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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

The research entailed:- The Background , Statement of the Problem, Purpose of the

Study, Objectives, Significance of the Study, Delimitation and limitation and Definition

of Operational Terms.

1.1 Background of the Study

In Kenya and other parts of the world, the family is responsible for problems faced by the

children. Therefore there is need for them to provide full protection and enough care.

Sear (1964) mentioned on family as the provider of basic needs to the children, hence

parents and other caregivers have to provide for children to flourish as mentioned by

Albert Bandura and Ronkos (1993).

The role of parents or guardians is therefore crucial in building up a modern and

independent economy which is in need of adequate domestic manpower on child learning

and how well a child performs in school. They are responsible in providing adequate

basic needs such as food, shelter and clothing.

The parents and the local communities are responsible for provision of local physical

facilities, provision of play and learning materials, establishment and learning materials,

establishment and sustainability of feeding programme in ECD center.

DICECE and other child rearing centres are advocating for the needs and rights of

children and ensuring the sustainability of ECD programmes including establishing and

maintaining resource centers.

Over 70% of ECD centers are owned by CBOs/ FBs and managed by local communities.

The parents and communities are responsible for employment and upkeep of teachers.

The NGOs/ CBOs provide the structures, management of the center and provide teaching
and learning materials. This will therefore motivate children to attend schools at early

age, hence increasing enrolment and eliminating child’s hindrance in attending the ECD.

In Kokwet zone of Chilchila division, Kipkelion district, many children of pre- school

age are still at home because their parents or guardians have very low income. Most of

them depend on wages so their daily living is just from hand to mouth. Therefore this has

made the researcher to conduct the study about effects of parents’ economic status in

relation to enrolment in the zone.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Childhood is a crucial period of growth and development. This is because a child, who is

well provided with adequate basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, medical care and

education will acquire a sense of security, feels safe and confident. If the parent or

guardian is poor, the child will end up getting involved in child abuse whereby they live

under abnormal conditions which are not favourable for proper learning.

In many Kenyan pre- schools, enrollment of children is still below average or expected

rate; this indicates that there is need to address the real causes of these problems. The

acute enrollment of children also seems to have extended to standard one in most of the

public primary schools, hence have resulted into inequality in access to available services

in the country.

Parents who are poor are often not able to pay school fees so their children end up not

being enrolled in the ECD centers. Even when they manage to get fees their children may

be frequently absent from school because of hunger and lack of uniforms. Therefore this

made the researcher to conduct the study about effects of parents’ economic status on

enrolment of ECD children in Kokwet zone, Chilchila Division, Kipkelion District.

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1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to investigate how parents’ economic status has affected

enrollment of children in ECD centres in Kokwet zone of Chilchila Division, Kipkelion

District.

It also sought to establish the participation of parents in ECD centers in the zone and

hence find ways of increasing ECD enrollment in Kokwet Zone of Chilchila Division,

Kipkelion District.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The research was conducted in eight ECD Centers of Kokwet zone, Chilchila division,

Kipkelion district.

The study was guided by the following objectives:-

i. To establish the participation of parents in ECD centers in Kokwet zone.

ii. To investigate how parents’ economic status affects enrollment of children in

ECD centers in the zone.

iii. To find ways of increasing ECD enrollment in the zone.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study are hoped will enlightened and contribute knowledge to various

partners in Early Childhood Development Sector.

These particular research findings will be of great benefit to the Ministry of Education in

implementing of policies that will govern and direct ECD centres, from the findings of

the study, to look for ways and means of financing Early Childhood Education.

NACECE and DICECE to be of great importance in development of relevant and

appropriate teaching/ learning materials.

Parents on the other hand will broaden their awareness in provision of facilities and

teaching/ learning materials as it is one of the major roles in the ECD centers.

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1.6 Delimitations and Limitations

1.6.1 Delimitation

 As a resident, the researcher was advantaged by being familiar with the area of

the study.

 The researcher at the same time is well conversant with the language of the

catchment area thus leads to easy communication during the study.

 Most of the head teachers and ECD teachers were familiar with the researcher and

this created a free atmosphere during the study and there was no suspicion

whatsoever.

1.6.2 Limitations

 The schools were not accessible through roads so researcher took along time

traveling from one school to another for data collection.

