You are on page 1of 32

.

1 Introduction
Figure 1 The CE117 Process Trainer
The CE117 Process Trainer is a fully integrated self-contained bench top process control apparatus. For
safety
reasons water is used as the working fluid. The equipment allows practical student investigations into a
wide
range of strategies for the control of:
• Flow
• Level
• Temperature
• Pressure
The student investigations may be the control of each of these parameters individually, or in
combinations.
The CE117 Process Trainer is supplied with all of the essential parts needed to allow the creation and
control
of fully functional process control systems. The performance of these different control systems can then
be
investigated and compared.
The CE117 Process Trainer can be controlled by means of the built-in computer interface and CE2000
software (supplied) or any other suitable analogue or digital controller that may be available.
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 6
Support Material
The support material supplied with the CE117 includes experiment procedures that allow investigations
into
a selection of commonly used control strategies. These include,
• Continuous Control
• Feedback Control
• Ratio Control
• Cascade Control
• Multi-Loop Control
• Interacting Control Loops
Comprehensive theoretical notes are also included to support student understanding of the control
strategies
used.
CE2000 Control Software
Figure 2 Sample Screenshot of the CE2000 Control Software
The CE117 Process Trainer is supplied with Windows® based CE2000 Control Software that allows,
• Controller design and implementation
• Supervisory control
• Data acquisition, storage and display
• The setting of control parameters and gains
• Real time trend display
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 7
The CE2000 provides all of the tools needed to create, edit and run a wide range of data acquisition and
control circuits. It also includes digital and graphical displays with built-in record functions.
The CE2000 circuits function in real time to monitor and control the CE117. They also provide visual
graphical
display of trends of selected parameters. The captured data can be easily and quickly exported to a word
processor programme to produce reports, or sent directly to a printer to produce a hard copy of tabulated
or
graphical results. This facility improves the quality of students' reports and ensures that laboratory time
is used
more efficiently.
The CE2000 Control Software includes example data acquisition and controller circuit files that support
each
of the practical experiments provided in the CE117 manual. These controller files may be used exactly as
supplied, or modified easily and quickly using the powerful editing tools included in the CE2000 to
introduce
changes to the circuit. Alternatively, totally new customised data acquisition and controller circuits can be
created that extend the scope of student investigations into process control principles and applications.
TecQuipment recommends that
students read the CE2000 User
Guide (supplied) and become
NOTE
familiar with the software before
they do the experiments in this
CE117 User Guide.

Third-Party Controllers

The open access to the inputs to the actuators and outputs from the transmitters of the CE117 Process

Trainer

allow any other compatible controller (not included) to be connected for control and data acquisition

purposes. See “Connection to Other Controllers” on page 17 for more deta


1.2 General Description

The CE117 Process Trainer hardware is supplied in two main parts,

• The Experiment Module

• The Control Module

Two multi-way leads (supplied) connect the two modules together. Section 1.3 provides full installation

information for the CE117 Process Trainer.

The Experiment Module

Figure 3 The Experiment Module

The Experiment Module is a bench-mounting unit that supports all of the process control hardware of the

CE117 on its front panel. This module also contains the power supplies for each of the devices and circuits

of

the CE117, as well as the power amplifiers for the actuators and signal conditioning circuits for the

transmitters. The CE117 Process Trainer includes two separate flow circuits - a Process/Cooler Flow

Circuit

and a Heater Flow Circuit.

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer

Page 9

Process/Cooler Flow Circuit

The Process/Cooler Flow Circuit includes:

• A Process Vessel with a Drain Valve and an Air Vent

• A Reservoir

• A variable speed d.c. motor driven pump (Pump 2)

• A Cooler comprising a radiator and a variable speed fan

• A servo-controlled Proportional Valve

• A Process Loop Bypass Valve

All these parts are joined by colour coded pipework to form the complete Process Flow Circuit.

Cooler

Pump 2

Process Vessel

Temperature
Transmitter TT4

Level Transmitter LT

Drain Valve Bypass Valve

Reservoir

Air Vent Flow Transmitter

Figure 4 The Process/Cooler Flow Circuit

The Process Vessel is a transparent cylinder. A scale on the front of the Process Vessel allows the level of

water

to be accurately measured.

Pump 2 delivers water from the Reservoir to the Process Vessel via the Cooler and Proportional Valve.

Water

returns to the reservoir under gravity by means of a Drain Valve located in the base of the Process Vessel.

The pump, and hence flow rate, are controlled by means of a potentiometer or an external voltage input at

a socket on the Control Module (See “The Control Module” on page 13).

A needle type Bypass Valve is included in the Process Flow Circuit to allow the outflow from the pump to

return directly to the reservoir without passing through the Cooler or the Process Vessel. This provides a

secondary means of controlling or varying the flow rate of water in the Process Flow Circuit, or as a

means of

introducing a disturbance to the system.

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer

Page 10

An electrically controlled Proportional Valve is fitted to remotely control the flow of water in the Process

Flow

circuit.

The Process Vessel includes a capacitive Level Transmitter (LT) positioned to the left of the Process

Vessel and

mounted vertically. The transmitter is a simple parallel plate capacitor comprising two concentric

cylinders,

electrically insulated from each other and with air normally occupying the space between the cylinders.

The
capacitance of this arrangement is given by the equation,

C

0r

Ad

= --- Farads

Where:

0 = Permittivity of free space

r = Relative Permittivity of the dielectric material between the plates

A = Area of the plates (cylinders)

d = Distance between plates (cylinders)

Dry air has a Relative Permittivity of 1.0006, while water is approximately 80.

