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Relativity

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Part II

Department of Physics

The Hashemite University

Zarqa 13115, JORDAN

Simultaneity

and in their relative nature ?

done through another event occurring

simultaneously.

Example: A clock, at rest to an observer, is ticking

12:00 O’clock noon when an explosion takes

place. Are these event simultaneous? The answer

is yes. The observer records the explosion at

12:00 O’clock noon. However, if the observer and

the clock are in a car moving with some speed,

the events appear as not simultaneous.

Consequences of Relativity

3

Time Dilation: setup

To see this, imagine another boxcar experiment

– Two observers, one in the car, another on the ground

4

Time Dilation

Imagine an experiment:

A mirror is fixed to the

ceiling of a vehicle

The vehicle is moving to

the right with speed v

An observer, O’, at rest in

this system holds a laser a

distance d below the mirror

The laser emits a pulse of

light directed at the mirror

(event 1) and the pulse

arrives back after being

reflected (event 2)

5

Time Dilation, Moving Observer

She uses it to measure the time between the

events.

– She observes the events to occur within a

time Δtp.

2d

– Δtp = distance/speed = .

c

6

Time Dilation, Stationary Observer

He observes the mirror and O’ to move with speed v.

By the time the light from the laser reaches the

mirror, the mirror has moved to the right.

The light must travel farther with respect to O than

with respect to O’. 7

Time Dilation, Observations

light to be c.

The time interval, Δt, for O is longer than the

time interval for O’, Δtp

8

Time Dilation, Time Comparisons

ct vt

2 2

2 2

d 2

c2 v2

t t d2

2 2

4 4

v 2d

2 2

( t ) 1 2 ( t p )2

2

c c

t p 1

t 2

t p , where

v v2

1 2 1 2

c c

Observer O measures a longer time interval

than observer O’. 9

Time Dilation, Summary

1

observer, runs more slowly (by a factor of γ )

than an identical clock at rest with respect to

the observer.

The time interval Δt between two events

measured by an observer moving with respect

to a clock is longer than the time interval Δtp

between the same two events measured by an

observer at rest with respect to the clock.

10

Identifying Proper Time

time”.

– The proper time is the time interval between

events as measured by an observer who sees

the events occur at the same location.

observer who measures the “proper time”

interval.

11

Problem: Deep-Space Probe

speed of 0.80c. An antenna on the probe requires 3.0 s,

probe time, to rotate through 1.0 revolution. How much

time is required for 1.0 revolution according to an

observer on Earth?

12

A deep-space probe moves away from Earth with a

speed of 0.80c. An antenna on the probe requires 3.0 s,

probe time, to rotate through 1.0 revolution. How much

time is required for 1.0 revolution according to an

observer on Earth?

Given: Recall that the time on Earth will be

longer then the proper time on the probe.

v = 0.8 c Δt p

Δtp = 3.0 m/s Δt

v2

1 2

c

Find: Thus, numerically,

t = ? 3.0 s

Δt 5.0 s

1 (0.8)2

13

Alternate Views

with speed v to the left and O clock is running

more slowly is just as valid as O view that O’

was moving.

views of the two observers in uniform relative

motion must be equally valid and capable of

being checked experimentally.

14

Time Dilation – Generalization

clock when those processes occur in a frame

moving with respect to the clock.

– These processes can be chemical and

biological as well as physical

been verified by various experiments.

15

Lorentz Transformation (1)

x' x v t x x' v t

y' y y y'

z' z z z'

t' t t t'

- Time is not absolute. (Time Dilation)

- Length is not absolute. (Length Contraction)

- Contradicts the fact that c is constant in all

inertial frames.

- And many others.

Lorentz Transformation (2)

Conclusion: Need a new set of transformation

equations between (x’,u’,z’,t’) in S’ frame and

(x,y,z,t) in S. y S y’ S’

Spherical wavefront in S:

v

x y z c t

2 2 2 2 2 vt x’

x

O O’

Spherical wavefront in S’: x x’

z z’

x' y' z' c t'

2 2 2 2 2

Lorentz Transformation (3)

Einstein made an intelligent guess. He suggested

that:

y' y y y'

z' z z z'

ct' x' ct x

problem.

Lorentz Transformation (4)

Statement of the Problem:

t’ = t = 0 when S’ and S have a common origin.

A spherical light wave starts at t’ = t = 0.

According to Einstein’s second Postulate, the

speed of light c is constant in S and S’.

The wavefronts observed in both systems must

be spherical.

