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1, 2006, 12–19

HARMONICS IN THE LINE CURRENT OF

SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTORS

∗

Abdelmalek Khezzar — Mohamed Boucherma

This paper describes a new approach for analysing the effect of the space distribution of rotor bars in squirrel cage

induction machines on the generation of rotor slot harmonics (RSH). An analytical expression of the stator current has

been developed. The proposed expression is based on the linkage inductance expression derived using the winding function

approach (WFA) and its decomposition into Fourier series. This approach describes the necessary relationship required for

the presence of rotor slot harmonics and explains how the stator current is influenced by voltage unbalance. Simulations

results have shown excellent match with theoretically predicted harmonic components.

K e y w o r d s: induction motor, rotor slot harmonics, voltage unbalance, Fourier series, diagnostics

mechanical and electrical faults.

The squirrel cage induction motor has been used in all Toliyat et al [7] have proposed the detection of air gap

kinds of electric drives more often than other electric mo- eccentricity in induction machines by measuring the har-

tors because of its reliability, robustness and simplicity of monic content in the stator current spectrum. By means

its construction. The classical theory of this electrome- of the winding function approach all the space harmonics

chanical component is based on the assumption that the were taken into account. Vas [3] has presented a formula

rotating mmf produced by stator winding excitation is for computing the frequency components in the stator

sinusoidally distributed in space and that the rotor mmf current which is due to air gap eccentricity. The frequency

components are found to be function of the fundamental

due to the slip frequency induced currents is similarly dis-

stator frequency, number of rotor slots, slip, type of ec-

tributed. This condition would only exist, however, if the

centricity and stator mmf time harmonics.

surfaces of the stator and rotor were both smooth, and

the windings were sinusoidally distributed on them. In the Thomson et al [8,9] have investigated inter-turn stator

faults by looking at RSH in the stator current spectrum.

real machine the windings are placed in slots and there-

Their results showed that one of the RSH in stator cur-

fore the resulting mmf and flux density distributions are

rent spectrum could be used to detect shorted turns in a

not sinusoidal but contain, apart from the fundamental

stator coil. However, recent works [10, 11] have led to con-

wave, a series of space harmonics.

clude that RSH can not be used as a specific sign on the

The space harmonics effects must be considered pre- occurrence of inter-turn short circuits in stator windings.

cisely during the design process of the induction machine The effects arising due to broken rotor bars have been

to achieve good motor performance. These effects are carefully studied in [12]. The results of this study showed

of many kinds: asynchronous crawling, locking and syn- that the two classical components (1 ± 2ks)f are not the

chronous crawling, magnetic noise, vibration and speed only effect due two rotor broken bars. There are other

ripples. On the other hand the space harmonics have also frequencies induced in the stator current around all RSH

a great influence on the harmonic content of stator cur- which can give more information about rotor asymmetry.

rents. Several authors [1-3] have shown that, as a result In this paper, the authors propose a new approach to

of the nature of the rotor cage winding, all space har- investigate the effect of space distribution of rotor bars

monics from the stator side will be reflected by the rotor in a squirrel cage induction machine on the generation of

and occur only at high frequencies in the stator current RSH. The main task is to present an analytical approach

spectrum. These harmonics known as rotor slot harmon- of stator current frequency components in order to anal-

ics (RSH) have found application in modern speed esti- yse in a more efficient way the information given by the

mation techniques [4–6]; in addition, recent works have stator current for the detection of voltage unbalance. At

∗ Electrical Laboratory of Constantine “LEC”, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mentouri University – Constantine, 25000 Con-

stantine, Algeria, E-mail: akhezzar@yahoo.fr

ISSN 1335-3632

Journal of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 57, NO. 1, 2006 13

where:

2π

a = pN r

is the electrical angle of a rotor loop,

ϕh is the initial phase angle,

h = 1 and h = (6ν ± 1)ν=1,2,... ,

+1 if h ∈ F ,

ξh =

−1 if h ∈ B

F = {1, 7, 13, 19, . . . } is the set of forward components,

B = {5, 11, 17, . . . } is the set of backward components.

