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334 ANCIBNT MESOPOTAMIA

placed Mesopotamia in the center of the picture. The terms


used for its neighbors, such as "satellite civilizations," the
Appendix: Mesopotamian
"Barbarie West," stress this approach which is as defensible as
that which uses the evidence from Mesopotamia solely as a
Chronology of the
contrasting background for other studies, or as an illustration
for dogmatic tenets, be they concerned with religious, ethical, Historical Period
or economic evolutions. I was quite determined—perhaps
BY J. A. BKINKMAN
imprudently—to pay more than lip service to the Eigenbe-
grifflichkeit theorem which was advanced more than thirty years
ago by B. Landsberger, but has found only a very few adherents.
In one respect I finish this book with an acute sense of frustra-
tion. Many áreas in the interwoven spheres of Mesopotamian
civilization can be singled out for which intelligible information The following cables present the chronology of the principal rulers of
on specific scientific and technological achievements, on in- Mesopotamia from the twcnty-fourth ccntury B.C. to the seventh
genious social adaptations, and on well-defined artistic formu- ccntury A.IX As with most chronologics of the ancient Near East, the
lations is preserved. This material usually covers only a restricted picture here is continually shii'ting as ncw evidence is brought to bcar
área and period, permitting but an occasional insight into a on oíd problems. The scherna olíered below secms the bcst presentation
perhaps unique situation whose relationship to the over-all available as of November 1975-
picture can well be likened to an accumulation of irregular As a general rule, the dates given are approximate; but probable
máximum limits of variation may be sel down. For dates befo re 1500
blotches and short lines meandering from nowhere to nowhere,
B.C., it is unlikely that they will ever be raised or lowered much more
suddenly disappearing, leaving wide empty spaces on the grid than 64 years. For dates from 1500 to 900 B.C., an eventual deviation
of time and lócale. To deal with thcse topics would have of more than two decades need not be expectcd. After 900, an error of
demanded a selective and purely subjective classification bound more than one or two years (in most cases) cannot be foreseen, with the
to result in a presentation comparable to the interpretation of exccption of the Parthian üynasty where the evidence is still very
the ink blots used in tests—where only the creative associations scanty.
of the viewer distribute accent and import and thus produce a
picture that mirrors only the viewer's mind.
Moreover, it would have yielded a book twice the size of the i. DYNASTY or AKKAD'
present one.
1. Sargon 2334-22792 (56)
2. RimuS 2278-2270 (9)
3. ManiStuSu 2269-2255 (15)
4. Naram-Sin 2254-2218 (37)
5. §ar-kali-Sarri 2217-2193 (15)
6. Igigi
7. Nanijum
2192-2190 (3)
8. Imi
9. Elulu

335
APPENDIX: MESOPOTAMIAN CHRONOLOGY 337
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA
1834-1823 (12)
13. Warad-Sin (6o)
io. Dudu 2189-2169 (21) 1822-1763
2168-2154 (15) 14. Rim-Sin (I)
ii. Su-Turul
5. FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON (HAMMURAPI DYNASTY)
2. THIRD DYNASTY OF UR
1894-1881 (14)
2112-2095 (18) 1. Sumuabum
i. Ur-Nammu 1880-1845 (36)
2094-2047 (48) 2. Sumulael
2. Sulgi 1844-1831 (14)
3. Amar-Suen (Amar-Sin) 2046-2038 (9) 3. Sabium (18)
1830-1813
2037-2029 (9) 4. Apil-Sin
4. §u-Sin 1812-1793 (20)
2028-2004 (25)3 5. Sin-muballií
5. Ibbi-Sin 1792-1750 (43)
6. Hammurapi
I749-I7I2 (38)
3. FIRST DYNASTY OF ISIN 7. Samsuiluna (28)
1711-1684
8. Abi-eSuh
2017-1985 (33) 1683-1647 (37)
i. ISbi-Irra 9. Ammiditana
1984-1975 (10) 1646-1626 (21)
2. Su-iliSu 10. Ammisaduqa
1974-1954 (21) 1625-1595 (31)
3. Iddin-Dagan 11. Samsuditana
4. ISme-Dagan 1953-1935 (i9)
5. Lipit-lStar 1934-1924 (11)
6. FIRST DYNASTY OF THE SE ALANO
6. Ur-Ninurta 1923-1896 (28)
7. Bur-Sin 1895-1874 (22) i. Ilumael (lluma-ilum?)
(56?)6
8. Lipit-Enlil 1873-1869 (5) Itti-ili-nibi
1868-1861 (8) (26?)'
