You are on page 1of 18

04/07/2015

Sustainable energy
1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Economic Environmental Social


1. 1. 1.
Sustainable energy strategies: -
Competitiveness
Reduced cost 2.
Climate Change*
Natural resource* 2.
Energy Security
Affordable warmth
2. Business opportunities 3. Air pollutions * 3. Consumers
 Jobs created behaviour:
SUSTAINABILITY AND ENERGY
Balancing supply with demand 3.

Co--generation
Co
Reduction in utility
 buying more and
more electrical
infrastructure goods
 Efficient use of waste heat 4. Increased housing
5. Health and well
being
Professor Jian Yang (杨健)  air pollution from
fossil fuels

SJTU

*UK Sustainable Development Framework indicators (Defra, 2005)

Greenhouse emissions
Climate change Climate change (1990-2007)
1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

 Rio convention (1992)

 Kyoto agreement (1997) 24th October 2012 - 193 ratify Kyoto protocal

Ratified (63.8%):
 The Energy White paper (2003 updated 2008) • UK - 4.3% of total emissions
 12.5 % reduction in greenhouse gases by 2010 • Russia - 17.4% of total emissions
 20 % reduction in CO2 by 2020
 60% reduction in CO2 by 2050 Not Ratified (36.2%):
 At least 10 GWe of CHP capacity by 2010 • USA - 36.2% of total emissions
 At least 20GWe generated by CHP by 2020
 Meeting UK target of 10% renewables by 2010 http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/status_of_ratification/items/2613.p -17.3%
 Meeting UK target of 20% renewables by 2020 hp

 The Climate Change Act 2008


 34% reduction in CO2 by 2020
 80% reduction by 2050
http://unfccc.int/files/ghg_data/ghg_data_unfccc/image/pjpeg/changes_in_ghg_excluding_lulucf.jpg

1
04/07/2015

Achieving 60%
reduction by 2050 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

g
180
UK Energy: natural resource
160

Current forecasts preservation/ security of supply


UK Emissions, Mt C

140

120

Energy efficiency UK ENERGY DEMAND


100
Coal (import/export)
80
Renewables
60
RCEP target CO2 sequestration
40
60% reduction from 1997 Gas (import/export)
"Low Carbon Economy" Hydrogen economy
20

0
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Nuclear (decomissioning)
Year

Ref: The Carbon Trust analysis, RCEP report (2002)

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Demand by sector (DECC, 2010) Carbon emissions by sector (2004) Carbon emissions by sector (DECC, 2010)
16%

19% 26% Energy supply from power stations


0% Energy supply other sources
30% 0%
2% Business
1%
Domestic demand Transport
Public
Services demand
Residential
13%
%
Transport demand Agriculture
Industry demand 6% Industrial process
Waste Management
2%
12% LULUCF
39% Other Greenhouse
13%

21%

Total annual energy demand in the UK is 1,674 TWh


Total annual carbon emissions in the UK are 157MtC (DECC, 2010)

2
04/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006
Measuring energy demands: Domestic demand – direct drivers of
Benchmarking demands Units of measure: Domestic appliances
within developments • Personal Computer and Monitor (220W+150W) = 370W change
(Energy capacity) Technology Type:
Domestic Demand:  Thermal output ((KWh
KWhth)  What is TV types? (Tube vs plasma vs LCD vs LED)
 Electrical output (KWh
(KWhe ) • = 370 W x 4 hrs/day x 365 days/year (/1000)  What is TV size? (14inch to 60 inch)
= 540 kWhe (Energy use)
 KWh/m2  What is dishwasher capacity? (place settings)
 What type of water/space heating? (electric heaters,
heaters
• x 10p / kWhe (British Gas, 2010 – Standard Tariff – Tier 2) electric shower vs gas mains)
Other Demand:  KWh/m2 = £54.0 / year (Energy cost)
• Offices  KWh/bed/yr
• 540 kWhe X 0.43 (Defra, 2005) (N.B. use 0.19 for gas) User behaviour:
• Hospitals  £/pupil = 232 Kg CO2 (Climate change cost)
• Hotels  How many hours of TV is watched per day?
• Schools  How full is dishwasher, how often used per week?
• Libraries  What is length and frequency of shower?
Shower 9kW, Electric Cooker 6kW
 What is an acceptable room temperature?
Low energy light bulb 20W