 Topography of the area was also a problem to the researcher; she had to walk on

hills and valleys to reach the targeted schools.

 Since the study was conducted during rainy season, the researcher was rained on

and some streams were and because of lack of bridges, the researcher found it

challenging to get to all sampled schools.

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1.7 Definition of Operational Terms

Poverty – A situation in which someone does not have enough money to pay for their

basic needs.

Community – In the study it refers to the people who live together and share

responsibilities of the schools under the study.

Stakeholders – These are parents, teachers and any other bodies promoting and

improving the programmes of the schools under study.

Malnourished – Weak or ill because you do not eat enough of the right foods.

ECD- This stands for Early Childhood Development in reference to the period of years

between 3-7 years in the study.

DICECE- This means District Center for Early Childhood Education office in charge of

disseminating early childhood activities in the district.

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CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.

2.0 Introduction

The review of literature was focused on the following areas:-

i. Effects of parents’ economic status on enrollment in the ECD centers.

ii. Parents’ participation in improving enrollment in the ECD centers.

2.1 Effects of parents’ economic status on enrollment in the ECD centers.

According to Margaret Karibu and Ann Njenga (2007), the theory of motivation is

highlighted based on Maslow theory of motivation, which emphasizes that human needs

are built on hierarchy:- physiological, safety, psychological needs then transcendental

needs.

These needs are satisfied by endowment and economic status of parents. According to

this theory therefore, children who come from less endowed family will feel low esteem.

Many children from poor households will drop out or play truancy owing to low self-

esteem.

According to the sociology Alive Second Edition by Stephene Moore (1996), a lot of

emphasis is put on home background. This writer dwells on material deprivation in view

of this theory; lack of amenities at home makes it difficult for the child to study or attend

school. If the family is poor, there is likelihood of children dropping out of school or

playing truant.

According to the Ophra Magazine (2001) by Ophra Community Canada, emphasizes on

building capacities of children when they are young. It entails giving them food, shelter

and security.

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The same writer of Sociology Alive Stephen moor, The Poverty Trap, talks of deprivation

which means lack of food, clothes and shelter (1996). It states that children brought up in

poor homes are less likely to go out and more so the school, have presents and treats,

have holidays or good clothes.

2.2 Parents’ participation in improving enrollment in the ECDE centers

The most important function of the family is to provide for a child’s needs, states Pamela

Minett (1994). These needs include food, shelter, warmth and clothing, love and

companionship, protection and support, care and training and a secure environment in

which they can develop into young adults. These basic needs are essential for a child to

perform well at the ECD level. As Ritchie (1983) noted, a family that can meet the needs

of its children and one whose parents and other members, because of love and concern,

creates a secure and a happy atmosphere in which loyalty and responsibility to each other

are assured. Such a family must have sufficient resources to meet the requirements and

the references of all its members for food, clothing, shelter and a healthy environment

and an opportunity to learn and have leisure. He pointed out that in large families the

parents are unable to provide these basic needs to their children. Such parents are unable

to clothe, provide enough food to their children and also pay levis charged at ECDE

centres.

Moloyd (1998) and Seifer (2001) argue that the positive effects on cognitive development

can be achieved if parents and guardians took their roles seriously and if ECDE

programmes are prepared and executed professionally.

MOEST (2001) states that parents in the local community play a crucial and key role in

the development of quality teaching / learning resources to facilitate learning in the

ECDE centers. They also participate in provision of adequate facilities.

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The parents and local communities shall be responsible for provision of physical

facilities, provision of play and learning materials, establishment and sustainability of

feeding programmes and GMP underlined by ECDE Services Standard Guidelines

(2006).

For the child, the mere presence of his father or mother is not enough. Active care

through loving words, physical contact and simple games, stimulates his learning and

helps to develop his sociability and emotional security. In addition, it will provide him

with pleasure stated by Jean Piaget (1932).

Nancy Van Pelt (1984) stated that the child who suffers parental rejection ends up having

learning difficulties such as poor memory, lack of reasoning ability and difficulty

adapting to school life. This implies that the child should feel parental acceptance in order

to adapt to school life without any difficulty.