9. Irra-imitti Damiq-iliSu
1860-1837 (24) (15)
i o. Enlil-bani ISkibal (24)
ii. Zambija 1836-1834 (3) §u§§i
1833-1831 (3) (55)
12. Iter-piSa 6. GulkiSar (I2)«
13. Urdukuga 1830-1828 (3) 6a. mGͧ-EN
1827-1817 (11) (5o)
14. Sin-magir 7. PeSgaldaramaS (28)
15. Damiq-iliSu 1816-1794 ' (23) 8. Adarakalamma (26)
9. Ekurduanna
(7)
4. LARSA DYNASTY 10. Melamkurkurra
(9)
2025-2005 (21) 11. Ea-gamil
i. Naplanum
2. E mis. u m 2004-1977 (28)
1976-1942 (35) 7. KASSITE DYNASTY9
3. Samium
4. Zabaja 1941-1933 (9) (26)'°
1932-1906 (27) 1. GandaS (22)
5. Gungunum 2. AgumI
1905-1895 (") (22)
6. Abisare 3. KaStiliaSu I
7. Sumuel 1894-1866 (29)
4-5. (uncertain)
8. Nur-Adad 1865-1850 (16)
6. UrzigurumaS
9. Sin-iddinam 1849-1843 (7)
1842-1841 (2) 7. Harba-x
10. Sin-eribam 8-9. (uncertain)
ii. Sin-iqiSam 1840-1836 (5)
10. Burnaburias" I
12. §illi-Adad i835 (i)
APPENDIX: MESOPOTAMIAN CHRONOLOGY 339
338 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA

11-14. (uncertain) 10. BAZI DYNASTY


15. KaraindaS" 1004-988 (17)
1. Eulma§-§akin-Sumi
16. KadaSman-Harbe I 987-985 (3)
2. Ninurta-kudurri-u§ur I
17. Kurigalzu I 985 (3 mos.)
3. Sirikti-Suqamuna
18. KadaSman-Enlil I (i374)-i36o (I5)l!
19. BurnaburiaS II 1359-1333 (27)
20. Kara-hardaS 1333 ii. ELAMITE DYNASTY
21. Nazi-Buga§ 1333
22. Kurigalzu II 1332-1308 (25)
i. Mar-biti-apla-u§ur 984-979
23. Nazi-Maruttas" 1307-1282 (26)
24. KadaSman-Turgu 1281-1264 (18) 12. UNDETERMINED OR MIXED DYNASTIES
25. KadaSman-Enlil II 1263-1255 (9)
1. Nabu-mukin-apli 978-943 (36)
26. Kudur-Enlil 1254-1246 (9)
2. Ninurta-kudurri-u§ur II 943 (8 mos.)
27. Sagarakti-SuriaS 1245-1233 (13)
28. KaStiliasu (IV) 1232-1225 3. Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina 942-
(8)
29. Enlil-nadin-Sumi 1224 (i) 4. SamaS-mudammiq
30. KadaSman-Harbe II 1223 (i?) 5. Nabu-§uma-ukin I
31. Adad-Suma-iddina 1222-1217 (6) 6. Nabu-apla-iddina
32. Adad-§uma-u§ur 1216-1187 (30) 7. Marduk-zakir-Sumi I
33. Mcli-Sipak 1186-1172 8. Marduk-balassu-iqbi -813
(15)
34. Merodach-Baladan I 9. Baba-aha-iddina 812-
1171-1159 (13)