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

What external Influences are there? UK energy: Domestic demand


Domestic (total) demand
Geographic Location – weather patterns Lighting and
Occupancy appliances 13% Currie, R et al (2002) - annual household electricity use in
Scotland:
Cultural influences – value of energy Space
Cooking 3%
Education g 62%
heating Working couple - 4,117 kWh
Single person - 3,084 kWh
Economics Working Family (two children at school) - 5,480 kWh
Policy Water
heating
Others?
23%

BRE 2000

3
04/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Domestic (total) demand Domestic (total) demand Domestic (total) demand


Typical domestic property use 150-230 kWh/m2
Hawkes and leach (2005) – annual domestic energy use in UK
Electricity - 4600 kWh or 12kWh/day (DTI, 2005a) Balarus (2000)
Electricity
y - 2455 to 7627 kWh (small to large)
g
Gas -15137 to 24539 kWh (small to large) Gas - 20,111 kWh or 55kWh/day (DTI, 2005b) CSH 3 (25% improvement) 160 kWh/m2

Domestic (heating) demand Office demand


1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Domestic (heating) demand 1 Naturally ventilated


229 kWh/m2/yr - Average UK dwelling value (cellular)
146 kWh/m2/yr - Part L of Building Regs (2006)
60 kWh/m2/yr - CSH (Level 3) and UK Building Regs 2010 2 Naturally ventilated
52 kWh/m2/yr - CSH (Level 4) and UK Building Regs 2013
46 kWh/m2/yr - Zero Carbon FEES - Detached and end of terrace (open-plan)
kWh/ 2/yr
42 kWh/m / - CSH (level
(l l 4.5)
4 5) and
d UK Building
B ildi Regs
R 2016
40 kWh/m2/yr - AECB Silver 3 Air conditioned standard
39 kWh/m2/yr- Zero Carbon FEES - Mid terrace and flats (ZCH,
2009)
15 kWh/m2/yr - AECB Gold and Passive house (Non-UK) standard 4 Air conditioned prestige

What’s wrong with using averages?


Ref: Energy use in offices (ECON 19, 1997)

4
04/07/2015

Supermarket demand
Offices/libraries 1896 1920 1987 2006
Library demand 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Jones et al (1999) - Sainsbury’s store 1994 to 1995


/universities demand Jones et al (1999) – ‘typical’ and ‘good’ practice
Type Floor area Gas Electric
Total demand - 1254 kWh/m2/yr to 1172kWh/m2
(m2) (kWh/m2) (kWh/m2) energy demands for 40 Libraries and 39 Universities
1 Naturally Ventilated (cellular) 100 – 3,000 151 [79] 54 [33] in Northern Ireland. Maidment (1999) - A refurbished Sainsbury store
2 Naturally ventilated (open plan) 500 – 4,000 151 [79] 85 [54]
3 Air conditioned (standard) 2,000 – 8,000 178 [97] 226 [128]
Floor area - 2000m2
4 Air conditioned (prestige) 4,000 – 20,000 210 [114] 358 [234]
Good Practice Guide 207 (BRE, 1997) - Energy
Energy demand - 1748kWh/m2yr
Energy use in offices (ECON 19, 1997) demands for UK based Universities are broadly Electric - 1184 kWh/m2yr
Type Sample size Gas Electric
similar to those in Northern Ireland e.g. De Monfort Gas - 564 kWh/m2yr
(kWh/m2) (kWh/m2)
Libraries 40 192 [133] 45 [24]
University (UK).
Maidment (2002) – A newly constructed supermarket
1 University (non-residential) 39 142 [103] 39 [29]
2 University (residential) 19 201 [164] 60 [50]
Gas demand - 114kWh/m2 Floor area - 5000 m2
Energy use in Libraries/universities Jones et al (1999) Energy demand - 1265 kWh/m2/yr
Electric demand - 43kWh/m2
Electric - 930 kWh/m2/yr
Gas - 334 kWh/m2/yr

Retail demands 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Mortimer (1999) – average demand in 74 UK retail outlets.