Eric Erikson (1950), stated that the trust is the most important psychological task of the

first year of life. If the environment meets the child’s psychological needs and emotional

needs, the child learns to trust in his surroundings. The implications of this theory are

particularly relevant to the baby’s future. It shows that there is a connection between

early experiences and success or failure in later adjustments. In any case, the parental role

is vital in helping the child to develop in a complete and balanced way.

Sear (1994) mentioned on family as the provider of basic needs to the children, hence

parents and other care givers have to provide as mentioned by Albert Bandura and

Ronkos (1993)

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CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

This research project contains the following methodology components:-

i. The research design

ii. Location of the study

iii. Target population

iv. Sampling procedures and sample size

v. Data collection instruments

3.1 Research Design

The researcher used descriptive survey design. She collected current and reliable

information though asking and recording.

The researcher used descriptive survey method to collect data, to find the effects of

parents’ economic status on enrolment of children in ECDE centres.

3.2 Location of Study

The study was carried out in Kokwet zone, Chilchila division of Kipkelion district.

Kokwet zone is situated to the northern part of Chilchila. The main cash crops grown are

maize, coffee, tea and horticultural farming is practiced.

In Kokwet zone, the roads are impassible especially during rainy season; people are

forced to travel by foot for about 17 kilometers to get a vehicle. Incase of lack of any

means of transportation, donkeys come in handy.

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The economy of the area is very low. Most of the residents depend on wages to earn a

living. The researcher decided to choose the zone due its lowest enrolment in ECD

centres than lower primary.

3.3 Target Population

The target population of the study was 19 head teachers and 32 ECD teachers in the zone.

A zonal QASO and 2 Area Chiefs. There are 26 ECD centres in the zone with a total

population of 960 children.

3.4 Sampling Technique and Sample Size

3.4.1 Sampling techniques

The schools were selected using Simple Random Technique. Other participants like the

QASO and the Area Chiefs were selected using Purposive Sampling Technique.

These procedures were suitable because each member of the respondents had equal

chances of being selected as a member of the sample.

3.4.2 Sample size

The participants of the study were drawn from 26 ECD Centres in Kokwet zone.

A sample of 8 schools was selected. Other participants such as the head teachers were

40% of the selected schools from the entire population, 8 ECD teachers representing 32

ECD teachers from the target population, one QASO representing the zone and two Area

Chiefs representing the two locations.

3.5 Research Instruments

The researcher intended to use the following tools to collect the relevant data:

 Observation checklist
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 Interviews

 Questionnaires

3.5.1 Observation Checklist

This was used to find out the enrollment of children in the ECD Centres in the zone.

It was also used to find out the availability of learning facilities and resources in the ECD

Centres.

3.5.2 Interviews

This was used to ask questions for more information from Area Chiefs and zonal QASO

in order to compare the total number of birth with the enrolment of children in ECD

Centres of the age of 3-7 years.

3.5.3 Questionnaire

This was administered to the head teachers and ECD teachers to collect the following

information:-

 Enrolment of children in ECD Centers.

 Availability of learning facilities

 Availability of teaching and learning resources.

 Community participation in maintaining ECD Centres.

3.6 Data Collection Procedure

The researcher was issued with an introduction letter from the Programme Officer

Kericho District Centre for Early Childhood Education (DICECE) which was taken to the

D.E.O Kipkelion District.

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The D.E.O Kipkelion District in turn wrote another letter to introduce and permit the

researcher to conduct the study in Kokwet zone, Chilchila division.

3.7 Data Analysis

The data collected was analyzed in frequency tables, tallying and percentage. The

analyzed data was presented using graphs and pie charts.

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CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Introduction.
This study set to investigate on the effects of parents economic status on ECD enrollment
in Kokwet zone, Chilchila Division of Kipkelion District. This raw data was obtained
through questionnaires, interviews and observation guides. The chapter is highlighted in
sub-units as follows:

i) The data collected from questionnaires.


4.2.1 Community participation in maintaining ECD Centre.
The researcher intended to investigate whether parents participate in maintaining
ECD ce from the head teachers through a questioaire.
Table 4.2.1. Shows the findings.
RESPONSE TALLY FREQUENCY PERCENTAGES
Strongly agreed __ 0 0
Agreed // 2 25%
Not sure // 2 25%
Disagree 3 37.5%
///
Strongly disagreed / 1 12.5%
8 100%

Figure 4.2.1. Show the analysis of the data collected.