35. Zababa-Suma-iddina 1158 O) (interregnum)
36. Enlil-nadin-ahi 13 1157-1155 (3) 10. Ninurta-apl?-[x]IS
11. Marduk-bel-zeri
8. SECOND DYNASTY OF ISIN 14 12. Marduk-apla-u$ur
13. Eriba-Marduk
1. Marduk-kabit-ahheSu 1157-1140 (18)
14. Nabu-§uma-i§kun (76o)-748 (I3)16
2. Itti-Marduk-balatu 1139-1132 (8) 747-734 (14)
15. Nabu-na§ir
3. Ninurta-nadin-Sumi 1131-1126 (6) 16. Nabu-nadin-zeri 733-732 (2)
4. Nebuchadnezzar I 1125-1104 (22) 732 (i mo.)
17. Nabu-§uma-ukin II
5. Enlil-nadin-apli 1103-1100 (4) 18. Nabu-mukin-zeri 731-729 (3)
6. Marduk-nadin-ahhe 1099-1082 (18)
19. Tiglath-pileserl7/Pulu 728-727 (2)
7. Marduk-Sapik-zeri 1081-1069 (13) 20. Shalmaneser l8 /Ululaju 726-722 (5)
8. Adad-apla-iddina 1068-1047 (22) 721-710 (12)
21. Merodach-Baladan II
9. Marduk-ahhe-eriba 1046 (i) 709-705 (5)
22. Sargon II
10. Marduk-zer-x 1045-1034 (12) 704-703 (2)
23. Sennacherib
u. Nabu-Sumu-libur 1033-1026 (8) 24. Marduk-zakir-Sumi El 703 (i mo.)
25. Merodach-Baladan U 703 (9 mos.)
9. SECOND DYNASTY OF THE SEALAND 26. Bel-ibni 702-700 (3)
1. Simbar-Sipak 1025-1008 (18) 27. A§§ur-nadin-§umi 699-694 (6)
2. Ea-mukin-zeri 1008 (5 mos.) 28. Nergal-uSezib 693 (i)
3. KaSSu-nadin-ahhe 1007-1005 (3) 29. MuSezib-Marduk 692-689 (4)
340 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA APPENDIX: MESOPOTAMIAN CHRONOLOGY 341

30. Sennacherib 688-681 (8) 16. SELEUCID DYNASTY


31. Esarhaddon 680-669 (12)
3 1 a. Ashurbanipal 668 (year i, Seleucid Era = 311 B.C.)
(O19
32. $ama$-$um-ukin 667-648 (21) 1. Seleucus I Nicator 305-2812S
33. Kandalanu 647-627 (2I)2« 2. Antiochus I Soter 281-261
(interregnum) 626 (I)
3. Antiochus II Theos 261-246
4. Seleucus II Callinicus 246-226
5. Seleucus III Soter 225-223
13. NEO-BABYLONIAN (OR "CHALDEAN") DYNASTY 6. Antiochus III (the Great) 222-187
7. Seleucus IV Philopator 187-175
i. Nabopolassar 625-605 (21) 8. Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175-164
2. Nebuchadnezzar II 604-562 (43) 9. Antiochus V Eupator 164-162
3. Evil-Merodach 561-560 (2) 10. Demetrius I Soter 162-150
4. Neriglissar 559-556 (4) 11. Alexander Balas 150-145
5. LabaSi-Marduk 556 (3 mos.) 12. Demetrius II Nicator 145-139
6. Nabonidus 555-539 (17) 13. Antiochus VI Epiphanes -145-142
14. Antiochus Vil Sidetes 139-129
15. Demetrius II Nicator 129-125
14. PERSIAN RULBRS 16. Alexander II Zabinas 128-123
17. Antiochus VIH Gryphus 126-96
i. Cyrus II 538-530 (9)2I
18. Seleucus V 125
2. Cambyses II 529-522 (8) 19. Antiochus IX Cyzicenus u 5~95
3. Bardija 522 (6 mos.) 20. Seleucus VI Epiphanes
4. Nebuchadnezzar III 522 (2 mos.) Nicator 96-95
5. Nebuchadnezzar IV 521 (3 mos.) 21. Antiochus X Eusebes 95-83
6. Darius I 22 521-486 (36) 22. Demetrius III Eukairos 95-88
7. Xerxes I 485-465 (21)
23. Antiochus XI Epiphanes
8. Bel-Simanni 482 Philadelphus 92
9. SamaS-eriba 482 24. Philip I 92-83
10. Artaxerxes I 464-424 (4i) 25. Antiochus XII Dionysus 87-84
ii. Xerxes II 424 (4 mos.) 26. Antiochus XIII Asiaticus 69-64
12. Darius II 423-405 (19) 27. Philip II 65-64
13. Artaxerxes II Memnon 404-359 (46)
14. Artaxerxes III Ochus 358-338 (21)
15. Arses 337-336 (2) 17. PARTHIAN OR ARSACID DYNASTY
1 6. Darius III 335-331 (5) (year i, Arsacid Era=247 B.C.)