A tapping at the base of the Level Transmitter connects to the base of the Process Vessel via a short length

of

flexible tubing. A similar tapping connects the top of the Level Transmitter to the top of the Process

Vessel.

When the level of water increases in the Process Vessel, the water also enters the space between the

cylinders

such that the level is always at the same height as in the Process Vessel. The water entering and rising up

the

Level Transmitter causes the air between the concentric cylinders to be displaced.

When the water level is zero, the space between the cylinders is filled by only air and so r will be 1.006,

giving

a value of capacitance. When the level is maximum, all of the air will be replaced by water and so the

value

of 

r will be approximately 80, giving a much higher value of capacitance. For intermediate levels, the space

between the cylinders will be partly filled by water and the remainder by air. This will give an
intermediate

value of 

r and varying values of capacitance.

A signal conditioning circuit measures this change in capacitance and provides an electrical signal

proportional to the level of water in the Process Vessel.

The output of the signal conditioning circuit of the Level Transmitter (LT) is calibrated to give 0 V when

the

Process Vessel is empty, and 10 V when at maximum level.

The Process Vessel includes a Heat Exchanger coil mounted in the plate at the base. This coil forms part of

the Heater Flow circuit

A Platinum Resistance Thermometer (TT5) is mounted in the baseplate of the Process Vessel.

To ensure that the temperature of the water in the Process Vessel is uniform, a rotary Stirrer is included

in the

base of the Process Vessel. It is driven by a magnetically coupled d.c. motor mounted beneath the Process

Vessel. This arrangement minimises the possibility of leaks, especially when the vessel is pressurized, and

hence reduces the need for maintenance during the lifetime of the apparatus. A toggle switch on the

Control

Module allows the Stirrer to be switched ON or OFF.

An impeller type Flowmeter (FT2) is included in the flow circuit to measure the flow and provide a

calibrated

output signal for display or control purposes. Water flowing in the flow circuit causes the impeller to

rotate.

Optical sensing of the impeller produces a series of pulses. These pulses are proportional to the flow rate.

frequency-to-voltage converter produces a d.c. signal proportional to the flow rate that can be used for

display or control purposes.

An Air Vent in the top of Process Vessel allows it to be sealed to allow practical investigations into

pressure

control in a sealed vessel. The pressure in the head space above the surface of the water in the Process

Vessel
increases with increase in water level.

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer

Page 11

An integrated circuit type Pressure Transmitter (PT) is located in the top of the Experiment Module and

connects via a pipe to the top of the Process Vessel. The Pressure Transmitter measures the pressure in

the

head space of the Process Vessel when the Air Vent is closed.

The Water Reservoir includes a Float Switch mounted in the left-hand side of the tank. If the level of the

water

in the Reservoir drops below a minimum level, the Float Switch disables the pump (Pump 2) to prevent it

running dry. An indicator light on the Mimic Panel of the Control Module illuminates when the Float

Switch

has sensed low water level. Once the level of water has risen above the minimum level, the Float Switch

closes

and the pump supply is enabled once more and the indicator light on the Mimic Panel switches off.

Water passes from Pump 2 to the Cooler and then enters the Process Vessel. The Cooler comprises a

compact

series of passages. These passages are thermally connected to a honeycomb of metal fins that increase the

effective surface area of the Cooler. A variable speed Fan forces air through the Cooler and so removes

energy

(heat) from the water flowing through it. With continuous circulation of water through the Cooler, the

temperature of the water in the Process Vessel (and the Water Reservoir) can be reduced.

Platinum Resistance Thermometers are mounted at the inflow and outflow of the Cooler. These can be

used

to measure the temperature differential between the water flowing in and out of the Cooler so that the

heat

energy removed from the water can be determined.

Table 1 on page 18 of this manual provides the technical data for the hardware used on the CE117

Process

Trainer.
Heater Flow Circuit

The Heater Flow Circuit comprises:

Heat

Exchanger

Heater Tank

Pump 1

Sight Glass

Thermal Switch

Flow Transmitter

• A Heater Tank

• A Heat Exchanger Coil mounted in the base of the Process Vessel

• A variable speed d.c. motor driven pump (Pump 1)

Figure 5 The Heater Flow Circuit

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer

Page 12

The Heater Tank is made of stainless steel and includes a removable lid to limit loss of water through

spillage

and evaporation.

Pump 1 can be driven at different speeds to deliver heated water to the Heat Exchanger Coil mounted in

the

base of the Process Vessel.

The Heater Tank includes an electric heater element supplied by a variable current to control the energy

that

can be input to the water contained in the Heater Tank.

A Platinum Resistance Thermometer (TT1) is mounted in the right-hand side of the Heater Tank such that

it

can measure the temperature of the water in the Heater Tank. The output of this thermometer is also

linked

to a circuit that disables the supply to the Heater when the temperature reaches 60°C.

A Thermal Switch also mounted in the right-hand side of the Heater Tank is set to open at 70°C. This is
provided as a safety back-up to prevent the water in the Heater Tank from overheating.

A Platinum Resistance Thermometer (TT2) is mounted in the return flow pipe to measure the

temperature of

the water after it has passed through the Process Vessel Heat Exchanger and before it re-enters the

Heater

Tank. The difference in temperatures TT1 and TT2 (TT1 - TT2) provides an indication of the effectiveness

of

the heat transfer process and the energy transferred from the Heater Tank to the water in the Process

Vessel.

The Heater Tank includes a Float Switch mounted in the left-hand side of the tank. If the level of the water

in

the Heater Tank drops below a minimum level, the Float Switch disables the pump (Pump 1) to prevent it

running dry. The Float Switch also disables the heater supply if the level of water in the Heater Tank falls

below

a minimum to ensure that the heater element is always covered with water. An indicator light on the

Mimic

Panel of the Control Module illuminates when the Float Switch has sensed low water level. Once the level

of

water has risen above the minimum level, the Float Switch closes and the pump supply is enabled once

more

and the indicator light on the Mimic Panel switches off.