FOR HEALTHY INDUCTION MACHINE

Fig. 1. Mutual inductance Msa r1 WITH BALANCED SUPPLY

the beginning, frequency components of the stator current If a symmetrical three phase stator winding of a squir-

for a healthy machine are analytically calculated. In the rel cage induction motor is supplied by a symmetrical

second step, the proposed study was extended to calculate voltage system, a forward rotating field is induced in its

the frequency components of the stator current under an air gap.

unbalanced supply. The proposed approach is based on The rotor currents which flow in the rotor loops as a

the Park mesh model and the linkage inductance matrix result of the forward field can be expressed as:

derived using the winding function approach (WFA) and

developed into its Fourier series.

..

.

[ir,k ] = Irm cos(sω s t − ka − γ) (3)

2 DETERMINATION OF THE MUTUAL

..

INDUCTANCE MATRIX RESOLVED .

INTO ITS FOURIER SERIES

According to the winding function theory the mutual where: s is the slip, γ is the initial phase angle, Irm is

inductance between any two windings (i) and (j) in the maximum value of the current.

any electric machine can be computed by the following The stator flux equations in vector matrix form can be

equation [13]: written as:

Z 2π

ni (ϕ, θ)Nj (ϕ, θ)

Lij (ϕ) = µ0 L r dθ (1) [ψ3s ] = [Ls ] · [i3s ] + [Msr ] · [irk ] . (4)

0 e(ϕ, θ)

where: ϕ is the angular position of the rotor with respect

to some stator reference, θ is a particular angular position Park’s transform is a well-known three-phase to two-

along the stator inner surface, e is the air gap function, phase transform in machine analysis. The transformation

L is the length of stack and r is the average radius of the equation for the stator windings is of the form

air gap. ni (ϕ, θ) is the winding distribution of coil i; it is

introduced to describe the considered coil, and Nj (ϕ, θ) t t

is the winding function of coil j ; it represents the mmf [Xsodq ] = Xso Xsd Xsq = P3 (θs ) X3s (5)

of the air- gap produced by a unit current flowing in the

considered coil. where the odq transformation matrix is defined as

Consider an induction machine having three symmet-

rical stator phases and Nr rotor bars. Figure 1 shows the

P3 (θs ) =

mutual inductance Msa r1 between the first stator phase

√

(a) and the first rotor loop. This implies that the mu- r 1/ 2

cos(θs ) − sin(θs )

tual inductance matrix presents harmonics with respect 2 √

1/ 2 cos(θs − 2π/3) − sin(θs − 2π/3) (6)

to the electrical angle θ . Consequently, this matrix can 3 √

1/ 2 cos(θs + 2π/3) − sin(θs + 2π/3)

be resolved into its Fourier series [12], [14]:

∞

here θs is the angular displacement between the Park

X

[Msr ] = Msr h ×

h=1 reference and the first phase of the stator.

Transforming the above set of the stator flux to the

cos(h(θ + ϕh )) ... cos(h(θ + ϕh + ka)) ...

cos h(θ + ϕh ) − 2ξ3h π . . . cos h(θ + ϕh + ka) − 2ξ3h π . . . Park reference frame using (5) we obtain

(2) ψsodq = Lsc · isodq + Msrp · irk (7)

14 M. Y. Kaikaa — F. Babaa — A. Khezzar — M. Boucherma: ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS OF ROTOR SLOT HARMONICS IN . . .

the order of harmonics present in the mutual inductance

−1 Lso 0 0 linkage matrix as described by (2), it follows that α and

Lsc = P3 (θs ) · Ls · P3s (θs ) = 0 Lsc 0 . (8) β are different from zero only when h belongs to the

0 0 Lsc following set:

r

G= h=1∪ h= ±1 ∩

p λ=1,2,3,...

r ∞

−1 3X o

Msrp = P3 (θs ) Msr = Msrh h = (6ν ± 1)ν=1,2,3,... (15)

2

h=1

... 0 ...