i. Arsaces I 250-24826
15. MACEDONIAN RULERS 2. Arsaces II (Tiridates I) 248-211
3- Artabanus I 211-191
i. Alexander III 330-323 (8)2' 4- Priapatius 191-176
2. Philip Arrhidaeus 323-316 (8) 5- Phraates I 176-171
3. Alexander IV 316-307 (io)2< 6. Mithradates I 171-138
APPENDIX: MESOPOTAMIAN CHRONOLOGY 343

342. ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA


9. Shapur II 309-379
138-128 10. Ardashir II 379-383
7. Phraates II 383-388
8. Artabanus II 128-124 11. Shapur III
123-88 12. Bahram IV 388-399
9. Mithradates II 399-420
10. Gotarzes I 91-81 13. Yazdcgerd I
80-76 14. Bahram V 420-438
11. Orodes I
76-70 15. Yazdegerd II 438-457
12. Sinatruces
70-58 16. Hormizd III (457-459)
13. Phraates III 457-484
14. Mithradates III 58-55 17. Firuz
57-37 484-488
15. Orodes II 18. Balash
37-2 488-496
16. Phraates IV 19. Kavadh I
30-25 2,0. Jamasb 496-499
17. Tiridates II
2 B.C.-4 A.D. 21. Kavadh I 499-531
18. Phraataces
4-6 22. Chosroes I 531-579
19. Orodes III 579-590
20. Vonones I 7-1 1 23. Hormizd IV
12-38 590-628
21. Artabanus III 24. Chosroes II
36 25. Bahram VI 590-591
22. Tiridates III 591-596
23. Cinnamus 37 26. Bistam
38-51 627-628
24. Gotarzes II 27. Kavadh II
628-630
25. Vardanes 39-47 28. Ardashir III
629-631
26. Vonones II 51 29. Purandokht
51-77 30. Shahrbaraz
630
27. Vologases I 631-632
28. Pacorus II 78-109 31. Hormizd V
79-80 32. Chosroes III 632-633
29. Artabanus IV
109-128 33. Yazdcgerd III 633-651
30. Osroes
31. Parthamaspates U7
32. Vologases II 105-147 19. KlNGS OF ASSYRIA
33. Mithradates IV 128-147
34. Vologases III 148-192. 1. Tudija
35. Vologases IV 191-207 2. Adamu
207-222 3. Janqi
36. Vologases V
21 3-224 27 4. Sahlamu
37. Artabanus V
5. Harharu
6. Mandaru
18. SASSANIAN DYNASTY
7. lm§u
1. Ardashir I 224-241 8. HARsu
2. Shapur I 241-272 9. Didanu
3. Hormizd I 272-273 10. Hanu
4. Bahram I 273-276 u. Zuabu
5. Bahram II 276-293 12. Nuabu
6. Bahram III 293 13. Abazu
7. Narses 293-302 14. Belu
8. Hormizd II 302-309
APPENDIX: MESOPOTAMIAN CHRONOLOGY 345
344 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA
54- Su-Ninua 28 (14)