A Sight Glass mounted on the front of the Heater Tank provides a visual indication of the water level

inside.

This is used to anticipate any loss of water in the Heater Tank due to evaporation or spillage and so

prevent

the tank from ever running dry.

Note: The water in the Heater Tank must be kept at the fill level indicator throughout the experiments.

Table 1 on page 18 of this manual provides the technical data for the hardware used on the CE117

Process

Trainer.
The Control Module
Figure 6 The Control Module
The Control Module provides access to all of the actuator and transmitter circuits contained in the
Experimental Module. It also provides the interface between the CE117 Process Trainer and the PC for up
to
4 channels of analogue-to-digital conversion (AD) and eight channels of digital-to-analogue conversion
(DA).
The Control Module Mimic Panel
The front panel of the Control Module includes a Mimic Panel that provides schematic detail of the layout
and functionality of the complete CE117 Process Trainer. It also provides the means to physically access
the
inputs and outputs of the transmitters and actuators of the CE117.
Figure 7 The Control Module Mimic Panel
CE117
PROCESS TRAINER
PT
LT
TT5
TT1
TT2
FT1
M
PUMP 1
EXTERNAL MANUAL
M
MANUAL
EXTERNAL
MANUAL
EXTERNAL
RESERVOIR

YPASS
VALVE
PUMP2 FAN
TT4 COOLER
TT3
H

FT2
DRAIN
VALVE
VENT
VALVE
STIRRER
HEAT
EXCHANGER
PROCESS
VESSEL
A/D1
A/D2
D/A1 A/D3
D/A2 A/D4
ADA
D/A3 A/D5
D/A4 A/D6
A/D7
A/D8

PROPORTIONAL
VALVE
ON
OFF
ELECTRIC
HEATER
HEATER
TANK
S
HEATER TANK
LOW LEVEL
RESERVOIR TANK
LOW LEVEL
TT1 -
TT2 -
TT3 -
TT4 -
TT5 -
FT1 -
FT2 -
LT -
PT -
HEATER TANK
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
HEAT EXCHANGER OUTPUT
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP COOLER INLET
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP COOLER OUTLET
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS TANK
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
HEATER LOOP
FLOW TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP
FLOW TRANSMITTER
PROCESS VESSEL
LEVEL TRANSMITTER
PROCESS VESSEL
PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
KEY
H
H

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer


Page 14
Process Vessel Section
Figure 8 Process Vessel Section of the Mimic Panel
This section of the Mimic Panel includes sockets for the:
• Input to the Proportional Valve (S) to control its degree of opening - open, closed or some intermediate
setting
• Output signal from the Pressure Transmitter (PT)
• Output signal from the Level Transmitter (LT)
• Output signal from the Temperature Transmitter (TT5)
• Output signal from the Flow Transmitter (FT2) measuring the flow rate into the Process Vessel
A toggle switch labelled ON/OFF controls the Stirrer mounted in the base of the Process Vessel.
CE117
PROCESS TRAINER
PT
LT
TT5
TT1
TT2
FT1
M
PUMP 1
M
MANUAL
EXTERNAL
MANUAL
EXTERNAL
RESERVOIR
YPASS
VALVE FAN
TT4
TT3 COOLER
H
FT2
DRAIN
VALVE
VENT
VALVE
STIRRER
HEAT
EXCHANGER
PROCESS
VESSEL
D/A1
D/A2
D/A3
D/A4
A/D1
A/D2
A/D3
A/D4
A/D8

A/D5
A/D6
A/D7
PROPORTIONAL
VALVE
ON
OFF
PUMP2
EATER
TAN
ADA
S
HEATER TANK
LOW LEVEL
RESERVOIR TANK
LOW LEVEL
TT1 -
TT2 -
TT3 -
TT4 -
TT5 -
FT1 -
FT2 -
LT -
PT -
HEATER TANK
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
HEAT EXCHANGER OUTPUT
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP COOLER INLET
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP COOLER OUTLET
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS TANK
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
HEATER LOOP
FLOW TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP
FLOW TRANSMITTER
PROCESS VESSEL
LEVEL TRANSMITTER
PROCESS VESSEL
PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
KEY
H
H

Cooler Section
Figure 9 The Cooler Section
This section of the Mimic Panel includes sockets for the:
• Output signal from the Temperature Transmitter (TT3), located at the input to the Cooler
• Output signal from the Temperature Transmitter (TT4), located at the output of the Cooler
A rotary potentiometer is included to allow the speed of the cooling fan to be varied from zero to
maximum,
and hence control the heat transfer rate achieved by the Cooler.
CE117
PROCESS TRAINER
PT
LT
TT5
TT1
TT2
FT1
M
PUMP 1
EXTERNAL MANUAL
M
MANUAL
EXTERNAL
MANUAL
EXTERNAL
RESERVOIR
BYPASS
VALVE
FAN
COOLER
FT2
DRAIN
VALVE
VENT
VALVE
STIRRER
HEAT
EXCHANGER
PROCESS
VESSEL
D/A1
D/A2
D/A3
D/A4
A/D1
A/D2
A/D3
A/D4
A/D5
A/D6
A/D7
A/D8
PROPORTIONAL
VALVE
ON
OFF
PUMP2
ELECTRIC
HEATER
HEATER
TANK
ADA
TT4
S
TT3
HEATER TANK
LOW LEVEL
RESERVOIR TANK
LOW LEVEL
TT1 -
TT2 -
TT3 -
TT4 -
TT5 -
FT1 -
FT2 -
LT -
PT -
HEATER TANK
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
HEAT EXCHANGER OUTPUT
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP COOLER INLET
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP COOLER OUTLET
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS TANK
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
HEATER LOOP
FLOW TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP
FLOW TRANSMITTER
PROCESS VESSEL
LEVEL TRANSMITTER
PROCESS VESSEL
PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
KEY
H
H
H