Considering the stator reference frame (θs = 0) and

× . . . cos θs − hξh (θ + ϕh + ka) . . . . (9)

substituting θ by (1 − s)ωs t in (11) and (12) leads to

. . . − sin θs − hξh (θ + ϕh + ka) . . .

∞ r

Substituting (8), (9) and (3) in (7), and eliminating

X 1 3

ψsd = Lsc Isd + Nr Msrh Irm cos(2πfsh t±hϕh −γ),

the zero sequence, we obtain 2 2

h∈G

(16)

Ls 0 I ∞ r

· sd

ψsdq = X 1 3

0 Ls Isq ψsq = Lsq Isq − Nr Msrh Irm sin(2πfsh t±hϕh −γ).

2 2

r ∞ h∈G

3X . . . cos θs − hξh (θ + ϕh + ka) . . .

+ Msrh (17)

2 . . . − sin θs − hξh (θ + ϕh + ka) . . .

h=1 Expression (16) and (17) show clearly that in addition

.. to the fundamental component, there exist also the so

. called rotor slot harmonics of orders h and frequencies

× Irm cos(sωs t − ka − γ) . (10)

fsh (p, Nr , λ) with

..

. h λN i

r

fsh (p, Nr , λ) = fs (1 − s) ± 1 . (18)

After performing simplifications, the stator flux equa- p

tion became

r These harmonic components are the direct conse-

1 3 quence of the space distribution of rotor bars.

ψsd = Lsc Isd + Irm α cos(θs ) + β sin(θs ) (11)

2 2 It should be mentioned

h that i

fsh1 (p, Nr , λ) = fs λN r

(1 − s) + 1 are the frequencies

r

1 3 p

ψsq = Lsc Isd + Irm β cos(θs ) + α sin(θs ) (12) λNr

2 2 related to the orders h = p + 1 λ=1,2,3,... .

h i

where fsh2 (p, Nr , λ) = fs λN

p

r

(1 − s) − 1 are the frequencies

λNr

∞ NX

r −1

related to the orders h = p − 1 λ=1,2,3,... .

X n 2πp

α= Msrh cos sωs t+h(θ+ϕh )+k(h−1) −γ By means of equation (5), the stator voltage in Park

Nr

h=1 k=0 reference frame and the line current equations can be

2πp o written as

+ cos sωs t − h(θ + ϕh ) − k(h + 1) −γ (13)

Nr

d

Vsdq = Rs · Isdq + ψsdq , (19)

dt

∞ NX

r −1

r

X n 2πp 2

β= Msrh sin sωs t+h(θ+ϕh )+k(h−1) −γ Isa = Isd . (20)

Nr 3

h=1 k=0

2πp o

− sin sωs t − h(θ + ϕh ) − k(h − +1) −γ (14) Equation (20) shows that to calculate the stator cur-

Nr

rent we need only the direct Park stator current compo-

nent (Isd ).

Expressions (13), (14) show that α and β are equal

to zero except when From (19) and (16) the differential equation giving the

direct component of Park stator current is

λN λN

h = ±1, h = ± −1 or h = ± +1 r ∞ r

p λ=1,2,... p λ=1,2,... dIsd 3 3

X 1

Rs Isd + Ls + = Vm cos(ωs t) + Nr

dt 2 2 2

h∈G

where p is the number of pole pairs, λ is a positive

integer. × Msrh Irm 2πfsh sin 2πfsh (p, Nr , λ)t ± hϕh − γ . (21)

Journal of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 57, NO. 1, 2006 15

Fig. 2. Electromagnetic and mechanical phenomena in the stator and the rotor

The resolution of equation (21) leads to the analytical and Irkn =

expression of the stator current

..

r .