Motion of S’ is along x-axis x = c t , x’ = c t’.

x = k ( x’- v t’) , x’ = k’ ( x – v t) , where k and k’

are unknowns.

k’ = k according to Einstein’s first Postulate k

is the only unknown.

y’ = y and z’ = z since motion is along the

x-direction.

Lorentz Transformation (5)

Let

x' k x v t (1)

x k ' ( x' v t' ) (2)

must be the same in all inertial frames), we must

have k’ = k. i.e. k is the only unknown.

By Einstein’s second postulate (The speed of light

is constant in all inertial frames), we must have x

= c t , x’ = c t’.

Lorentz Transformation (6)

c t' k c t v t (1)

c t k c t' v t' (2)

Or

v

t' k 1 t (3)

c

v

t k 1 t' (4)

c

Substitute from (4) into (3), we have:

Lorentz Transformation (7)

v v

t' k 1 k 1 t'

c c

v 2

1 k 1 2

2

c

1

k 2

γ

v

1 2

c

Equations (1) and (2) now become

x' γ x v t (1)

x γ x' v t' (2)

Lorentz Transformation (8)

from (1) into (2). We have:

x γ γ x v t v t' γ 2 x v t γv t'

x γ 2x

γ t t'

γv γv

x x

1 γ γ t γt

1

t' 2

1

γv γv v 2

1 - 2

c

x c2 x v 2

1 2 γ t 2 γt

γv c v 2

γv c v

2

Lorentz Transformation (9)

xv

t' γ t - 2 (5)

c

1

where γ

v2

1 2

c

We can also find the expression for t to be:

x' v

t γ t' 2 (6)

c

Lorentz Transformation (10)

Summary of Lorentz Equations:

y' y y y'

z' z z z'

xv x' v

t' γ t - 2 t γ t' 2

c c

Some Remarks

equations reduce to the familiar Galilean

transformation.

2) Space and time are now not separated.

3) For non-imaginary transformations, the

frame velocity cannot exceed c.

Some Consequences of Lorentz Transformation

Transformation equations.

Synchronization of clocks in different inertial

frames is necessary.

Length Contraction is also predicted from

Lorentz Transformation equations.

Lorentz Transformation of Velocities in

different inertial frames is derivable from

Lorentz Transformation equations.

Lorentz Transformation equations are in

agreement with Einstein’s Second Postulate.

1. Time Dilation (Again)

reported in the two inertial frames S and S’. The time

interval T in the S frame (at rest) and T’ in the S’ frame

(moving with constant velocity v) are:

Where the relations between the reported times are

given by Lorentz Transformation equations:

' v x' ' v x'

t1 t1 2 , t2 t2 2

c c

t 2 t 1 t '2 t 1' T To

2. Synchronization of Clocks

throughout a given system.

together at one location.

If all of the clocks agree, then the clocks are

said to be synchronized.

A method to synchronize Clocks

One way is to have one clock at the origin set to

t = 0 and advance each clock by a time (d/c)

where d is the distance of the clock from the

origin.

- Allow each of these clocks to begin timing

when a light signal arrives from the origin.

t=0

d d

t = d/c t = d/c

Synchronization of clocks

31

The Twin Paradox – Statement of the Problem

named Speedo and Goslo.

earth.

– His ship travels at 0.95c.

– After reaching planet X, he immediately

returns to earth at the same speed.

but Goslo has aged 42 years.

32

The Twins’ Perspectives

Speedo went on the journey.

Speedo thinks he was at rest and Goslo and the

earth raced away from him on a 6.5 year

journey and then headed back toward him for

another 6.5 years.

The paradox – which twin is the traveler and

which is really older?

33

The Twin Paradox – The Resolution

uniform speeds.

The trip in this thought experiment is not

symmetrical since Speedo must experience a

series of accelerations during the journey.

Therefore, Goslo can apply the time dilation

formula with a proper time of 42 years.

2

v

T Tp 1 42 1 0.95 13.1

2

c

- This gives a time for Speedo of 13.1 years

and this agrees with the earlier result.

There is no true paradox since Speedo is not in

an inertial frame.

34

Time Dilation Verification – Muon Decays

that have the same charge as

an electron, but a mass 207

times more than an electron.

Muons have a half-life of

Δtp = 2.2 µs when measured in a

reference frame at rest with

respect to them (Figure a).

Relative to an observer on

earth, muons should have a

lifetime of Δtp (Fugure b).

A CERN experiment measured

lifetimes in agreement with the

predictions of relativity.

35

3. Length Contraction

depends on the frame of reference of the

observer

of the object measured by someone at rest

relative to the object

frame that is moving with respect to the object

is always less than the proper length

- This effect is known as length contraction

36

Length Contraction – Equation

2

LP v

L

LP 1 2

c

Length contraction

takes place only

along the direction

of motion.