15. Azarah 55. Sarma-Adad II (3)
16. USpija 56. EriSum III (13)
17. ApiaSal 57. SamSi-Adad II (6)
18. Hale 58. ISme-Dagan II (16)
19. Samanu 59. SamSi-Adad III (16)
20. Hajanu 60. ASSur-nirari I (26)
21. Ilu-Mer 61. Puzur-ASSur III (24)29
22. Jakmcsi 62. Enlil-na§ir I (13)
23. Jakmcni 63. Nur-ili (12)
24. Jazkur-ilu 64. ASSur-Saduni (i mo.)
25. Ila-kabkabi 65. ASSur-rabi I
26. Aminu 66. ASSur-nadin-ahhc I
27. Sulili 67. Enlil-na§ir II 1430-1425 (6)30
28. Kikkija 68. ASSur-nirari II 1424-1418 (7J"~~^
29. Akija 69. ASSur-bel-niSesu 1417-1409 (9)
30. Puzur-ASSur I 70. AS§ur-rim-ni5eSu 1408-1401 (8)
31. Salim-ahum 71. Assur-nadin-ahhe II 1400-1391 (10)
32. lluSuma 72. Eriba-Adad I 1390-1364 (27)
33. Erisum I 1363-1328
73 ASSur-uballií I (36)
34. Ikunum 1327-1318
74 Enlil-nirari (10)
35. Sargon I 1317-1306
36. Puzur-ASsur II 75 Arik-den-ili (12)
37. Naram-Sin
76. Adad-nirari I 1305-1274 (32)
77. Shalmaneser I 1273-1244 (3o)
38. EriSum II 78. Tukulti-Ninurta I 1243-1207
39. SamSi-Adad I (37)
1813-1781 (33) 79. ASSur-nadin-apli 1206-1203 (4)3-
40. ISrne-Dagan I (4o)
80. ASSur-nirari III 1202-1197 (6)
4oa. Mut-Askur
81. Enlil-kudurri-usur 1196-1192 (5)
4ob. Rimu-x 82. Ninurta-apil-Ekur 1191-1179 (13)»
4oc. Asinum
41. AsSur-dugul (6)
83. ASSur-dan I 1178-1133 (46)
84. Ninurta-tukulti-ASSur
42. ASsur-apla-idi
85. Mutakkil-Nusku
43. Nasir-Sin 86. ASSur-res-iSi I 1132-1115 (18)
44. Sin-namir 87. Tiglath-pilcser I 1114-1076 (39)
45. Ipqi-Istar
46. Adad-§alulu
88. ASarid-apil-Ekur 1075-1074 (2)
47. Adasi
89. A§§ur-bel-kala 1073-1056 (18)
48. Bclu-bani (10)
90. Eriba-Adad II 1055-1054 (2)
91. SamSi-Adad IV 1053-1050 (4)
49. Libaja (17)
50. §arma-Adad 1 (12)
92. A§§urna§irpal I 1049-1031 (19)
93. Shalmaneser II 1030-1019 (12)
51. IB.TAR-Sin (12)
94. ASsur-nirari IV 1018-1013 (6)
52. Bazaja (28)
53. Lullaja (ó)
95. ASSur-rabi II 1012-972 (41)
346 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA APPENDIX: MESOPOTAMIAN CHRONOLOGY 347
96. A$$ur-re3-i5i II 971-967 (5) 6. Grayson in Alter Orient und Alus Testamenl I 107 states that his collation of
97. Tiglath-pileser II 966-935 (32) King List A shows that the number in question might be read as 45, 46, 55, or 56.
7. Grayson, ibid., says the number is "probably 26." It is ccrtainly at least 16.
98. Assur-dan II 934-912 (23) 8. This ruler is not Usted in either King List A or King List B, but is inserted in the
99. Adad-nirari II 911-891 (21) Assyrian synchronistic King List A. 117 before PeSgaldaramaS (reading of the insened
100. Tukulri-Ninurta II 890-884 (7) ñame is based on a collation of the tablet which I made in 1971). The existence of a
lor. ASsurnasirpal II 883-859 (25) missing king is not unexpected because in King List A the total number of years
given in the dynastic summary exceeds the figure obtained by adding up the
102. Shalmancscr III 858-824 (35) individual reigns.
103. Samsi-Adad V 823-811 (U) A reign of twelvc years is not Usted in any text, but is obtained by subtracting the
104. Adad-nirari III 810-783 (28) total of the other reigns (356 years) from the total given for the dynasty (368 years)
105. Shalmancscr IV 782-773 (10) in King List A. II the figures for some of the other reigns are adjusted (see nn. 6-7
loó. Assur-dan III (,8) above), corresponding adjustments must be made in the length of the reign of this
772-755
107. ASsur-nirari V king.
754-745 (10) 9. Detailed evidence for this revised Kassite chronoiogy may be found in my
108. Tiglath-pilcscr III 744-727 (18) Materials and Sludies for Kassile Hislory, I (Chicago: Oriental Institutc, 1976). The
109. Shalmancser V 726-722 (5) chief dilTcrcncc between the table presented here and the material in the book
no. Sargon II 721-705 (17) just cited is that some Kassite royal ñames whose sepárate elements are hyphenatcd
n i . Scnnacherib in the book (e.g., Burna-BuriaS, Kara-indaS) continué to be written unhyphenated
704-681 (24) here so as not to conflict with forms found elsewhere in this volume.