Reducing energy demand
Total demand - 150kWh/m2/yr through Energy conservation
Gas - 74kWh
Electric - 76kWh. Good building design
UK ENERGY EFFICIENCY • Reduce energy losses
Based on a straight line drawn through consumption data
(Reducing demand) • Good insulation
su a o
• Air tightness
The highest demands were for: • Harness free energy
• Solar gain (south facing)
Heating - 47% • Natural lighting
Lighting - 42%. • Natural ventilation
• Low energy using equipment (end user)
• Low energy ventilation systems ‘Passive-stack’
• A-rated appliances
• Choose materials with low embodied energy

5
04/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Good building design: Good building design:


Compliance with Part L1 Good building design:
Energy efficiency legislation
a) Limit the heat loss through the roof, wall, floor, windows and Measuring heat loss (U-Values)
Building regulations (Parts A-P): doors etc by suitable means of insulation, and where appropriate
permit the benefits of solar heat gains and more efficient heating U-value is a standard used in building codes for
systems to be taken into account; and measuring thermal transmittance (W/m2K)
• Part L1: ‘conservation
conservation of fuel and power’
power
The Lower the value the better
• Part L2: new buildings other than dwellings b) Limit unnecessary ventilation heat loss by providing building
fabric which is reasonably airtight and
In European countries the R-value (Resistance) is used
Came into force on April 1st 2002 (updated 2006)
c) Limit the heat loss from hot water pipes and hot air ducts used 1/U-value therefore the higher the value the better
for space heating and from hot water vessels and their primary
Part L 2010 aligns itself with Code 3 CSH and secondary hot water connections by applying suitable
thicknesses of insulation where such heat does not make an
Part L 2013 aligns itself with Code 4 CSH (44% efficient contribution to the space heating.
improvement, used already in Wales)

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Good building design: Good building design:


Measuring heat loss (U-Values)
Compliance with Part L1
For walls and roofs: BS EN ISO 694610 Three methods are shown for demonstrating
reasonable provision for limiting heat loss through the
For
o gground
ou d floors:
oo s BS
S EN ISO
SO 1337011
33 0 building fabric:

For windows and doors: BS EN ISO 10077-112 or prEN ISO


10077-213. a) Elemental method;
b) Target U-value method;
For basements: BS EN ISO 13370 or the BCA/NHBC c) Carbon Index method (uses information from SAP).
Approved Document 14

For light steel-frame construction, Digest 465, BRE 2002.

6
04/07/2015

(a) Elemental Method 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Finding a U value

Reference tables

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

(c) Standard assessment procedure (SAP) Energy certification for homes/buildings


SAP means the Government's Standard Assessment Procedure
for Energy Rating of Dwellings (simplified version of NHER), it is a
measure of energy efficiency.

The SAP is explained and defined, along with appropriate


reference data and a calculation worksheet, in "The Government's
Standard Assessment Procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings
2001 Edition
Edition“

The SAP provides the methodology for the calculation of the


‘Carbon Index’ method demonstrate that dwellings comply with
Part L. (Can be done by hand, scores 1-10)

0 being the lowest (extremely poor) and 120 the highest


(extremely good) value

40-50 average for UK (DTI, 2003a).


…advanced thermal materials?

7
04/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Energy certification for appliances Sustainable materials (low embodied energy)


(high efficiency)
•‘The Green Guide to Specification 3rd Edition ‘
a BRE publication
• Choose A-rated appliances UK ENERGY SUPPLY
•Carbon dioxide emissions during production
(sustainable renewable energy?)
• Energy efficient boilers (>100%)
• see BRECSU