CE117
PROCESS TRAINER
PT
LT
TT5
TT1
TT2
FT1
EXTERNAL MANUAL
ELECTRIC
HEATER
HEATER
TANK

M
PUMP 1
M
MANUAL
EXTERNAL
MANUAL
EXTERNAL
RESERVOIR
BYPASS
VALVE
FAN
COOLER
FT2
DRAIN
VALVE
VENT
VALVE
STIRRER
HEAT
EXCHANGER
PROCESS
VESSEL
D/A1
D/A2
D/A3
D/A4
A/D1
A/D2
A/D3
A/D4
A/D5
A/D6
A/D7
A/D8
PROPORTIONAL
VALVE
ON
OFF
PUMP2
ADA
TT4
S
TT3
HEA
LOW
RES
LOW
TT1 -
TT2 -
TT3 -
TT4 -
TT5 -
FT1 -
FT2 -
LT -
PT -
HEATER TANK
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
HEAT EXCHANGER OUTPUT
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP COOLER INLET
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP COOLER OUTLET
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS TANK
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
HEATER LOOP
FLOW TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP
FLOW TRANSMITTER
PROCESS VESSEL
LEVEL TRANSMITTER
PROCESS VESSEL
PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
KEY
H
H
H

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer


Page 15
Heater Tank Section
Figure 10 Heater Tank Section
This section of the Mimic Panel includes sockets for the:
• Output signal from the Temperature Transmitter (TT1), located in the side of the Heater Tank to
provide
a measure of the temperature of the water inside the Tank (the outflow temperature)
• Output signal from the Temperature Transmitter (TT2) located in the return pipework to measure of
the
temperature of the water re-entering the Heater Tank from the Process Vessel (the inflow temperature)
A 2 mm socket and a potentiometer provide control over the delivery of Pump 1 in the Heater Flow Loop.
A
toggle switch selects whether the pump speed is controlled manually (Manual), or whether it is controlled
using an external source (External).
CE117
PROCESS TRAINER
PT
PROCESS D/A3 A/D3 A/D7
VESSEL

D/A2 A/D2 A/D6 ADA

LT
TT5
TT1
TT2
FT1
M
PUMP 1
EXTERNAL MANUAL
M
MANUAL
EXTERNAL
MANUAL
EXTERNAL
RESERVOIR

BYPASS
VALVE
FAN
COOLER
FT2
DRAIN
VALVE
VENT
VALVE
STIRRER
HEAT
EXCHANGER
D/A1
D/A4
A/D1
A/D4
A/D5
A/D8
PROPORTIONAL
VALVE
ON
OFF
PUMP2
ELECTRIC
HEATER
HEATER
TANK
TT4
S
TT3
HEATER TANK
LOW LEVEL
RESERVOIR TANK
LOW LEVEL
TT1 -
TT2 -
TT3 -
TT4 -
TT5 -
FT1 -
FT2 -
LT -
PT -
HEATER TANK
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
HEAT EXCHANGER OUTPUT
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP COOLER INLET
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP COOLER OUTLET
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
PROCESS TANK
TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER
HEATER LOOP
FLOW TRANSMITTER
PROCESS LOOP
FLOW TRANSMITTER
PROCESS VESSEL
LEVEL TRANSMITTER
PROCESS VESSEL
PRESSURE TRANSMITTER
KEY
H
H
H

Reservoir Section
Figure 11 The Reservoir Section
This section of the Mimic Panel includes:
• A 2 mm socket and a potentiometer to provide control over the delivery of Pump 2 in the Process Flow
Loop.
• A toggle switch to select whether the pump speed is controlled manually (Manual), or whether it is
controlled using an external source (External).
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 16
Low Water Level Switches and Indicators
Figure 12 Low Water Level Indicators
The bottom right-hand corner of the Control Module includes two LED indicators.
If the level of water in either the Heater Tank or the Process Vessel falls below a minimum level, then the
Float
Level Switches included in both tanks will open and disable the respective pump (Pump 1 or 2
respectively).
The specific action will be indicated by the relevant indicator LED illuminating. The Heater in the Heater
Tank
is also turned off if the water level becomes too low.
Once the level in the tank increases above the minimum, then the Float Level Switch closes, the pump
supply
is re-enabled and the LED indicator goes out.
D/A1
D/A2
D/A3
D/A4
A/D1
A/D2
A/D3
A/D4
A/D5
A/D6
A/D7
A/D8
ADA

The ADA Section


Figure 13 The ADA Section
The ADA Section of the Mimic Panel is the interface between the transmitters and actuators of the CE117
Process Trainer and a PC running the CE2000 Control Software supplied. It provides all of the facilities
required to be a multi-channel data acquisition and control system.
The ADA facilities provided are;
it is normal to use the
abbreviations ‘AD’ and ‘DA’ for
NOTE
analogue to digital and digital to
analogue conversion.

• 8 A-D Inputs - 12 bit, ±10 V.