2 Vm

I cos (2 η + 1) − s)ω t + ka − γ

Isa = p cos(ωs t − δ)+ = rmn s n

.

3 Rs + (Ls ωs )2

2

..

(25)

q . k=0,1,2,...,Nr −1

∞ 1 3

X 2 2 Nr Msrh Irm 2πfsh (p, Nr , λ)

q 2 In the same manner as described above, the stator flux

h∈G Rs2 + Ls fsh (p, Nr , λ)2π equation can be written as

r

× sin 2πfsh (p, Nr , λ)t − δh ± hϕh − γ (22) 1 3

ψsd = Lsc Isd + Irmp αp cos(θs ) + βp sin(θs )

2 2

Ls ωs Ls fsh (p,Nr ,λ)2π

with tan δ = and tan δh = .

r

Rs Rs 1 3

+ Lsc Isd + Irmn αn cos(θs ) + βn sin(θs ) (26)

2 2

4 CURRENT FREQUENCY COMPONENTS where

FOR A HEALTHY MACHINE WITH ∞ NX

X r −1 n

UNBALANCED VOLTAGE SUPPLY αp = Msrh cos (2η + s)ωs t + h(θ + ϕh )

h=1 k=0

As explained in [15], unbalance in a three phase voltage 2πp

supply causes negative sequence currents (ie backward + k(h − 1) − γp + cos (2η + s)ωs t − h(θ + ϕh )

Nr

field) in the stator windings. The interaction of this neg- 2πp o

ative sequence current with the fundamental frequency − k(h + 1) − γp (27)

Nr

rotor currents produces a pulsating torque at double main

frequency. This pulsating torque produces a speed ripple. ∞ NX

X r −1 n

The rotor speed variation gives rise to other frequen- βp = Msrh sin (2η + s)ωs t + h(θ + ϕh )

cies in the stator windings: 3fs , 5fs , . . . , (2η + 1)fs (ie h=1 k=0

positive sequence currents) and −3fs , −5fs , . . . , −(2η + 2πp

1)fs . . . , (ie negative sequence currents) with η = + k(h − 1) − γp − sin (2η + s)ωs t − h(θ + ϕh )

Nr

1, 2.3. . . . . Consequently new harmonic components oc- 2πp o

cur in the rotor side at: (2 + s)fs , (s − 4)fs , (4 + s)fs , (s − − k(h + 1) − γp (28)

Nr

6)fs , . . . and (2η + s)fs , (s − 2(η + 1)fs .

The electromagnetic and mechanical phenomena in ∞ NX

X r −1 n

the stator and the rotor can be summarized as shown αn = Msrh cos (2(η + 1) − s)ωs t + h(θ + ϕh )

in Fig. 2. h=1 k=0

In this case, the rotor currents which flow in the rotor 2πp

+ k(h + 1) − γn + cos (2(η + 1) − s)ωs t − h(θ + ϕh )

loops due to the negative and positive sequences currents Nr

are of the form 2πp o

− k(h − 1) − γn (29)

Nr

Irk = Irkp + Irkn (23)

∞ NX

X r −1 n

where Irkp =

βn = Msrh sin (2(η + 1) − s)ωs t + h(θ + ϕh )

h=1 k=0

..