37

Length Contraction – Derivation(1)

Lorentz Transformation equations:

The proper length Lp of a rod as measured in the

moving frame S’ is given by:

Lp x2 x1

S is given by:

L x 2 x1

Length Contraction – Derivation(2)

coordinates that specify the length Lp are given

by Lorentz equation:

Lp x2 x1 γ x 2 v t 2 γ x 1 v t 1

simultaneously.

Length Contraction – Derivation(3)

Lp x2 x1 γx 2 γv t 1 γx 1 γv t 1

Lp

Lp γ( x 2 x 1 ) γL or L

γ

1

γ v2

But v2 L Lp 1 2

1 2 c

c

Length Contraction – Illustration

0.1000 0.9950 0.9600 0.2800

0.4000 0.9165 0.9900 0.1411 Relativistic Length Contraction

0.8

0.8000 0.6000 0.9940 0.1094

(L/Lp) Ratio

0.6

0.9000 0.4359 0.9950 0.0999 0.4

0.0 0.5 1.0

(V/C) Ratio

0.9300 0.3676 0.9980 0.0632

0.9400 0.3412 0.9990 0.0447

0.9500 0.3122 0.9999 0.0141

4. Equivalence of L.T. and G.T. in the

Non-relativistic Limit

When v<<c, we have from L.T. first equation:

x γ x v t

where γ

v2

1 2 We get agreement with

c G.T. equation.

Contraction, Time is NOT absolute. Here we have

an Illustration.

4. Equivalence of L.T. and G.T. in the

Non-relativistic Limit

Consider the motion of the origin of O’. t’=t=0 at

the start of the motion.

After time t in O, O’ has moved a distance x=vt.

v vt v2

t 1 2

1 x v c 2

c

t' t - 2

t

v

2

c v 2

v2

1- 2 1- 2 1- 2

c c c

v2

t 1 - 2 . When v c t t

c

5. Lorentz Velocity Transformation L.V.T.

x γ x v t xv

t' γ t - 2

c

dx dx

Let ux , ux

dt dt

v

dx γ dx v dt dt' γ dt - 2 dx

c

dx

v ux v

dx dx v dt dt

or ux

dt dt v dx v dx v

1 2 ux

1 2

c 2

c dt c

5. Lorentz Velocity Transformation L.V.T.

ux v

ux (1)

v

1 2 ux

c

components along the y and z axes, the

components as measured by an observer in S’

are:

uy uz

uy (2) u (3)

z

v v

1 2 ux

1 2 ux

c c

5. Lorentz Velocity Transformation

Summary of Equations

ux v ux v

ux (1) ux

v v

1 u x 1 2 ux

2

c c

uy uy

uy (2) uy

v v

1 2 ux 1 2 ux

c c

uz uz

uz (3) uz

v

v

1 2 ux 1 2 ux

c c

6. Constancy of the speed of light (1)

Also

If ux = c then u’x = c If u'x = c then ux = c

From eq. (1), put ux= c From eq. (1), put u’x= c

cv cv

ux c ux c

v v

1 2 c 1 2 c

c c

6. Constancy of the speed of light (2)

velocity of light c.

let S’ travels at speed v = k c relative to S.

Now we find ux:

kc kc 2k Let us evaluate

ux c 2

kc

1 2 kc 1 k the maximum

c value of k.

6. Constancy of the speed of light (3)

Let 2k

A 2

1 k

dA

A is a maximum when 0

dk

dA 1 k 2 2 - 2k2k

0

dk 1 k 2 2

1 k 2 - 2k 2 0 k 1

Substitute the above result in A, you get:

A(maximum) 1 ux (maximum) c

6. Constancy of the velocity of light (4)

all inertial frames.

propagating along x’-axis and the frame S’ moves

with velocity v along the same axis.

along O’y’ at right angle to the direction of

propagation of light which is O’x’.

6. Constancy of the speed of light (5)

ux 0 , uy c , uz 0

Substitute in the Ux equation in L.T.

ux v uy c

ux v , uy

v v γ

1 2 ux γ 1 2 ux

c c

uz

uz 0

v u u2x u2y u2z

1 2 ux

c

2 v

2 2

c

u c 2 c c 1 2 c

2 2

γ c

6. Constancy of the speed of light (6)

c c c!

If we substitute u’x = c and v = c in the ux equation

in L.T.

ux v cc

ux c

v c

1 2 ux 1 2 c

c c

Conclusion:

The relative velocity of two objects or two

frames or an object in a frame can not

exceed c.

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