• 4 D-A Outputs - 12 bit, ±10 V.
A serial connection is included at the rear of the Control Module. The serial lead provided allows the
CE117
to be connected to a suitable port of the host computer.
M
MANUAL
EXTERNAL
PUMP2
HEATER TANK
LOW LEVEL
RESERVOIR TANK
LOW LEVEL
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 17
Data from all of the transmitters included in the CE117 Process Trainer may be input to the software
running
on a PC by connecting the respective sockets to one of the eight AD sockets (A/D1 to A/D8). Patching
leads
terminated with 2 mm sockets are provided with the CE117 for this purpose. Connection between
external
system and each input/output is made using the 2 mm patching lead set provided. Inputs and outputs are
protected against short-circuit and overload.
You must select ‘External’ on the
pump and heater switches of the
NOTE
Mimic Panel to link them
to the ADA section.

Each of the actuators can be controlled by signals generated in the CE2000 software by connecting the
pumps, relay or to one of the DA sockets of the CE117 Mimic Panel (D/A1 to D/A4).
The CE2000 manual is supplied with this apparatus. It includes full details and operating instructions.
Read
and understand the CE2000 manual before you use the software or edit the files supplied. Keep the
software
safe so that the original circuit files can be restored in the event that they become corrupted or the default
values are lost when the circuits are 'saved'.
Note: The CE117 is fitted with a communications device of the same type as the TecQuipment CE120/122.
When you use the CE2000 software, make sure that the ‘Device type’ is set to ‘CE120/122/117’ (see
Figure
14).
Figure 14 CE2000 Communications Options.
Connection to Other Controllers
If you need to connect the Control Module to other controllers, the back of the Control Module has a small
socket (see Figure 15). This is the 0 V reference for the input and output sockets on the front of the
Control
Module. Remember that all sockets have a maximum input and output limit of 10 VDC. These sockets are
voltage sources and inputs and have a very small current demand and supply (a few milliamps).
0 V signal input and output
reference sockets for other
controllers.
Item Analogue Signal Conversion Details
PRT TT1
Temperature TT2 10°C per Volt
0 - 10 VDC Output
Transmitters TT3 0 V = 0°C
Linear
(Platinum Resistance TT4 10 V = 100°C
Thermometers) TT5
FT1 1 L/min per Volt
Flow Transmitters 0 - 10 VDC Output
FT2 0 V = No flow
0 - 10 VDC Output 0 V = Empty Vessel
Level Transmitter LT
Non Linear 10 V = Maximum Level
100 mbar per Volt
Pressure Transmitter PT 0 - 10 VDC Output
0 V = 0 mbar (gauge)
75 W per Volt
0 V = Heater Off
Electric Heater 0 - 10 VDC Input
10 V = 750 W Maximum
Power (Nominal)
0 V = Closed
Proportional Valve S 0 - 10 VDC Input
10 V = Open
Pump 1 0 V = No Flow
0 - 10 VDC Input
Pump 2 10 V = Maximum Flow

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer

Page 18
Figure 15 Back View of Control Module

Table 1 Analogue Sig


1.3 Installation
Weights
Experiment Module = 40 kg
Control Module = 7 kg
1 - Put the apparatus onto a suitable bench
The Experiment Module is approximately 800 mm high x 1000 mm wide and 450 mm front to back. The
Control Module is approximately 80 mm high x 500 mm x 370 mm.
Use assistance to put the apparatus onto a firm, level bench. Allow at least 1600 mm x 500 mm of bench
space for the Process Trainer and additional space for a suitable computer (not supplied).
Use the adjustable feet on the Experiment Module to level it if necessary (see Figure 16).
Figure 16 Use the Adjustable Feet If Necessary
2 - Fill with water
Fill the Reservoir with ordinary clean water to its fill level marker. Fill the Heater Tank with de-ionized
water
to its fill level marker. Complete the installation and run both pumps to full speed for a few seconds.
Recheck
the water levels and add more water if necessary.
If the water in your area has a
high mineral content,
TecQuipment advise that you use
de
NOTE
ionized water in the Heater Tank
and the Reservoir. This will help
to keep the process vessel
clean.

WARNING
The Experiment Module is heavy and has a centre of gravity towards its back. Always
use assistance (at least two people) and take care as you lift and carry it.
To stop the Experiment Module from falling over as it is moved, support its feet and
its top.
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 20
3 - Electrical Connections
Refer to Figure 17. At the rear of the Experiment Module are two sockets, these are for the cables that
connect
to the Control Module. At the right-hand side of the Experiment Module is the special socket for
connection
to the electrical mains supply.
A serial cable is supplied to link the Control Module to an available communications (comms) port of a
suitable computer. Pre 2008 CE117 units have an RS232 socket and cable. From 2008 onwards, CE117
units
have a USB socket and cable.
Connect the mains supply cable to a mains supply by means of a fused plug and socket, a fused circuit
breaker
or fused switch. The cable connections are:
BROWN = LIVE
BLUE = NEUTRAL
GREEN/YELLOW = EARTH Note: This apparatus must be connected to earth.
Electrical Supply Details
Connect the unit to a fused electrical supply of 240 V or 110 V (determined by your order), 50 Hz or 60
Hz.
The CE117 uses approximately 11.5 A
Fuse
A single 13 A HRC fuse is provided to protect the CE117 Process Trainer. It is mounted to the right-hand
side
of the Experiment Module above the mains supply inlet. Use a large flat bladed screwdriver to replace it.
Warning - Disconnect the electrical supply before you check or renew the fuse.
Always renew the fuse with an identical part.
To Mains Supply
Suitable
Computer
CE117
PROCESS TRAINER
PT
LT
TT5
TT1
TT2
FT1
M
PUMP 1
EXT ERNAL M ANUAL
M
MANUAL
EXT ERNAL
MANUAL
EXT ERNAL