. 2πp

+ k(h + 1) − γn − sin (2(η + 1) − s)ωs t − h(θ + ϕh )

= Irmp cos (2η + s)ω s t − ka − γp

Nr

2πp

o

.. (24) − k(h − 1) − γn (30)

. k=0,1,2,...,Nr −1 Nr

16 M. Y. Kaikaa — F. Babaa — A. Khezzar — M. Boucherma: ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS OF ROTOR SLOT HARMONICS IN . . .

q

here also αp , βp , and βn are different from zero only 1 3

2 Nr Msrh Irmp 2πfshp (p, Nr , λ, η)

∞

X 2

when h belongs to the following set: + p

h∈G

Rs2 + (Ls fsh (p, Nr , λ, η)2π)2

n λN

r

G= h=1∪ h= ±1 ∩

× sin 2πfshp (p, Nr , λ, η)t − δh ± hϕhp − γ

p ν=1,2,3,...

o q

1 3

h = (6ν ± 1)ν=1,2,3,... . (31) 2 Nr Msrh Irmp 2πfshn

∞

X 2

+ p

h∈G

Rs2 + (Ls fsh (p, Nr , λ, η)2π)2

Considering the stator reference frame (θs = 0) and

× sin 2πfshn (p, Nr , λ, η)t − δh ± hϕhn − γ (37)

substituting θ by (1 − s)ωs t in (26) leads to

Ls ωs Ls fshp (p.Nr , λ, η)2π

ψsd = Lsc Isd + with tan δ = , tan δhp = ,

Rs Rs

∞ r

X 1 3 Ls fshn (p.Nr , λ, η)2π

Nr Msrh Irmp cos 2πfshp (p, Nr , λ, η)t±hϕh −γp tan δhn = .

2 2 Rs

h∈G

∞ r

X 1 3

+Lsc Isd + Nr Msrh Irmn cos 2πfshn (p, Nr , λ, η)t 5 SIMULATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS

2 2

h∈G

± hϕh − γn (32) 5.1 For balanced voltage

Expression (32) shows that in addition to the fundamen- The simulated machine has 36 stator slots 28 bars, 2

tal component, there exist also a series of high harmonics poles and a rated power of 1.1 kW. The stator windings

of frequencies fshp (p, Nr , λ, η) and fshn (p, Nr , λ, η). are connected in star. Simulation results were obtained

Where using three phases, 380 V, 50 Hz ac source and were car-

ried out at a slip around 0.038. The spectral estimates

• the frequencies of the rotor slot harmonics which are

of stator currents have been normalized with respect to

caused by the positive sequence currents are

their respective fundamental components.

h λN

r

i Figure (3) shows the spectral content of the stator

fshp1 (p, Nr , λ, η) = fs (1 − s) + 1 + 2η current of the machine under healthy condition (balanced

p

λN supply). In addition to the fundamental harmonic appear

r

related to the orders h = +1 , (33) rotor slot harmonics.

p λ=1,2,3,...

h λN i

r

fshp2 (p, Nr , λ, η) = fs (1 − s) − 1 − 2η

p

λN

r

related to the orders h = −1 , (34)

p λ=1,2,3,...

caused by the negative sequence currents are

h λN i

r

fshn1 (p, Nr , λ, η) = fs (1 − s) + 1 + 2η

p

λN

r

related to the orders h = −1 , (35)

p λ=1,2,3,... Fig. 3. Simulated, normalized FFT spectrum of machine stator

current of induction machine having 28 rotor bars

h λN i

r

fshn2 (p, Nr , λ, η) = fs (1 − s) − 1 − 2η Table 1. Stator current frequency components predicted by equa-

p tions (15) and (18)

λN

r

related to the orders h = +1 . (36)

p λ=1,2,3,... Nr λ = 0 λ=1 λ=2 λ=3

fsh1 (1, 28, 3)

It is significant to note that the case of η = 0 cor- 28 fs fsh1 (1, 28, 1) fsh2 (1, 28, 2) &

responds to the case of neglected speed ripples. Finally, fsh2 (1, 28, 3)

in the same manner as above, the stator current can be

29 fs X fsh1 (1, 29, 2) X

written as

fsh1 (1, 30, 1) fsh1 (1, 30, 2) fsh1 (1, 30, 3)

r

2 Vm 30 fs & & &

Isa = 2 p cos(ωs t − δ) fsh2 (1, 30, 1) fsh2 (1, 30, 2) fsh2 (1, 30, 3)

3 Rs + (Ls ωs )2

2

Journal of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 57, NO. 1, 2006 17

bars demonstrated this fact (Fig. 4).