Frequencies

Response
Observation
From the above table, it can be observed that out of the 8 respondents 2 (25%) agreed that
parents participate in maintaining ECD centre, while 2(25%) were not sure whether

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parents participate or not. The other 3(37.5%) disagreed and 1(121.5%) strongly
disagreed that parents do not participate in maintaining ECD centres.
From the information obtained from table 4.2.1. it is evident that parents who participate
in maintaining ECD centres has a very low percentage (25%) while 50% do not
participate ink maintaining ECD centres. This shows that most of the parents do not
consider ECD education as being important.
4.2.2. Parents economic status.
The researcher wanted to find our parents economic standards from the ECDteachers.
Table 4.2.2. Shows the findings.
Response Tally Frequency Cumulative Frequency Percentage
Very high - 0 0 0%
High - 0 0 0%
Moderate // 2 2 25%
Low /// 3 5 37.5%
Very low /// 3 8 37.5%
Total 100%

Figure 4.2.2. Shows the Analysis.


Cumulative frequency

Response

Table 4.2.2 shows that 2 (25%) of the parents economic standards are moderate,
3(37.5%) are low, while the other 3(37.5%) are very low.
According to table 4.2.2, majority of parents are poor or are below poverty level and only
a few are able to meet their children needs a percentage of 25% in the zone.

From this information we can say that the low – income state of parent is a major factor
that affects enrolment of children in ECD centres.
Effects of parent’s economic status on ECD enrollment.

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The researcher intended to establish if parents’ economic status affects ECD enrollment
from the ECD teachers.
Table 4.2.3. Depicts the findings.

Response Tally Frequency Percentages


Strongly agreed //// 4 50%
Agreed //// 4 50%
Not sure - 0 0%
Disagreed - 0 0%
Strongly disagree - 0 0%
8 100%

Figure 4.2.3. Analyzed the data

50% 50%

From the table above, it can be observed that out of 8 respondents 4 (50%) agreed that
parents economic status has negatively affected enrollment in ECD centres, while the
other half strongly agreed with the fact.
From the information obtained from table 4.2.3, it can be said that the question had two
answers, those who strongly agreed and those who agreed with the same. This shows that
parent’s economic status is the major cause of low enrolment in the ECD centres.
4.2.4. Payment of salary
This sought to establish whether teachers’ salaries are paid on time from the ECD
teachers.
Table 4.2.4 below depicts the findings.

Response Tally Frequency Percentages


Strongly agreed //// 4 50%
Agreed //// 4 50%
Not sure - 0 0%

15
Disagreed - 0 0%
Strongly disagree - 0 0%
8 100%

Figure 4.2.4. Analyzed the data

50% 50%

Observation.
Table 4.2.4, it is clear that out of 8 respondents who took part in answering the question
on payment of teachers salary, 4(50%) disagreed that teachers salries are paid on time,
while the other 4 (50%) strongly disagreed that teachers’ dues are paid on time.
From the information obtained from table 4.2.4, it is evident that ECD teachers dues are
not paid on time.
It is therefore true to say that the low income state of parents had an impact on payment
of ECD teachers’ salaries on time in the zone.

Adequacy of teaching and learning resources.


The researcher intended to find out whether there are adequate teaching and learning
resources from the ECD teachers.
Table 4.2.5. Depicts the findings.
Response Tally Frequency Percentages
Strongly agreed //// 4 0%

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Agreed //// 4 0%
Not sure - 0 0%
Disagreed - 0 37.5%
Strongly disagree - 0 62.5%
8 100%

Figure 4.2.5. Analyzed the data.


Frequency

Response

From the table above, it is clear that out of 8 respondents who took part in answering the
question on the adequacy of teaching and learning resources, 3 (37.5%) disagreed that
there is no adequate teaching and learning resources, while 5 (62.5%) strongly disagreed
that teaching and learning resources are noit adequate.
Therefore it is clear that the parents economic status is very low hence they cannot afford
to buy adequate teaching and learning resources.
4.2.6. Registered children and drop out.
The researcher sought to find out the registered children and drop out from the ECD
teachers.