112. Esarhaddon 680-669 (12) 10. If one accepts the total length of rcign given for this dynasty in King List A,
113. Assurbanipal 668-627 (42) the reign of GandaS would bcgin about 1729.
114. ASSur-ctcl-ilani u. The numbcring of kings 15-20 of this dynasty is uncertain because there is
115. Sin-sumu-liSir some doubt as to whethcr Nazi-Buga<5 (21) was includcd in the royal canon. If Nazi-
116. Sin-Sar-iSkun BugaS was omitted, then Karaindas" through Kara-hardaS should be numbered
16-21; and the ñame of king 15 would be unknown.
117- AsSur-uballif II (3) 12. This king ruled at least 15 years.
13. The attested writings of this ñame are arnbiguous. It may be read cither as
given or as Enlil-Suma-usur.
14. The dates for the Babylonian monarchs from the Sccond Dynasty of Isin down
to 722 B.C. are thosc cstablishcd in Brinkman, A Polilical Hislory of Post-Kassite
Babyhnia, 1158-722 B.C. (Rome: Pontiíicium Institutum Biblicum, 1968), pp. 37-77,
Notes to the Appendix with a one-year adjustment downward for the carlier kings as rcquircd by ncwly
1. M. B. Rowton in The Cambridge Andent Hislory (third edition) I/i 219-20 dates discovered Assyrian evidence (Orientalia n.s. XL1I [1973] 310 and n. 20).
this dynasty ca. 2370-2190. W. W. Hallo in the Reallexikon der Assyriohgie III 713-14 15. The reading of even the first elemcnt of this king's ñame may be uncertain.
presents evidence that only about forty years may have elapsed between the death See Grayson, Aller Orient und Altes Testamenl I 114.
of Sar-kali-sarri (the fifth rulcr of the Dynasty of Akkad) and the rise of Ur-Nammu 16. Reigned at least 13 years.
(first monarch of the Third Dynasty of Ur); if this position should prove correct, the 17. Identical with Assyrian king 108, Tiglath-pileser III.
18. Identical with Assyrian king 109, Shalmanescr V.
Dynasty of Akkad would have to be dated ca. 2293-2.113.
2. This may include a period during which he was a dependent prince bcfore his 19. This reign is not listcd in any Babylonian king list; but texis are dated in
final victory over Lugalzagesi. Babylonia in the accession year (669) of Assurbanipal and 668 was reckoned as the
3. Possibíy (24). accession ycar of SamaS-Sum-ukin.
4. The dates Usted hcrc for the First Dynasty of Babylon are those according to the 20. Though Kandalanu dicd in 627, in ccrtain parts of Babylonia documents
so-called "middle chronoiogy." If one would wish to adjust to the corresponding continucd to be dated undcr his ñame in 626.
"high chronoiogy," all dates for the first five dynastics in these tablcs would have to 21. His reign in Irán began in 559.
be raiscd by fifty-six years (e.g., Hammurapi, 1848-1806); for the "low clironology," 22. Ascended the thronc in the last months of 522 ( = accession year). Rulers 3-5
the shift would be downward by sixty-four years (e.g., Hammurapi, 1728-1686). were all usurpcrs, as were also rulers 8-9.
5. The figures given here for the lengths of rcign for this dynasty are takcn from 23. His rcign in Macedonia began in 336. From this time on, the custom of "ac-
the only available king lisi data (that of King List A). These a r e d i f f i c u l t to place cession years" is seldom observed, henee the inconsistcncy in the numbcring of total
within any cohcreni schcme of chronoiogy; and it is possible that some of these regnal years. Alexandcr is assigncd a reign of 7 years in some Babylonian chrono-
numbers, especially the longer reigns, should be reduced. logical documents.