On the other hand the simulated stator current spec-

trum of a motor having 30 bars shows that all RSH can

be seen (Fig. 4).

due to voltage unbalance, the three machines were first

simulated with 5 % of unbalanced supply and without

speed ripple effects ( η = 0), (ie with an infinite iner-

tia value) [15]. The results are shown in Fig. 5 and are

tabulated in Table 2.

current of induction machines top 29 bars, bottom 30 bars

voltage unbalance and neglecting speed ripple effects

fshp1 (1, 28, 1, 0) fshp1 (1, 28, 2, 0) fshp1 (1, 28, 3, 0)

28 fs & & &

fshn2 (1, 28, 1, 0) fshn2 (1, 28, 2, 0) fshn2 (1, 28, 3, 0)

fshp1 (1, 29, 2, 0)

29 fs X & X

fshn2 (1, 29, 2, 0)

fshp1 (1, 30, 1, 0) fshp1 (1, 30, 2, 0) fshp1 (1, 30, 3, 0)

30 fs & & &

fshn2 (1, 30, 1, 0) fshn2 (1, 30, 2, 0) fshn2 (1, 30, 3, 0)

as predicted by (15) and (18) only one rotor slot har-

monic can be seen on the stator current spectrum at

fsh1 (1, 28, 1) = 1396.8 Hz and h = 28

1 + 1 = 29. The sec-

ond rotor slot harmonic (at fsh2 (1, 28, 1) = 1296.8 Hz)

did not show up because its order h = 28 1 − 1 = 27 does Fig. 5. Simulated, normalized FFT spectrum of machine stator

not belong to G , where G as described by equation (15) current with 5 % supply unbalance and neglecting speed ripple

is {1, 29, 55, 83, 85, . . . } effects from top 28, 29 and 30 bars

In order to study the effects of rotor bar number on

the generation of RSH, the 28 bar machine was replaced

by two machines having 29,30 rotor bars respectively. The In the case of Nr = 28 bars and λ = 1, as predicted by

results are shown in Fig. 4 and are tabulated in Tab. 1. (35) and (36) the order related to the fshn1 (1, 28, 1, 0) =

Firstly, it can be observed that not all machines are 1396.8 Hz component is h = 28 1 −1 = 27, the order related

capable of generating all RSH in the stator current. The to fshn2 (1, 28, 1, 0) = 1296.8 Hz is h = 281 + 1 = 29.

18 M. Y. Kaikaa — F. Babaa — A. Khezzar — M. Boucherma: ANALYTICAL ANALYSIS OF ROTOR SLOT HARMONICS IN . . .

quency components due to voltage unbalance for the cases

of (λ = 0) and (λ = 1).

It is important to note that in the case of λ = 1, the

harmonic components of frequencies

h i

Nr

fshp2 (p, Nr , λ, η) = fs p (1 − s) − 1 − 2η and

h i

Nr

fshn1 (p, Nr , λ, η) = fs p (1 − s) + 1 + 2η

G (Table 4).

current with speed ripple effects and 5 % supply unbalance (28

rotor bars) In this paper the generation mechanism of rotor slot

harmonics in stator current of a three phase squirrel in-

duction machine was analysed. It has been shown that

not all three phase induction motors are capable of gen-

erating all rotor slot harmonics. The presence of these

harmonic components in the stator current spectra de-

pends on the number of rotor bars, number of poles of

the induction machine, and slip.

In addition, it has been demonstrated that the voltage

unbalance is a potential source of generation of rotor slot

harmonics in the stator currant. A new formulation was

proposed in order to generalize and shed light on the

necessary relationships required for the presence of these

harmonic components.