Table 4.2.6. Shows the findings


ECD CENTRE ENROLMENT DROP OUT REGULAR ATENDANCE
A 51 5 46
B 29 4 25
C 25 3 22
D 29 5 24
E 36 4 32
F 34 6 28
G 24 3 21
H 39 5 34
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267 35 232
No of children Figure 4.2.6. Shows the analysis

ECD Centres

Out of 267 children registered at the beginning of the year 35 of them dropped out of
school, which is 13.11% of the enrolment.
From the table above, it is evident that children dropped out of school as a result of
failing to clear school fees.
Data collected from observation from observation schedule.

Table 4.3.1
Physical facilities and their condition in ECD centres.
PHYSICAL FACILITY CONDITION
VERY GOOD GOOD MODERATE BAD VERY BAD
Chairs 0 0% 2 25% 4 50% 2 25% 0 0%
Tables 0 0% 2 25% 3 37.5% 3 37.5% 0 0%
Building 0 0% 2 25% 5 62.5% 1 12.5% 0 0%
Latrines 0 0% 0 0% 1 12.5% 5 62.5% 2 25%
Kitchen 0 0% 0 0% 1 12.5% 3 37.5% 4 50%
Fixed play equipment 0 0% 0 0% 4 50% 2 25% 2 25%
Loose play 1 12.5 0 0% 4 50% 3 37.5% 0 0%
equipment %
Store 0 0% 0 0% 1 12.5% 3 37.5% 4 50%

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The information obtained from the table 4.3.2 indicates that loose play most equipment
was rated firsts that is in a very good condition as suggested by 1(12.5%) of the
respondents. Second in the rank was chairs, tables and building that is in a good as
suggested by 2(25%) in each physical facility.
Fixed play equipment was also rated as the third in the rank as suggested by 4(50%) that
it is a moderate condition latrines as in a bad condition was rated fourth as suggested by
5(42.5%), while kitchen and the store was rated lasts that is in a very bad condition as
suggested by 4(50%) in each physical facility.
Findings for the observation
It is evident that parents of Kokwet zone value other physical facilities than others. It is
clear that loose play equipment won because the teacher can improvise without involving
parents. Whereas chairs, tables and building are seen to be of great importance by
parents; that is why it falls under good moderate condition.
Sanitation and feeding programme are valued low as it is evident under bad and very bad
condition.

4.3.1.1 Furniture’s condition.


4.3.1.2 The researcher intended to find out the condition of furniture in ECD centres
through observation.

Table 4.3.12 Shows the findings


CONDITION TALLY FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Very good __ 0 0%
Good // 2 25%
Moderate //// 4 50%
Bad // 2 25%
Very bad __ 0 0%

Figure 4.3.1.3: Histograph showing the condition of furniture in ECD centres.


Frequency

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Condition

Observation
From the frequency table above, it shows that 2(25%) rated the condition of the furniture
in a good condition 4(50%) in a good condition while 2(25%) rated the condition of the
furniture in a good condition while 2(25%) rated in a bad condition.
Table 4.3.1.4 Buildings
The researcher intended to find out the condition of building through observation.
CONDITION TALLY FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE
Very good __ 0 0%
God // 2 25%
Moderate /// 3 37.5%
Bad // 2 255
Very bad / 0 12.55
8 100%

Figure 4.3.1.4 a bar graph showing the condition of buildings.


Figure 4.3.1.4. Shows the analysis.
Frequency

Condition
Observation
From the table above it can be observed that 2(25%) of the buildings are in a good
condition, 3(37.5%) are in a moderate condition, 2(25%) rated in a bad condition while
1(12.5%) rated in a very bad condition.
Play equipment
Table 4:3:1:5. The researcher wanted to find out the condition of play equipment through
observation.