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

UK Energy supply (2005) Renewables: Some important


questions Renewables legislation
What does Legislation say?
How much energy can be generated?
Planning policy statements (1-23 exist):
How reliable (intermittency?)?
PPS22 deals with renewables www.odpm.gov.uk
Will it provide a Security of supply?
Replaces PPG 22
How much embodied energy is there?
Imports Sets out governments planning policies for
2% Nuclear
How much will it cost (payback)?
20%
renewable energy, which planning authorities should
…THE GREEN DEAL?
Gas
have regard to when taking planning decisions.
45%
Oil/renew ables and How much CO2 will be saved?
others
5%

Coal
28%

8
04/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

PPS22 – section 8 Ground source heat pump


‘Local planning authorities may include policies in local Localised supply of renewable energy
development documents that require a percentage of the
energy to be used in new residential, commercial or supply to a development For every unit of electricity used to pump the heat, 3-4 units of heat
are produced. It consists of:
industrial developments to come from on-site renewable
energy developments.’ such policies: Ground source heat pump Now!!
Solar thermal
PV The ground loop
(i) should ensure that requirement to generate on-site
on site
renewable energy is only applied to developments where Hydro Ah
heat pump
the installation of renewable energy generation Wind • Evaporator
equipment is viable given the type of development Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Incremental • Compressor
proposed, its location, and design; • Condenser
Fuel cells (CHP)
New sources of energy Heat distribution system
(ii) should not be framed in such a way as to place an • Hydrogen
undue burden on developers, for example, by specifying • Production Step
that all energy to be used in a development should come • Storage
from on-site renewable generation.

Solar Thermal
1896 1920 1987 2006
Solar Thermal 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Ground source heat pump Uses radiation from sun to heat water
Can provide almost all of your hot water during the summer months
and about 50% year round

System consists of three main parts


• Solar panels (flat plate or evacuated tube types)
• heat transfer system
• hot water cylinder

Factor effecting system


• area of south facing roof (at least 2m2 advised)
• the existing water heating system (e.g. some combi boilers aren't
suitable)
• budget.

9
04/07/2015

Solar Thermal PV
1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 PV 1896 1920 1987 2006

There are several types of PV panel on the market currently each


with different efficiencies for converting light to electricity:

• Mono-crystalline
• Poly-crystalline
• Amorphous Silicon
• Cadmium Telluride / Copper indium Diselenide

PV is modular, therefore in theory could be used to output electricity


at any scale.

Globally output from sun can reach 1kW/m2,


In UK peak of 0.85kW/m2 in mid June

Mono-crystalline (15%)
Poly--1896
Poly crystalline
1920 (8-
(8-12%)
1987 2006
PV 1896 1920 1987 2006
PV 1896 1920 1987 2006

Typically, a 15% efficient PV module will produce 135 kWh/m2/yr 6 20.00


(Solarcentury) although output depends on angle of placement 18.00
and hours of sunshine, which are related to seasonal trends. 5 16.00
4 14.00

TTemperature
For example, over a 30 year period, (1970 – 2000) Birmingham

Irradiance
12.00
received an average of 1.6hrs of bright sunshine in the winter and
3 10.00
5.5 hours in the summer, see UK Met Office).
8.00
2 6 00
6.00
Cadmium Telluride / Copper Bedzed, a domestic complex in Suton (UK), has reported an
Amorphous Silicon (4-
(4-6%) annual production of 138kWh/m2 from a 777m2 PV array built into 1 4.00
indium Diselenide (7-
(7-9%). 2.00
the building façade (Lazarus, 2001), whereas the 1500m2
(102kWe) Amorphous Silicon PV array located on the roof of the 0 0.00
Alexander stadium (situated in close proximity to Eastside) only
produces 80MWh/yr or 53kWh/m2 (Solarcentury).
Irradiance (kW/m2/day) Temperature (Degrees celsius)
PV is an attractive option as it can be bolted on to rooftops of both
existing and new buildings, or integrated into the fabric (e.g.
cladding) of new buildings (Bonham-Carter, 2003)

