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Three-port Passive Networks

Junctions and Couplers


Usage
• Power Division/Distribution
• Isolation
• Matching
• Signal Monitoring
• …
Three-port S Matrix

 b1   s11 s12 s13   a1 


b    s s 22 s 23   a 2 
 2   21  
b3   s 31 s 32 s 33   a 3 
Inherent Mismatch of Lossless
Reciprocal Three-port Networks
If all the 3 ports are matched, then s11  s 22  s 33  0.
 reciprocal ,  s12  s 21 , s 23  s32 , s13  s31
  lossless (i.e. S is unitary)
s12  s13  1
2 2
*
s12 s13  0 
 
2 2 
 s12  s 23  1... (1) and s12 s 23  0 ... (2)
*

 
2 2
s13  s 23  1
*
s13 s 23  0 

Assume that s13  0, then s12  s 23  0 (from (2)).
2 2
But from (1), we know s12  s 23  1.  !! (unless s 22  0)
 At least one port has to be mismatched .
Lossless Reciprocal 3-port Networks
with Two Ports Matched
Assume that ports 1 and 2 are matched. Then
 0 s12 s13 
S    s12 0 s 23 

 s13 s 23 s 33 
  lossless
2 2
 s12  s13  1 ... (1)
2 2
s12  s 23  1 ... (2)
2 2 2
s13  s 23  s 33  1 ... (3)
*
s13 s 23  0 ... (4)
*
s12 s13  s 23
*
s 33  0
*
s 23 s12  s 33
*
s13  0
2 2
From (1) - (2), s13  s 23  s13  s 23 ... (5) The mismatched port is
From (4) and (5), s13
2
 0  s 23
2
... (6) completely decoupled
From (1), (3), and (6), s12  s 33  1 from the other two ports.
i.e. Isolation
 0 e j 0 
 
 S   e j 0 0 
 0 0 e j 

Lossless Reciprocal 3-port Networks
with Only One Port Matched
1

• Can be a power divider l/4 2 3 l/4

• Examples For impedance matching For impedance matching

– T-junction 1
2 For matching at
port 1, l/4
transformers
– Wilkinson divider 3 are usually used.
(lossless cases)
• Equivalent circuit model of a lossless power divider
•Parallel connection of 3 lines
•Parallel susceptance jB stands for
the effect of higher-order modes. It
can be compensated by placing
another suitable shunt susceptance
Lossless Reciprocal 3-port Networks
with Only One Port Matched (cont’d)
It can be derived that
Y1  Y2  Y3  jB 2 Y1Y2 2 Y1Y3 
 
S   1
 2 Y1Y2 Y2  Y1  Y3  jB 2 Y2 Y3 .
Y1  Y2  Y3  jB 
2 Y1Y3 2 Y2 Y3 Y3  Y1  Y2  jB 
 
If the transmiss ion lines are lossless, then Y1 , Y2 , Y3  R.
If port 1 is matched, then Y1  Y2  Y3  jB  0.  Y1  Y2  Y3 and B  0.
 Y2 Y3 
 0 
 Y 1 Y 1 
 Y Y Y  
 P  s 2
P1 P2 Y2
 S    2
Y
 3    
2 3 2 21
.   ..... can be designed!
 Y1 Y1 Y1   P3  s 31 P1 P3 Y3
2

 Y Y2 Y3 Y2 
 3
 
 Y1 Y1 Y1 
If Y2  Y3 , then P2  P3 ... Equal power split (i.e. 3dB insertion loss)

Ports 2 and 3 are not necessarily matched.


Lossless Reciprocal 3-port Networks
with No Port Matched
• Example: Symmetrical Y-junction
 Symmetric
 Design s11  s 22  s 33  A  0 and s12  s13  s 23  ...  B  jC
 A 2  2 B 2  2C 2  1
 lossless  
2 AB  B 2  C 2  0

• Special cases:
– A=1, B=C=0  Complete reflections occur at all ports (i.e. isolation,
unlikely to happen)
– A=1/3, B=-2/3, C=0  Connection of one line to two lines having the
same characteristic impedance without reactive elements, VSWR=2,
3.52dB insertion loss
Lossy Reciprocal Three-port Networks
• S matrix is not unitary
• All the 3 ports can be matched
• Example 1: Symmetric 3-port resistive power divider
Lossy Reciprocal Three-port Networks
• Example 2: Lossy Wilkinson power divider
(better isolation between outputs)
All 3 ports are
terminated to Z0
Isolation resistor

When a signal enters port 1, it splits into equal-amplitude, equal-phase output


signals at ports 2 and 3. Since each end of the isolation resistor between ports 2
and 3 is at the same potential, no current flows through it and therefore the
resistor is decoupled from the input. The two output port terminations will add
in parallel at the input, so they must be transformed to 2xZ0 each at the input
port to combine to Z0. The quarter-wave transformers in each leg accomplish
this.
Three-port Circulator
• Lossless, nonreciprocal, all ports matched
 All the 3 ports are matched,  s11  s 22  s 33  0.
  lossless (i.e. S is unitary)
 1
2 2
s 21  s 31 *
s12 s13  0 
 
2 2 
 s12  s 32  1 and s 21 s 23  0 
*

 
2 2
s13  s 23  1 s *
s  0 

31 32

 Solutions can be
2 2
 s12  s 23  s 31  0  s 21  s 32  s13  0
 or 
1  s 21  s 32  s13  1  s12  s 23  s 31  1 1
3 3

• Can be used in Tx/Rx, phase shifter, and reflection amplifiers, etc.


Realization of Circulator
Ferrite circulator: By
depositing a symmetrical Y- Typically, insertion
junction on a ferrite (mixture loss less than 1 dB can
of magnetic oxides and be obtained in reality.
nonmagnetic metal oxides)
substrate and applying a
perpendicular magnetic field
Simulated Electric Field Strength and Average
Power Flow in a Ferrite Circulator