Fig. 7. Zoomed spectrum of machine stator current with speed with voltage unbalance for ( λ = 0 )

ripple effects and 5 % supply unbalance (28 rotor bars)

0 fs = 50 Hz −fs

Since only 29 belongs to G , only the fshn2 (1, 28, 1, 0) =

1296.8 Hz component can be induced by the negative 1 3fs = 150 Hz −3fs

sequence current (ie backward rotating field). Similarly, 2 5fs = 250 Hz −5fs

by means of equations (31), (33) and (34), we can prove 3 7fs = 350 Hz −7fs

that the creation of the fshp1 (1, 28, 1, 0) = 1396.8 Hz

component in the stator current spectrum, as noted in Table 4. Stator current frequency components for healthy machine

Fig. 5, is due to the positive sequence current (ie forward with voltage unbalance for ( λ = 1 )

rotating field).

By similar arguments, we can explain the creation η fshp1 (p, Nr , λ, η) fshn2 (p, Nr , λ, η)

of fshn2 (1, 28, 2, 0) = 2739.8 Hz and fshp1 (1, 28, 2, 0) = 0 fshp1 (1, 28, 1, 0) = 1396.8 Hz fshn2 (1, 28, 1, 0) = 1296.8 Hz

2839.8 Hz components in the case of Nr = 29 bars and

1 fshp1 (1, 28, 1, 1) = 1496.8 Hz fshn2 (1, 28, 1, 1) = 1196.8 Hz

all RSH in the case of Nr = 30 bars respectively.

2 fshp1 (1, 28, 1, 2) = 1596.8 Hz fshn2 (1, 28, 1, 2) = 1096.8 Hz

In addition, it is clear that the classical component

at 3fs is missing for all the above cases. So, it can be 3 fshp1 (1, 28, 1, 3) = 1696.8 Hz fshn2 (1, 28, 1, 3) = 996.8 Hz

concluded that this component is related to speed ripple

effects.

The machine having 28 bars was simulated next with References

speed ripple effects. The results are shown in Fig. 6. It is

[1] ALGER, P. L. : The Nature of Induction Machines, Gordon and

obvious that new frequency components are now present Breach, London, UK, 1965.

in the stator current spectrum at fshp (λ, p, Nr , η) and [2] VAS, P. : Parameter Estimation, Condition Monitoring, and

fshn (λ, p, Nr , η). Diagnosis of Electrical Machines, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993.

Journal of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING 57, NO. 1, 2006 19

[3] JOCSIMOVIC, G.—KJUROVIC, M.—PENMAN, J. : Cage [15] FILIPETTI, F.—FRANCESCHINI, G.—TASSONI, C.—VAS,

Rotor MMF: Winding Function Approach, Power Engineering P. : AI Techniques in Induction Machines Diagnosis Including

Review, IEEE 21 No. 4 (2001), 64–66. the Speed Ripple Effect, Industry Applications, IEEE Transac-

[4] FERRAH, A.—BRADLEY, K. J.—ASHER, G. M. : An FFT- tions on 34 No. 1 (1998), 98–108.

Based Novel Approach to Non-Invasive Speed Measurement in

Induction Motors Drives, IEEE Transactions on Instrumenta- Received 14 April 2005

tion and Measurement Technology .41 No. 6 (1992), 797–802.

[5] ALLER, J. M.—RESTREPO, J. A.—BUENO, A.—GIMENEZ,

M. I.—PESSE, G. : Squirrel Cage Induction Machine Model for Mohamed Yazid Kaikaa was born in Oran, Algeria, in

the Analysis of Sensorless Speed Measurement Methods, De- 1977. He received the BSc degree in electrical engineering from

vices, Circuits and Systems, 1998, Proceedings of the Second

the University of Constantine, Algeria, in 2002, and the MSc

IEEE International Caracas Conference on, 2-4 March 1998.

degree in electrical and computer engineering from the Electri-

[6] NANDI, S.—AHMED, S.—TOLIYAT, H. A.—BHARADWAJ,

R. M. : Selection Criteria of Induction Machines for Speed-Sen- cal Engineering Institute of Constantine University, Algeria,

sorless Drive Applications, IEEE Transactions on Industry Ap- in 2005. He is a member of the Research Laboratory of Electric

plications 39 No. 3 (2003), 704–712. Machines and Drives Control and Diagnosis of Constantine,

[7] TOLIYAT, H. A.—AREFEEN, M. S.—PARLOS, A. G. : A Algeria. He currently works on his PhD thesis.