10
04/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006


Inverters 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

PV in the UK Grid connected inverters


(databases) Power inverters condition power in some way by These inverters allow a photovoltaic array to be used in synchronised
PV--UK
PV connection with a grid supply. No battery store is required.
changing voltage or frequency to the usable form that
you want to use. There are two main types Power generated is first used by the house loads etc. and any surplus exported
(sold) to the grid. At night, or when power consumption exceeds power
generated, power is imported from the grid as normal.
• Grid connected
How does it work?
• Battery
Batter connected
In PV applications the inverter will automatically adjust the PV array loading
to provide peak efficiency of the solar panels by means of maximum power
point tracking (MPPT).

shutdown in the event of:

High/Low grid AC-voltage


High/Low grid frequency
Grid Failure
Inverter malfunction

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Battery Inverters Hydro – small scale low head Hydro – small scale low head
examples examples
Works at lower voltage (12-48V DC input) and again
outputs standard utility type electricity.

Battery inverters are usually used in applications where


grid electricity is not available (remote sites) or locations
where grid electricity is not very reliable

Water wheels (45kW - 0.5 m head )


Kaplan turbines

11
04/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Hydro – small scale low head examples


Hydro – small scale low head Hydro – low head
examples
Electricity production from hydro relies on kinetic
energy:

• Flow rate and


• Height drop (i.e. head of water)

• At a load factor of 50% (analogous to efficiency) , a


flow rate of 1.1m3/s and at a head of 2.0m the
maximum possible capacity that could be installed at
Variable Speed Siphon Propeller Turbines (1 m to 3 m and 5 to 100 kW) this location would be 15 to 20kW - see figure (Doake,
2003),
Cross Flow Turbines (2 m -10m head 200kW)

Hydro – low head 1896 1920 1987 2006


Wind 1896 1920 1987 2006
Wind - scale 1896 1920 1987 2006

Micro-scale 1kW domestic systems (e.g. Swift and


Installed Capacity at 2m head Windsave, Futurenergy)
50.0
45.0 Small-scale 2.5MW offshore or onshore turbine.
acity (kW)

40.0 Installed Capacity


35.0 Limit of 1.1m3/s Medium to large scale supply can be supplied by wind
30.0 farms, the largest onshore wind farm in the UK,
Installed Capa

25.0 opened in June 2005, is situated at Cefn Cross


20.0 (Lanarkshire), it consists of 39 turbines with a
15.0
combined capacity of 60MW.
10.0
5.0
0.0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Flow (m 3/s)
Ty'n Rhos Wind Farm, Llanbabo, 1999
Doake, 2004

12
04/07/2015

Wind Wind
Some examples 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

The production of electricity depends on the wind speed which is


1400.0
FuturEnergy 1KW Upwind Turbine governed by geographical location.
1200.0
Nominal Power Output - 1000W (600W / 12v Version)

ation (hrs/year
1000.0
Start-Up Wind Speed - 2.5m/s
Cut-In Wind Speed - 3.2m/s Typically wind speeds for the UK range from 800.0 Probablility distribution
Rated Wind Speed - 12.5m/s
Survival Wind Speed - 50m/s 600.0
>7.5m/s
• >7 5m/s in Scotland and Northern and Southern Ireland

Dura
Rotor Diameter - 1.8m
Number of Blades - 5 • down to 5.5m/s in the Midlands region and 400.0
Generator Type - 3-Phase Perm Magnet (this is rectified
200.0
to DC inside the turbine, giving a 2-wire DC output)
Weight - 22Kg 0.0
Suitable Tower Diameter - 50mm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Noise: LAeq 35dB @ 5m/s @ 5m behind rotor Electricity can be produced from wind speeds of 4m/s up to 25m/s
Wind Speed (m/s)
Noise: LAeq 54dB @ 7m/s @ 5m behind rotor although the wind power output can vary erratically as the wind
ROHS compliant changes (Sharman, 2005).

