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Usage

• Power Division/Distribution

• Isolation

• Matching

• Signal Monitoring

• …

Three-port S Matrix

b s s 22 s 23 a 2

2 21

b3 s 31 s 32 s 33 a 3

Inherent Mismatch of Lossless

Reciprocal Three-port Networks

If all the 3 ports are matched, then s11 s 22 s 33 0.

reciprocal , s12 s 21 , s 23 s32 , s13 s31

lossless (i.e. S is unitary)

s12 s13 1

2 2

*

s12 s13 0

2 2

s12 s 23 1... (1) and s12 s 23 0 ... (2)

*

2 2

s13 s 23 1

*

s13 s 23 0

Assume that s13 0, then s12 s 23 0 (from (2)).

2 2

But from (1), we know s12 s 23 1. !! (unless s 22 0)

At least one port has to be mismatched .

Lossless Reciprocal 3-port Networks

with Two Ports Matched

Assume that ports 1 and 2 are matched. Then

0 s12 s13

S s12 0 s 23

s13 s 23 s 33

lossless

2 2

s12 s13 1 ... (1)

2 2

s12 s 23 1 ... (2)

2 2 2

s13 s 23 s 33 1 ... (3)

*

s13 s 23 0 ... (4)

*

s12 s13 s 23

*

s 33 0

*

s 23 s12 s 33

*

s13 0

2 2

From (1) - (2), s13 s 23 s13 s 23 ... (5) The mismatched port is

From (4) and (5), s13

2

0 s 23

2

... (6) completely decoupled

From (1), (3), and (6), s12 s 33 1 from the other two ports.

i.e. Isolation

0 e j 0

S e j 0 0

0 0 e j

Lossless Reciprocal 3-port Networks

with Only One Port Matched

1

– T-junction 1

2 For matching at

port 1, l/4

transformers

– Wilkinson divider 3 are usually used.

(lossless cases)

• Equivalent circuit model of a lossless power divider

•Parallel connection of 3 lines

•Parallel susceptance jB stands for

the effect of higher-order modes. It

can be compensated by placing

another suitable shunt susceptance

Lossless Reciprocal 3-port Networks

with Only One Port Matched (cont’d)

It can be derived that

Y1 Y2 Y3 jB 2 Y1Y2 2 Y1Y3

S 1

2 Y1Y2 Y2 Y1 Y3 jB 2 Y2 Y3 .

Y1 Y2 Y3 jB

2 Y1Y3 2 Y2 Y3 Y3 Y1 Y2 jB

If the transmiss ion lines are lossless, then Y1 , Y2 , Y3 R.

If port 1 is matched, then Y1 Y2 Y3 jB 0. Y1 Y2 Y3 and B 0.

Y2 Y3

0

Y 1 Y 1

Y Y Y

P s 2

P1 P2 Y2

S 2

Y

3

2 3 2 21

. ..... can be designed!

Y1 Y1 Y1 P3 s 31 P1 P3 Y3

2

Y Y2 Y3 Y2

3

Y1 Y1 Y1

If Y2 Y3 , then P2 P3 ... Equal power split (i.e. 3dB insertion loss)

Lossless Reciprocal 3-port Networks

with No Port Matched

• Example: Symmetrical Y-junction

Symmetric

Design s11 s 22 s 33 A 0 and s12 s13 s 23 ... B jC

A 2 2 B 2 2C 2 1

lossless

2 AB B 2 C 2 0

• Special cases:

– A=1, B=C=0 Complete reflections occur at all ports (i.e. isolation,

unlikely to happen)

– A=1/3, B=-2/3, C=0 Connection of one line to two lines having the

same characteristic impedance without reactive elements, VSWR=2,

3.52dB insertion loss

Lossy Reciprocal Three-port Networks

• S matrix is not unitary

• All the 3 ports can be matched

• Example 1: Symmetric 3-port resistive power divider

Lossy Reciprocal Three-port Networks

• Example 2: Lossy Wilkinson power divider

(better isolation between outputs)

All 3 ports are

terminated to Z0

Isolation resistor

signals at ports 2 and 3. Since each end of the isolation resistor between ports 2

and 3 is at the same potential, no current flows through it and therefore the

resistor is decoupled from the input. The two output port terminations will add

in parallel at the input, so they must be transformed to 2xZ0 each at the input

port to combine to Z0. The quarter-wave transformers in each leg accomplish

this.

Three-port Circulator

• Lossless, nonreciprocal, all ports matched

All the 3 ports are matched, s11 s 22 s 33 0.

lossless (i.e. S is unitary)

1

2 2

s 21 s 31 *

s12 s13 0

2 2

s12 s 32 1 and s 21 s 23 0

*

2 2

s13 s 23 1 s *

s 0

31 32

Solutions can be

2 2

s12 s 23 s 31 0 s 21 s 32 s13 0

or

1 s 21 s 32 s13 1 s12 s 23 s 31 1 1

3 3

Realization of Circulator

Ferrite circulator: By

depositing a symmetrical Y- Typically, insertion

junction on a ferrite (mixture loss less than 1 dB can

of magnetic oxides and be obtained in reality.

nonmagnetic metal oxides)

substrate and applying a

perpendicular magnetic field

Simulated Electric Field Strength and Average

Power Flow in a Ferrite Circulator

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