RESERVOIR
YPASS
VALVE
PUMP2
TT3
H
FAN

CO
TT4
OLE
R

FT2

DRAIN

VALVE

VENT

VALVE

STIRR ER

HEAT

EXCH ANGER

PROCESS

VESSEL
D/A1

D/A2

D/A3

D/A4

A/D 1

A/D 2

A/D 3

A/D 4

A/D 5

A/D 6

A/D 7

A/D 8

PROPORT ION AL

VALVE

ON

OFF

ELECTRIC

HEAT ER

HEATER

TANK
ADA

HEAT ER T ANK

LOW LEVEL

RESERVOIR T AN K

LOW LEVEL

TT1 -

TT2 -

TT3 -

TT4 -

TT5 -

FT1 -

FT2 -

LT -

PT -

HEAT ER T ANK

TEMPERATUR E TR AN SMITT ER

HEAT EXCHAN GER OUT PUT

TEMPERATUR E TR AN SMITT ER

PROC ESS LOOP COOLER IN LET

TEMPERATUR E TR AN SMITT ER

PROC ESS LOOP COOLER OUTLET

TEMPERATUR E TR AN SMITT ER

PROC ESS T ANK

TEMPERATUR E TR AN SMITT ER

HEAT ER LOOP

FLOW TR AN SMITT ER

PROC ESS LOOP

FLOW TR AN SMITT ER

PROC ESS VESSEL

LEVEL TR AN SMITT ER

PROC ESS VESSEL

PRESSUR E TR ANSM ITTER

KEY

Figure 17 Connections to the CE117 Process Trainer and Computer


SECTION 2.0 System Dynamics
This section describes the dynamics of the Process Trainer. For more details, we recommend a popular
book:
“Process Dynamics and Control” by Seborg, Edgar and Mellichamp, (Wiley). Where possible, the symbols
and
notation used in the book are also used in this manual.
Symbol Units Description
C J/kg K Heat capacity of the fluid
A m2 Area
V Litre Volume of fluid in the process vessel
Vh Litre Volume of fluid in the heater tank
T Celsius (°C) Temperature of the fluid in the vessel
Ti Celsius (°C) Inflow temperature
Th Celsius (°C) Temperature in the heater tank
Outlet temperature from the heat
To Celsius (°C)
exchanger
T Celsius (°C) Reference temperature
ref
P Watts (W) Heater input electrical power
wi kg/s Inlet mass flow rate
w kg/s Outlet mass flow rate
Heat input to the process vessel from
Q J/kg
the heat exchanger
 kg/m3 Fluid density
L/min
qi or m3/s
Volumetric flow rate into the vessel
L/min
q or m3/s
Volumetric flow rate out of the vessel
L/min
qh or m3/s
Flow rate through the heat exchanger.

K A constant for the cooler


U V Cooler fan speed input voltage
fan

2.1 Notation
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 24
2.2 The Process Vessel
The heat exchanger in the process vessel supplies an input heat flow rate Q. The fluid feed to the system
is
at temperature Ti and mass flow rate wi. The outflow temperature is T and mass flow rate w. The control
variables are the fluid input flow rate, the outflow rate and the heat input to the heater. The general
control
objective is to control the temperature T and the volume of fluid (V) in the vessel. This type of system is
the
basis of many chemical process systems.
Q
Heat Exchanger
V

Tw

Fluid In
Fluid Out

Tw
ii

Figure 19 Process System Model

For the process vessel of volume V filled with water of density , the mass of water in the vessel is given

by V.

From Figure 19, the law of conservation of mass gives the mass balance:

  Rate of mass accumulation =   Rate of mass into the vessel –   Rate of mass out of the

vessel

The mass balance equation is then

(1)

The law of conservation of energy is:

Rate of energy

accumulation

Rate of energy

flow into tank

Rate of energy

flow out of tank

-+

Rate of heat

addition to

((((((( the system (


The energy balance equation is:
(2)

Equations 1 and 2 can be simplified when we include assumptions for the fluid in the process vessel

(stirred

tank). Assume that the density  and the specific heat c are constant. Equation 1 can now be written as:

(3)

d V 

dt

--------------- w

i –= w

d V     T T – ref

dt

-------------------------------------- w

= iC T   i – Tref – wc T T   – ref + Q

dV

dt

------

1

-- w

= =   i – w qi – q

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer

Page 25

Equation 3 gives the process dynamics used for the control of the fluid level in the stirred tank.

From Equation 2:

(4)

An important special case is when the volume of fluid is held constant. This the ‘constant volume stirred

tank
process’. This is widely used as a typical process system in chemical engineering. For this system the

process

dynamics are:

(5)

These equations describe the behaviour of the stirred tank system completely and are used later in this

guide

to develop control systems and understanding the process dynamics.


2.3 The Process Loop
The process loop is shown in Figure 20. Fluid is pumped from the reservoir at temperature ( Tr) through
the
cooler where it is cooled to a temperature (Ti), and then into the stirred tank (process vessel). The water
returns to the reservoir by means of the drain valve.
Process Vessel
(Stirred Tank)
V

Reservoir

TT

FT

TT

Pump 2

Cooler

Flow Rate ( ) qi

Temperature ( ) Ti

Temperature ( ) Tr

Proportional Valve

Position [ ( )] u t

Drain Valve

Figure 20 The Process Loop

For the temperature elements of the cooler system, an energy equation can be written to balance the

energy

removed by the cooler with the energy lost by the fluid which runs through the cooler system

The law of conservation of energy is:

Rate of energy

removal by cooler

Rate of energy

loss by fluid in
((( process loop (
The energy balance equation is:

KUfan   Tr – Tref = qi  Tt – Ti (6)

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer

Page 27

The flow rate through the process loop is given by the relationship between the pump characteristics, the

losses in the pipes and cooling systems, and the proportional valve. This is usually given by a set of curves

which relate the pump input to the flow rate for various proportional valve positions.