Wind Wind
1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

14 1400.0
Wind (other considerations)
If a wind turbine produced 1kWh for 24hrs a day 365days a year Planning regulations,
12 1200.0
…it would have a load factor of 100% and …Interference with communications
10 1000.0
Durattion (hrs/yr)

…produce 8760 kWh/yr,


ower [kW]

Probablility distribution
8 800.0 …A 10 diameter spacing requirement between turbines.
Turbine output
however, even the best sites in the UK only have a load factor of 25%
6 600.0
Po

4 400.0 (see Sharman, 2005). AC output variable, hence converted to DC and using inverter converted back
to AC
2 200.0

0 0.0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Wind Speed (m/s)

13
04/07/2015

Barriers 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006


CHP 1896 1920 1987 2006

CHP – Conventional powerplant Ref: www.chp-


info.org
High initial cost outlay
Intermittency of supply
Low efficiency/load factor
Connection to grid (electricity bought back at low price)
Who runs the system – energy operator?

FACTS:
FACTS:
•1-4 kW = Micro CHP  Waste heat utilised
 Power stations 30% efficient •4kW-3MW = Small scale  CHP - 80% efficient
 50% lost heat •300MW = Large scale
 Subsequently reduced CO2
 i.e. for every 1.0kWhg (gas) input there is 0.3kWhe
(electric) output 122kWe and 200kWt (Energy Services)
would cost £70,000

Example 1: Example 1:
Southampton CHP 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 Example 2: 1896 1920 1987 2006

Southampton CHP
Eastside CHP
Partnership -IDEX Energy UK + Council Possibility of CHP in Eastside
3 schemes
• Carbon Trust study
City Centre • 4 users agreeing in principle (e.g. Hospital, Millennium
7MWe through 11km of distribution network point, Aston University)
(1986) 15% through a 760 Geothermal system (Saline 1.8km deep) • Open-ended for other users to connect into
((1997)) 85% through
g conventional CHP,, 7 Wartsila Dual fuel engines
g
• Funding (£4M) >3MW - large amounts of infrastructure
Holyrood (1996)
300, 1960’s dwellings • Getting infrastructure in
Stand alone 110KWe CHP boiler • Plan at the start of development (Site for CHP plant)
• Reduce disruptions (retrofit – use trenchless technologies)
Millbrook (1999)
Standalone 49 MWe system in West Southampton.
• Sensitive issues
3400 council houses
1000 private houses
• Fuel (Gas), integrate with waste from Tyseley
Commercial, retail and schools • Public perception
Reduced CO2 by 80,000 tonnes/yr (1/3 of city emissions)

14
04/07/2015

Barriers 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006


Example 3: Bedzed1896 1920 1987 2006

Example 3: Bedzed, Sutton, UK Sutton, UK


- Lack of control of system
- End user may get no heat?
- Increased gas demand locally

Example 3: Bedzed 1896 1920 1987 2006


Bedzed 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Sutton, UK Buildings such as the Bedzed development (Suton,


UK) would score the highest SAP rating (i.e. 120)
having been designed for no heat requirements
(Lazarus, 2001),
Incorporating high quality building materials with low
U-values UK Energy: supply for the
Timber framed windows
Argon filled triple glazed future
f (security
( i off supply)
l )
300mm cavities filled with Rockwool insulation, 300mm
expanded polystyrene in the floors
Passive stack ventilation.
A-rated appliances
CHP, PV, Monitoring in place

15
04/07/2015

UK Fuel Cell
1896 1920 1987 2006

Why Fuel cells?


1896 1920 1987 2006
- Examples 1896 1920 1987 2006

Woking Borough Council, Guilford, South East England


Fuel cells - Theory • Does not require solar energy which can be unreliable
FACTS:
• Chemical to electrical without combustion
TYPES:  2001, UK’s First Fuel Cell CHP
• 50-60% efficient (compared to internal)
 Alkaline Fuel Cell (AFC)  Reforming natural gas
• No moving parts
 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC)  PAFC, 200kW (Int. Fuel Cells)
 Phosphoric
Ph h i AcidA id Fuel
F l Cells
C ll (PAFC) • Silent technology
 Incorporate future CHP 800kW
• Use of renewable energy (i.e. Hydrogen) reciprocating engine.
 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)
 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) • No run out like battery, electricity dependent on hydrogen  Electricity exported to grid
supply  Monitoring in place
• High grade heat used for (CHP)  Cost unknown
• Capable of being sited in urban areas or in remote www.woking.gov.uk
regions

