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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

CHAPTER 7

ACIDS AND BASES Arrhenius Theory An acid is a chemical compound that produces hydrogen ions, H
ACIDS AND BASES
Arrhenius Theory
An acid is a chemical
compound that
produces hydrogen ions,
H + or hydroxonium ions
H 3 O + when dissolve in
water.
A base defined as a
chemical substance
that can neutralise an
acid to produce a
salt and water.
An alkali is defined as
a chemical
compound that
dissolve in water to
produce hydroxide
ions, OH - .
HCl (g)
H 2 O
Example
H + (aq)
+
Cl - (aq)
NaOH(s) H 2 O
Na + (aq) + OH - (aq)
The role of water
In the presence of water an acid will ionise to form hydrogen ion and
alkaline will dissociate into hydroxide ions, OH - .
Therefore, water is essential for the formation of hydrogen ions, H +
that cause acidity and hydroxide ions, OH - that cause alkalinity.

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BASICITY OF AN ACID

Is the number of ionisable hydrogen atoms per molecule of an acid.

Triprotic Acid Diprotic Acid Monoprotic Acid Acid which produces 1 hydrogen ion when one molecule of
Triprotic Acid
Diprotic Acid
Monoprotic Acid
Acid which produces
1 hydrogen ion when
one molecule of an
acid ionises in H 2 O.

Example: a) CH 3 COOH? (ethanoic acid) =

  • b) H 2 SO 4 ? (sulphuric acid )

=

  • c) HNO 3 ? (Nitric acid)

=

  • d) H 3 PO 4 ? (Phosphoric acid)

=

STRENGTH OF ACID & ALKALI

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7 BASICITY OF AN ACID Is the number of ionisable hydrogen

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

STRONG ACID

WEAK ACID

STRONG ACID WEAK ACID Strong acid will dissociate or ionize completely in water to produce hydrogen,
STRONG ACID WEAK ACID Strong acid will dissociate or ionize completely in water to produce hydrogen,

Strong acid will dissociate or ionize completely in water to produce hydrogen, H + ions.

Degree of dissociation is higher.

Thus, higher concentration of hydrogen ions in aqueous acid solution.

Therefore, low pH value of the acid solution.

STRONG ALKALI

WEAK ALKALI

STRONG ACID WEAK ACID Strong acid will dissociate or ionize completely in water to produce hydrogen,
STRONG ACID WEAK ACID Strong acid will dissociate or ionize completely in water to produce hydrogen,

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ACID & ALKALI

pH Value Conduct Litmus paper electricity ACID Taste Corrosive
pH Value
Conduct
Litmus paper
electricity
ACID
Taste
Corrosive
ALKALI Litmus paper pH Value Corrosive Taste Conduct electricity
ALKALI
Litmus paper
pH Value
Corrosive
Taste
Conduct
electricity

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ACID & ALKALI

Acids can react with,

  • i) bases to produce salts and water eg :

ii) metal to produce salts and hydrogen gas eg :

iii) metal carbonates to produce salts, carbon dioxide and water eg :

iv) alkali to produce salts and water (neutralization) eg :

Alkali can react with,

  • i) acid to produce salts and water (neutralization) eg :

ii) ammonium salt to produce salts, water and ammonia gas

eg :

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

The concentration of acid and alkali

Concentration are measurement of the quantity of solutes dissolved in a quantity of solvent.

Grams per dm 3 ( g dm -3 )

Concentration
Concentration

Moles per dm 3 ( mol dm -3 )

*known as Molarity

Grams per dm 3 ( g dm -3 )

Unit Conversion

÷ molar mass

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7 The concentration of acid and alkali Concentration are measurement of
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7 The concentration of acid and alkali Concentration are measurement of

× molar mass

Moles per dm 3

( mol dm -3 )

Example

1. The molarity of a bottle of nitric acid, HNO 3 solution is 2.0 mol dm -3 . What is the concentration of the solution in g dm -3 ? [RAM: H, 1 ; N, 14 ; O , 16]

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

2. Calculate the molarity of a sodium sulphate, Na 2 SO 4 solution with a concentration of 28.4 g dm -3 . [RAM: O, 16 ; Na, 23 ; S, 32]

Calculating Involving Concentration and Molarity

Molarity x Volume ( cm 3 ) No of mole = 1000 1000 MV n =
Molarity x Volume ( cm 3 )
No of mole =
1000
1000
MV
n =
  • 1. 5.00 g of copper (II) sulphate is dissolved in water to form 500 cm 3 solution. Calculate the concentration of copper (II) sulphate in g dm -3 .

  • 2. A 250 cm 3 nitric acid solution contains 0.4 moles. Calculate the molarity of the nitric acid.

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  • 3. What is the mass of sodium carbonate required to dissolve in water to prepare 200 cm 3 solution contains 50 g dm -3 .

  • 4. Calculate the number of moles of ammonia in 150 cm 3 of 2 mol dm -3 aqueous ammonia.

  • 5. Calculate the volume in dm 3 of a 0.8 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid that contains 0.2 mol.