Pump Flow Rate

Pump Input Voltage

Increasing

Valve

Opening

Figure 21 Typical Linear Pump Characteristic

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer

Page 28

2.4 The Heater Loop

The heater loop consists of a heater tank and a heat exchanger loop. The heater tank contains an electric

heating element and a temperature sensor. The temperature of the heater tank is controlled by a local

control

loop. The water is pumped through the heat exchanger under the control of the Pump 1. The model for

this

loop is a simple heat transfer equation relating the heat energy lost from the heat exchanger to the energy

gain in the process tank. This can be done as a simple heater control experiment or combined with the

multiloop experiment for the process tank.

The other model for the heater loop is the pump characteristic for the hot water circulation loop. This will
be

similar to the pump characteristic for the process loop.

Process Vessel

(Stirred Tank)

Heater Tank

TT

FT

TT

Pump 1

Flow Rate ( ) qh

Temperature ( ) Th

Temperature ( ) T0

Heat Exchanger

Heater

input power (P)

Figure 22 The Heater Loop

The process dynamics for the heater loop are in two parts. One for the heating of the heater tank, and the

other for the heat transfer to the stirred tank via the heat exchanger and the heater flow loop.

For the heater loop, the energy balance is:

Rate of energy transfer

to heat exchanger

Rate of energy

loss by fluid in

((( heater loop (


This can be written as:

Q = qh  Th – T0

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer

Page 29

The energy balance for the heater tank:

Rate of energy

accumulation

in heater tank

Rate of energy

input to electric

heater

Rate of energy

output to heat

exchanger

(((( (( -

The energy balance equation is:

dV

  h  Th – Tref

dt

------------------------------------------- P Q
SECTION 3.0 Process Control Theory
The dynamics and control of process systems is an important subject. Properly configured and effectively
tuned control systems have a major influence on the efficiency and safety of a process plant. In this
section
the main process control topics are reviewed and their application described in terms of the CE117
Process
Trainer. The popular and widely used book “Process Dynamics and Control” by Seborg, Edgar and
Mellichamp, (Wiley) is again recommend for more background and details.

3.1 Feedback Control of Flow


The control of flow rate through a pipeline occurs in process engineering when fluid, gas or a mixture of
both
is pumped through a pipeline or process network. The flow of fluid can be controlled in the Process
Trainer
in both the heater and process loops by:
• Control of pump speed (heater and process loop).
• Control of the proportional valve position (process loop only).
• A combination of the pump speed and valve position.
• Adjustment of the process loop bypass valve.
The control schemes for the pump speed and valve control are shown in Figure 23. Both methods of
control
are used in practical situations, depending upon the process system being considered. In some complex
systems a mix of both schemes is used. For example, in a gas distribution network, pumps are used as the
primary actuator. They move gas through the network from the source to the user. Local valves control
the
amount of gas taken from the network by users at various locations around the network.
FC
FT
Flow Controller
Control
Valve
FC
FT
Flow Controller
Flow
Transmitter
Hydraulic
Pump
Flow
Transmitter
Pump control of flow Valve control of flow
Figure 23 Two Methods of Flow Control
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 32

3.2 Level Control


The control of the level of fluid in a tank is a basic and important feature of all chemical engineering
processes.
The tank may be a storage vessel, a hold up tank used to smooth flows in a process, a temperature
stabilizing
tank, a chemical reactor or a mixing vessel. In the Process Trainer, the stirred tank represents a chemical
reactor, a temperature control tank or a mixing tank.
Level control is achieved by the use of a level sensor or transmitter (LT) that converts the actual level in
the
tank into an electrical signal that is fed to a level controller (LC), which generates an actuation signal. This
signal controls the input to an actuator. In the Process Trainer there are several methods for the control
of
level in the tank.
• Control of fluid flow into the process vessel by adjustment of the process loop valve position.
• Control of flow or fluid into the process vessel by adjustment of the process loop pump speed.
• Control of flow of fluid out of the process vessel by adjustment of the drain valve at the base of the
stirred tank.
• Any combination of the methods shown above.
In practice, any of these control strategies is used. Sometimes there may be a mix of actuation for
different
purposes. For example, the drain valve can be used as an emergency way of reducing the level in the
stirred
tank if the main control scheme malfunctions as described below.
The diagrams for the first three schemes are shown in Figure 24. Usually the input flow rate is controlled
either
by valve or by pump actuation. The output flow rate is usually dependent upon some process down
stream
of the tank. However, a drain or release valve may be used to reduce the tank level when the main control
loop cannot cope. For example, if the downstream process suddenly reduces the tank out flow and there
is
risk of the tank overflowing.
LC
Control Valve
Process Vessel
(Stirred Tank)
LT
Hand
Operated
Valve
Level
Controller
Level
Transmitter
LC
Process Vessel
(Stirred Tank)
LT
Hand
Operated
Valve
Level
Controller
Level
Transmitter
Hydraulic
Pump
Process
Vessel
(Stirred Tank)

Hand
Operated
Valve
Inflow Rate
Level control by valve on inlet Level control by pump on inlet
Level control by manual valve on outlet
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 33
Figure 24 Three Methods of Level Control
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 34