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Condition Tally Frequency Percentage
Very good / 1 12.5%
Good // 2 25%
Moderate / 1 12.5%
Bad /// 3 37.5%
Very bad / 1 12.5%
Total 8 100%

Figure 4:3:1:5. Represent the data


Frequency

Condition
Observation
From the table above, it is evident that 1 (12.5%) of the play equipment is in a very good
condition, 2 (25%) are in good condition, 1 (12.5%) in a moderate condition while 4
(50%) rated under bad and very bad condition.
4.3.2. Children population in the zone
The following data represent 26 schools in the zone with a population of 960. Each ECD
centre has a population as shown below.
34 47
21 36
22 41
38 39
29 30
39 44
46 35
43 29
40 48
42 40
38 26

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36 42
Table 4.3.2.
The table below shows the population of the ECD children in Kokwet Zone from the Z
QASO.
Population interval Mid – Point Tally Frequency Cumulative frequency
20-24 22 // 2 2
25-29 27 /// 3 5
30-34 32 /// 3 8
35-39 37 /// // 7 15
40-44 42 /// /// 8 23
45-49 47 /// 3 26

Figure 4.3.2. Represent the data


Frequency

iii. The data collected from Interviews

Population mid points


4.4.1. Number of births versus ECD enrolment
The number of ECD children enrolled in the zone. The information was obtained from
the ZQASO.
Table 4.4.1.
Years 3 yrs 4 yrs 5 yrs 6 yrs Total
B 77 148 115 137
G 99 136 116 132
960
Table 4.4.2.
The number of births registered in chiefs’ office. The information was obtained from the
area chief.

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Years 3 yrs 4 yrs 5 yrs 6 yrs Total
B 107 178 145 167
G 129 166 146 162
1220

The above data was analyzed in the following pie chart.

21.31%

78.69%

ECD enrolment = 78.69%


Children left out = 21.31%
The information obtained from the pie chart, shows that the children enrolled in ECD
centres are 78.69% out of the whole population in the zone, while 21.31% are left out or
did not enroll in any ECD centre.
From this information we can say that the low – income state of parent is a major factor
that affects enrolment of children in ECD centres. It is evident that some parents are poor
so they are not able to meet their children needs nor take them to school.

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CHAPTER FIVE
5.0. Introduction
This chapter contains the summary of the whole study, conclusion and recommendation
of the findings.
5.1. Summary
Several factors have already been observed elsewhere in this report as affecting the
enrolment of children in ECD centres.
However the degree to which each factor affects the enrolment varies accordingly
From the research data analysis, it is evident that parent’s economic status has affected
ECD enrolment in the light of the fact that the economic standard of most parents in
Kokwet Zone is very low.
5.2. Conclusion.
In Kokwet Zone, it is evident from the findings that there is a problem in enrolment of
children in ECD centres, the major problem being poverty.
Although parents would like to take their children to ECD centres for learning, they
experience a lot of hardship in payment of school fees. Most of these parents are living
below the level of substances agriculture while others depends on casual jobs for family
income.
The researcher after comparing the number of births and the number of children who
enrolled in EC D centres, concluded that other parents do not take their children to ECD
centres. This is because of the low income of parents thus children are withdrawn from

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ECD left at home looking after the younger siblings and some are involved in the casual
jobs to supplement their family income.
Concerning parent’s participation in maintaining ECD centre, it is evident that due to low
income of parents the ECD centres in Kowet Zone are undergoing many challenges such
as:
i. No adequate teaching and learning materials.
ii. Teacher’s salaries are not paid on time.
iii. Enrolment of children is low.
iv. Cases of drop – out is rampant.
v. Condition of physical facilities is pathetic.
From the findings therefore, the researcher concluded strongly that parents economic
status affects the enrollment on ECD children in Kokwet zone.
5.3. Recommendations
The researcher after going through the findings and conclusions of the research report
came out with the recommendations to the implemented in order to improve the rate of
enrollment in ECD centre. The recommendations are addressed to the government of
Kenya, the ministry of education and other stakeholders in the welfare of our children.
The recommendations contained herein are:
 The government of Kenya makes ECD free and compulsory to enable more
children to afford it.
 The government should consider giving ECD teachers some incentives for them
to work harder in developing those children holistically. The teachers can be more
effective in their work if the government pays or employ them on permanent
terms like other civil servants in other sections of the ministry of education.
 The policy makers should come up with a policy on how ECD can be supported
to enable children at early age to be able to acquire the required education.
 Children’s rights should be protected by the responsible authorities. This will
ensure that young children are not involved in the labour force and instead be
taken to ECD for growth, development and education. Other challenges such as
drop out should be addressed by the responsible authorities.
 The teachers, ECD teachers, QASOS and other stake holders should team up and
sensitize the community on the importance of early years of life through
community mobilization.