Method for Dynamic Simulation and Detection of Air Gap Ec-

Fatima Babaa was born in Chambéry, France, in 1975.

centricity in Induction Machines, IEEE Trans. on Industry Ap-

plication 32 No. 4 (1996), 910–918.

He received the BSc degree in electrical engineering from the

[8] THOMSON, W. T. : A Review of Online Condition Monitoring University of Constantine, Algeria, in 2003, and the MSc de-

Techniques for Squirrel Cage Induction Motors — Past, Present gree in electrical and computer engineering from the Electrical

and Future, Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE International Sympo- Engineering Institute of Constantine University, Algeria, in

sium on Diagnostic for Electrical Machines, Power Electronics 2005. He is a member of the Research Laboratory of Electric

and Drives, SDEMPED’99, 1999, pp. 3–18. Machines and Drives Control and Diagnosis of Constantine,

[9] THOMSON, W. T.—MCRAE, C. J. : On Line Current Moni- Algeria. He currently works on his PhD thesis.

toring to Detect Inter-Turn Stator Winding Faults in Induction

Motors, Proceedings of the 24th Universities Power Engineering Abdelmalek Khezzar (Ing, PhD), born in 1969, received

Conference, 1989, pp. 477–481. the BSc degree in electrical engineering in 1993 from Batna

[10] JOCSIMOVIC, G. M.—PENMAN, J. : The Detection of In- University, Algeria, and PhD degree from INPL “Institut Na-

ter-Turn Short-Circuits in the Stator Windings of Operating tional Polytechnique de Lorraine” Nancy, France in 1997. He is

Motors, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 47 No. 5 currently an assistant professor at Mentouri University, Con-

(2000), 1078–1084. stantine, Algeria, in the Department of Electrical Engineering.

[11] LU, Q. F.—RITCHIE, E.—CAO, Z. T. : Experimental Study of

His main research interests are power electronics and drives

MCSA to Detect Stator Winding Inter-Turn Short Circuit Faults

on Cage Induction Motors, In proc. International Conference on

and analysis of electrical machines with special emphasis on

Electrical Machine ICEM’2004, Lódź, Poland, 5–8 Sep. 2004. fault diagnosis.

CD proceeding. Mohamed Boucherma was born in Jijel, Algeria, in

[12] KHEZZAR, A.—KAIKAA, M. Y.—BOUCHERMA, M. : Ana- 1959. He received the BSc degree in Electrical Engineering,

lytical Investigation of Rotor Slot Harmonics in a Three Phase from the University of Annaba, Algeria, in 1985, the MSc

Induction Motor with Broken Rotor Bars, EPE 2005, Dresden,

degree in power system Engineering from the University of

11-14 Septemper, number 0350.pdf, CD proceeding.

Strathclyde Scotland, in 1989, and the PhD in Electrical En-

[13] LUO, X.—LIAO, Y.—TOLIYAT, H. A.—EL-ANTABLY, A.—

LIPO, T. A. : IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. gineering, from Sheffield University, England, in 1994. He is

[14] CHENY, C.—KAUFFMANN, J. M. : Information Losses in currently a lecturer at Mentouri University Constantine, Al-

Decoupling Space Harmonics Effects for an Induction Drive, geria, in the Department of Electrical Engineering. His main

Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 46 (1998), 361–372. research interests are power systems and electrical machines.

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