3.3 Feedback Control of Temperature


Temperature control of the heater tank is done by a temperature transducer (TT) and a temperature
controller
unit that controls the electrical power supplied to the heater element in the tank. This is shown in Figure
25.
In the Process Trainer there is also an internal temperature control circuit which limits the maximum
temperature of the heater tank.
Heater Tank
TC
TT
Heater Element
Figure 25 Temperature Control of the Heater Tank
Temperature control of the stirred tank (process vessel) is done by setting the heater tank temperature to
a
fixed level, and then controlling the flow rate of water in the heater flow loop which passes through the
heat
exchanger in the stirred tank. In the Process Trainer, temperature control is achieved by control of Pump
2
flow rate. Figure 26 shows this control scheme for the stirred tank temperature.
TC TT
Heat
Exchanger
Process Vessel
(Stirred Tank)
Hydraulic
Pump
Figure 26 Temperature Control of the Process Vessel
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 35

3.4 Feedforward Control


In a feedback control system, the controller reacts to disturbances after they have started to upset the
system.
Feedforward control is a method used in control systems which attempts to compensate for process
disturbances before they are measurable in the process output. This is done by measuring plant
disturbances
and making a corrective action to the actuator signal before the disturbance has begun to change the
output
of the process. The correct proportion of the disturbance signal must be added (or feedforward) to the
actuation signal or the system will either over or under compensate for the disturbance.
In practice, feedforward is used with a feedback controller to achieve good control. The idea can be
illustrated
using temperature control of the stirred tank. When a sudden change in flow rate occurs in the process
loop
the change in flow rate is fed forward to the temperature control loop. The temperature controller can
then
start to compensate for an anticipated rapid change in the stirred tank temperature, caused by the change
in flow rate of fluid to the stirred tank. Figure 27 shows a stirred tank temperature controller with
feedforward
of flow rate from the process loop.
TC TT
Heat
Exchanger
Hydraulic
Pump
Process Vessel
(Stirred Tank)
FC FT
+
+
Feed Forward
Controller
Figure 27 Feedforward Control
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 36

3.5 Cascade Control


Feedforward control can compensate for most of the effects of disturbances, but it can over or under
compensate for the disturbance. If there is another actuation point in the system it is sometimes possible
to
add a further quick-acting control loop in the system. This loop can compensate for disturbances by
reacting
more rapidly than the main control loop and without the problems associated with feedforward. The
quick
acting loop is called the ‘slave’ loop and the main control loop is the ‘master’ loop, since this control loop
sets
the overall setpoint for the control system. The slave control loop is often applied to local actuators as a
means
of overcoming non-linearities in the actuators. For example, most process system actuators have a ‘dead
zone’
or hysteresis characteristic. Local feedback (e.g. the slave control loop) can reduce this.
Figure 28 shows a cascade control system applied to the level control of a stirred tank (process vessel)
where
there are disturbances in the fluid flow rate. The slave loop measures the flow rate and controls the pump
speed. The master loop measures the level in the stirred tank and determines the setpoint of the slave
controller. Thus any disturbances in the fluid flow rate are sensed and compensated for before they are
measurable in the stirred tank level.
LC
Process Vessel
(Stirred Tank)
LT
Level
Controller
Level
Transmitter
Hydraulic
Pump

FT
FC
Flow
Controller
Flow
Transmitter
Master
Loop
Slave
Loop
Figure 28 Cascade Control of Level in the Process Vessel
TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer
Page 37

3.6 Interacting Control


Interacting systems are those where in trying to control or change one process variable the value of other
process variables are also altered. In feedforward control the interaction is caused by a process
disturbance.
In many cases however, the interaction is between two control loops. A standard example in chemical
engineering is the interaction between temperature control and fluid flow control in a fixed volume
stirred
tank system. If the flow through the stirred tank is changed by increasing the flow rate, then the
temperature
will also be changed. Feedforward can be used to solve this, but it must determine the amount of
feedforward
precisely. Another solution is to use different control systems for the process variables and then include
interaction terms that couple the control loops for the process variables in a way that reduces the level of
interaction. Interacting control systems occur widely in control engineering; in process engineering this is
particularly true because many parts of a process are closely interlinked. Figure 29 shows an interacting
controller for the temperature control of a stirred tank system with separately controlled flow rate
through
the stirred tank.
Process Vessel
(Stirred Tank)
FT
FC
Flow
Controller
Flow
Transmitter
TC TT
Heat
Exchanger
Hydraulic
Pump
Hydraulic
Pump

Figure 29 Interacting Control

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer

Page 38

3.7 Ratio Control

Ratio control is a way of linking the actions of two control loops. The aim is to keep the ratio of two

process

variables at a desired value. It is the ratio (R) of the two variables that is controlled rather than a single

process

variable. The process variables are usually flow rates of two process streams that feed a chemical reactor

or

mixing tank. If the flow rates are Q1 and Q2 (in physical units not the derived units supplied by the

transducer), then the Flow Rate Ratio Controller (FRC) compares the measured ratio Rm with the

setpoint

ratio R

stp to control the flow through one of the flow streams (see Figure 30).

Process Vessel
(Stirred Tank)

FT

FRC

Flow Rate

Ratio

Controller

Flow

Transmitter

Heat

Exchanger

Hydraulic

FT Pump

Dividing Unit

R
stp

Rm

Q1

Q2

Figure 30 Ratio Control with Dividing Unit

Ratio control can be implemented without the disadvantage of using a dividing unit. This is shown in

Figure

31. Here the ratio station multiplies the measured flow rate from one flow stream by a derived constant

and

uses this as a setpoint to the flow controller on the other flow stream. The derived constant is calculated

to

give the desired ratio of process flows.

Process Vessel

(Stirred Tank)

FT
FC

Flow Rate

Ratio

Controller

Flow

Transmitter

Heat

Exchanger

Hydraulic

FT Pump

R
stp

Q1

Q2

FRC

Setpoint for Flow Controller

Process Flow Loop

TecQuipment CE117 Process Trainer

Page 39

Figure 31 Ratio Control without Dividing Unit