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 Parents should be involved in supporting their children by ensuring that they get
basic Education needs as required. A part from this, they should also ensure that
they provide school requirements like uniforms and general moral support
necessity for children to succeed in their schooling.
 School management committees should always be exposed to workshops and
seminars for them to learn management skills

If all these are adhered to, the country will have produced good reliable citizen in the near
future. This will ensure that there is accomplishment of national goals of education.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Erickson, E.H, (1950) Childhood and Society. New York: Norton.

2. Ritchie, A.S. (1983). Nutrition and Family. Nairobi: East Africa Publishers.

3. Minnet, P. (1994). Child Care and Development. London: John Murray.

4. MOEST, (2003). Guidelines for Early Childhood Development. Nairobi: K.I.E

5. Policy framework, (2006). ECDE Services Standard Guidelines. Nairobi: K.I.E

6. UNESCO, (2006). Policy Brief Childhood. No 30/ January- February

7. Piaget, J, (1932). The Moral Judgment of the Child. New York: Harcourt Brace.

8. Van Pelt, N. (1984). Train up a Child. Washington: Review and Herald.

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APPENDIX A: Observation Checklist
Availability of physical facilities and their condition

Name of the ECD Centre………………………………………………………….

Scale to be used:
5- Very good condition
4 – Good condition
3- Moderate condition
2 – Bad condition
1 – Very bad condition

Physical facility Condition


Chairs 1 2 4 5
3

Tables 1 2 3 4 5

Building 1 2 3 4 5

Latrines
1 2 3 4 5

Kitchen 1 2 3 4 5

Fixed play equipment


1 2 3 4 5
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Store 1 2 4 5
3

Loose play equipment


1 2 3 4 5

APPENDIX B: Questionnaire for Early ECD Teachers


You are kindly requested to write your responses by ticking in the brackets provided.
Where necessary you can write your responses in the spaces provided. Your responses
will be kept confidential.
1. Name of the school……………………………………………..
2. What is the total population in your ECD centre?
Enrolment
Drop out
Regular attendance
3. The teaching and learning resources are adequate in my ECD Centre?
Agree Strongly Agree

Disagree Strongly Disagree


4. Are you paid any salary?
Yes

No
5. If yes who pays?
Parents

School

Donors
Others specify______________________________________________________
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6. Do you get your salary on time?
Yes

No

Not at all

7. How is the status of parents’ economic standards in your ECD centre?


Very high

High

Moderate

Low

Very low

8. Parents’ economic status affects enrolment in my ECD centre


Strongly agree

Agree

Not sure

Disagree

Strongly disagree

In your own suggestion, what can you comment on payment of school fees by the
children_________________________________________________________________

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APPENDIX C: Questionnaire for Head Teachers
Instructions
You are kindly requested to write your responses by ticking in the brackets provided.
Where necessary you can write your responses in the space provided. Your responses will
be treated with a lot of confidentiality.

1. Name of the school_____________________________________________


2. How many ECD teachers do you have?
Male
Female
3. Does the community participate in maintaining ECD centre in your school?
Strongly agree

Agree

Not sure

Disagree

Strongly disagree
4. Are there adequate facilities and equipment in your ECD centre?
Yes

No
5. If yes what are their condition?

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Average

Good

Bad
6. What do you think should be done to improve on their condition?
_______________________________________________________________________

APPENDIX D: INTERVIEW FOR THE QASO

1. What is the name of your zone?

2. How many ECD Centres are in your zone?

3. How many private ECD Centres are in your zone?

4. What is the total population of the ECD children in your zone?

5. How often do you visit pre- schools?

6. What are the common challenges faced by the ECD Centers?

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APPENDIX E: INTERVIEW FOR THE AREA CHIEF

1. What is the name of your location?

2. What is the statistic of children aged 3-7 years in your location?

3. How many ECD centers are in your location?

4. Do all the children aged 3-7 years attend the ECD centers?

5. What are the problems facing parents in your location?

6. What are your suggestions in solving these problems?

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BUDGET ESTIMATE

The estimate cost of the research study is as follows:

NO Item Approximate Cost (Kshs)


1. Transportation 5,000

2. Secretarial work 4,500

3. Research assistance 2,500

4. Stationary 3,000

5. Meals and refreshments 2,500

6. Miscellaneous 2,500

TOTAL 20,000

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