Fuel Cell Costs


1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

(Initial - dti, 2003)


Fuel cells: Why SOFC? 2003-2007 £2000-3000/kW Hydrogen Fuel
2008-2012 £200-400/kW • Reforming natural gas
More stable 2013-2023 £50-100/kW
More reliable CH4 + H2O → CO + 3H2CO + H2O → CO2 + H2
Higher efficiencies (85%) FACTS:
Higher operating temperature suited to CHP UoB estimated to be £50,000 for 1kW (Nov 03) Most plentiful element in the universe
application (boosts efficiency) Hydrocarbons
H d b ((e.g. coal,
l oil,
il natural
t l gas)) and
d water
t
Internal reforming possible Energy content per unit volume 30% more than natural gas
Running
Solid-state ceramic electrolyte (no corrosion) 0.023$/kwh (Energy Nexus Group, 2002) More Bouyant than gas
$1-£0.598 (compared to 10p/kwh)
T-SOFC This technology has been demonstrated to European Renewable Energy Council (EREC) (2003) 98 % of
offer significant advantages over flat plate and hydrogen derived from hydrocarbon fossil fuel sources (e.g. coal,
cathode supported solid oxide fuel cells with regard Durability – 10yrs oil, natural gas)
to sealing and rapid start. Maintenance - Not really known (monitoring of Woking)

16
04/07/2015

Barriers to electrolysers
Electrolysers 1896 1920 1987 2006
Conflicts with water saving
1896 1920 1987 2006

Waste materials/algae
1896 1920 1987 2006

Electrolysers • Requires clean water


Minnworth. 200Nm3/hr 4.2p per kWh (Maden, 2003).
 Liquid electrolyte
Needs sustainable supply of electricity
(conventional electrolysis)
• Must be renewable?
• Intermittency reduces life of electrolyser Thermal processing of
 Solid polymer electrodes Biomass
(advanced electrolysis) Technological Barriers
Vandeborre 36kW Gammon (2003 • System inefficiencies Photo-biological
o o b o og ca p
production
oduc o
 Thermal electrolysis • PV (electric) to Converter to Electrolyser to Purifier (hydrogen) through micro-organisms
to Fuel cell (electric) (i.e. algae or bacteria)
• Vs PV (electric) (150kWh/yr for every m2 of PV )
99.5% pure H2 (plus O2) Biological hydrogen
Stuart Energy
• storage of hydrogen more Needs to be large scale produced from sewer waste
efficient than batteries (i.e. microbes)
Costs and efficiency
• Electrolysers more expensive less efficient than reforming
• PV expensive and inefficient £8k for a household saving £100/yr

Cradle to grave CO2 saving vs production (LCA).

Barriers to H2 from 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

waste materials/algae Hydrogen Economy- production Hydrogen – Supply/Storage


Pipelines
Thermal processing of biomass Middlesborough ‘Tees Valley project’
•Cost is high Compressed bottled hydrogen (gas);
•CO2 produced (assumed neutral) •The largest UK cluster of hydrogen production, storage and distribution
•Land area for crop facilities Cryogenic hydrogen (liquid);
•Transport of crop (CO2) (Perhaps use Sugar Waste from Cadburys) • Favourable geology for greenhouse gas capture via sequestration
•NGOs feel it moves us away from composting technologies; Solid state (solid)
•Locally grown rapeseed oil - a longer-term source of green hydrogen via
Photo--biological through micro-
Photo micro-organisms
biomass gasification;
•Efficiency
-Oxygen tolerance
•Cost is high FACTS: 2004
-Bio
Bio--reactor  2 MW - 20MW
-Storage  PEM fuel cell
•Type of algae  30kM pipeline
•Location (Green roof)
•Maintenance issues  Hydrogen and Gas

17
04/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006

Hydrogen Supply/storage cost


Matching supply with demand Thanks!
Reference and counting
to Eastside costs
feasibility paper
• In hand out
London renewables toolkit
• Download from
www.london.gov.uk/mayor/environment/energy/ren
ew_resources.jsp

Spath et al (2000)

18