  • 6. 4.0 g sodium carbonate powder, Na 2 CO 3 is dissolved in water and made up to 250 cm 3 . What is the molarity of the sodium carbonate solution. [RAM: C,12;O,16;Na,23]

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

  • 7. Dilute hydrochloric acid used in the school laboratories usually has a concentration of 2.0mol dm -3 . Calculate the mass of hydrogen chloride that found in 250 cm 3 of the hydrochloric acid? [RAM : H,1; Cl,35.5]

  • 8. The concentration of a potassium hydroxide solution is 84.0 g dm -3 . Calculate the number of moles of potassium hydroxide present in 300 cm 3 of the solution. [RAM: K,39,H,1 O,16]

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

  • 9. Calculate the number of moles of hydrogen ions present in 200 cm 3 of 0.5 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid.

Preparation of Standard Solution

Adding water to a concentrated solution changes the concentration of the solution but does not change the amount solutes ( number of moles)of solution present in solution.

Moles of stock solution = moles of dilute solution n 1 = n 2 M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2

A solution in which its concentration is accurately known is a standard solution.

Adding water to a concentrated solution changes the concentration of the solution but does not change
Adding water to a concentrated solution changes the concentration of the solution but does not change
Adding water to a concentrated solution changes the concentration of the solution but does not change

Preparation of a solution by dilution method

Adding water to a concentrated solution changes the concentration of the solution but does not change

Dilute solution

Add water

Stock solution

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

Exercise

  • 1. Find the volume of 2.0 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 needed to prepare 100 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 .

  • 2. Calculate the volume of a concentrated solution needed to prepare each of the following dilute solution:

    • a) 50 cm 3 of 0.1 mol dm -3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution from 2.0 mol dm -3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution.

    • b) 100 cm 3 of 0.5 mol dm -3 potassium manganate(VII), KMnO 4 solution from 1.0 mol dm -3 potassium manganate(VII), KMnO 4 solution.

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  • 3. Calculate the volume of 2.0 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 needed to prepare 2.5 dm 3 of 0.5 mol dm -3 of the same acid solution.

  • 4. Calculate the molarity of potassium hydroxide, KOH, solution if 200 cm 3 of 2.0 mol dm -3 potassium hydroxide, KOH, solution is added to 200 cm 3 of water.

  • 5. 60 cm 3 of 0.5 mol dm -3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH, solution is diluted with 30 cm 3 of water. Calculate the molarity of the solution produced.

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The pH Values and Molarity

As the molarity of an acid increases, the pH value of the acid decreases, however the pH value of an alkali increases when the molarity of the alkali increases.

Neutralisation

 

Acid-base titration

An acid of known

Reaction of an acid and a base that produce salt and water.

Titration is a very useful laboratory technique in which one solution is used to analyse another solution.

concentration is carefully delivered from burette to completely neutralise a known volume of an alkali in a conical flask.

 

Acid-base indicator is used to detect the end of titration.

The point at which the

 

Eg: methyl orange, phenolphthalein and litmus.

colour of the solution change is called the end point.

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7 The pH Values and Molarity As the molarity of an

Titration using phenolphthalein

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7 The pH Values and Molarity As the molarity of an

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7 NEUTRALISATION ACID-BASE TITRATION 143
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7 NEUTRALISATION ACID-BASE TITRATION 143

NEUTRALISATION

ACID-BASE

TITRATION

mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7 NEUTRALISATION ACID-BASE TITRATION 143
mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7 NEUTRALISATION ACID-BASE TITRATION 143

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

Example

  • 1. Write a balanced equation for the neutralization of each of the following:

    • a) Sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 and barium hydroxide, Ba(OH) 2 solution.

    • b) Nitric acid, HNO 3 and calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH) 2 solution.

    • c) Ethanoic acid, CH 3 COOH and potassium hydroxide, KOH solution.

Acid-base Indicator

 

Colour in

Colour in neutral

Colour in

Indicator

alkalis

solution

acids

Methyl orange

     

phenolphthalein

     

litmus

     

The end-point of neutralisation also can determined by another two

method:-

  • i) Measurement of pH values by computer

ii) Measurement of electrical conductivity during titration

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

Numerical Problem involving Neutralisation

Say the balance equation is aA + bB product which, A = acid a = no
Say the balance equation is
aA
+
bB
product
which,
A = acid
a = no of mole of acid
B = base
b = no of mole of base
M A V A = a
and
M B V B = b
Therefore
M A V A
a
=
M B V B
b

Exercise

  • 1. In an experiment, 25.0 cm 3 of a sodium hydroxide solution of unknown concentration required 26.50 cm 3 of 1.0 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid to complete a reaction in titration. Calculate the molarity of sodium hydroxide.

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mohd faisol mansor/chemistry form 4/chapter 7

  • 2. What is the volume of 0.5 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 needed to neutralize 25.0 cm 3 of 0.8 mol dm -3 ammonia, NH 3 solution?

  • 3. A sample of copper(II) oxide, CuO was found to completely neutralize 100 cm 3 of 0.5 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid, HCl. Calculate the mass of the sample. [RAM: O, 16 ; Cu, 64]

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  • 4. The volume of 0.15 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 required to completely neutralize 25.0 cm 3 of potassium hydroxide, KOH solution is 30.5 cm 3 . Calculate the molarity of the potassium hydroxide, KOH solution.

  • 5. A student dissolved 3.65 g of hydrogen chloride gas, HCl in water to make 1.0 dm 3 of solution. Calculate the volume of a 0.1 mol dm -3 barium hydroxide, Ba(OH) 2 solution required to completely neutralize 25.0 cm 3 of the acid solution. [RAM : H, 1 ; Cl, 35.5]

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