: Prove that if a, b, c  (0, f), abc = x then:
a3(b2 + c) + c3(a2 + b) + b3(c2 + a) t x(8 x  x  1) .
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A.14. Prove that if x, y, z  [1, f) then:
¦ ( x  y)
cyc
z  1 d xy  yz  zx.
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A.15. Find the natural numbers (integers) a, b, c so that:


(1 + bc)(1 + ac)(1 + ba) = (1 + a)(1 + b)(1 + c)
A.16. Prove that for any a, b, c  (0, f); a z b z c z a.
§ 2 ab ·
¦ ¨a 
cyc © ab
 2 ab ¸  ¦ | a  b |
¹ cyc
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A.17. Prove that, if 1 d x d y < z d then:
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(x + y) 3  2 z + (y + z) 3  2 x + (z + x) 3  2 y < 2(xy + yz + xz).
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­( x  y )(1  z ) 20
A.18. Determine x, y, z  (0, f) so that: ®
¯ xyz 25
A.19. If a, b, c  (0, f) then:
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§ b ·§ a ·
¦ ¨© a  a 2 ¸¨ 1  ¸ c t 4(a  b  c).
¹© b ¹
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A.20. If m  ; m t 2; m – fixed and x, y, z  (0, f), find the minimum of the sum
x2
S= ¦ (my  z )(mz  y ) .
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