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Chemical resistance:-

1.Excellent resistance (no attack) to dilute and concentrated acids,


alcohols, bases and esters.
2.Good resistance (minor attack) to aldehydes, ketones and vegetable
oils.
3.Limited resistance (moderate attack suitable for short-term use only)
to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, mineral oils, and oxidizing
agents.
4.Poor resistance, and not recommended for use with halogenated
hydrocarbon.
Applications:- LDPE is widely used for manufacturing various
containers, dispensing bottles, wash bottles, tubing, plastic bags for
computer components, and various molded laboratory equipment. Its most
common use is in plastic bags. Other products made from it include:

 Trays and general purpose containers


 Corrosion-resistant work surfaces
 Parts that need to be weldable and machinable
 Parts that require flexibility, for which it serves very well
 Very soft and pliable parts such as snap-on lids
 Juice and milk cartons are made of liquid packaging board, a laminate
of paperboard and LDPE (as the water-proof inner and outer layer), and
often with of a layer of aluminum foil (thus becoming aseptic packaging).
 Parts of computer hardware, such as hard disk drives, screen cards,
and optical disc drives
 Playground slides
 Plastic wraps

High-density polyethylene (HDPE):-


High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD)
is polyethylene thermoplastic made from petroleum. It takes
1.75 kilograms of petroleum (in terms of energy and raw materials) to make
one kilogram of HDPE. It is prepared at 333-343 K and at 6-7 atmospheric
pressure in presence of Ziegler-Natta catalyst.
APPLICATIONS :- LDPE is resistant to many different solvents and has
a wide variety of applications, including:- Arena Board (puck board),
Backpacking frames, Ballistic plates,Bottle caps, Chemical resistant piping
systems, Food storage containers, Bottles, suitable for re-use, Fuel tanks for
vehicles,Laundry detergent bottles,Milk jugs,Corrosion protection for steel
pipelines, Folding chairs and tables, Geothermal heat transfer
piping systems, Floorball Blades,Hard Hats, Meter & Valve Boxes,Natural
gas distribution pipe systems,Plastic bags, Plastic lumber, Plastic
surgery (skeletal and facial reconstruction),Telecom ducts, Water pipes, for
domestic water supply and agricultural processes.
2.Polypropylene:- Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene,
is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications
including packaging and labeling, textiles (e.g., ropes, thermal underwear
and carpets), stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various
types, laboratory equipment,loudspeakers, automotive components,
and polymer banknotes. An addition polymer made from the
monomer propylene, it is rugged and unusually resistant to many chemical
solvents, bases and acids.

FIGURE OF POLYPROPENE

3.Polystyrene :- Polystyrene (PS) ( /ˌpɒliˈstaɪriːn/) is an aromatic


polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid petrochemical.
Polystyrene is one of the most widely used plastics, the scale of its
production being several billion kilograms per year.It is a colorless solid that
is used, for example, in disposable cutlery, plastic models, CD and DVD
cases, and smoke detector housings. Products made from foamed
polystyrene are ubiquitous, for example packing materials, insulation, and
foam drink cups. Its very slow biodegradation is a focus of controversy, and
it is often abundant as a form of litter in the outdoor environment, particularly
along shores and waterways especially in its low density cellular form.
FIGURE OF POLYSTYRENE
FIGURE SHOWING POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE

4.Polyacrylonitrile (PAN):- Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is a synthetic,


semicrystalline organic polymer resin, with the linear formula (C3H3N)n.
Though it is thermoplastic, it does not melt under normal conditions. It
degrades before melting. It melts above 300 y if the heating rates are 50
degrees per minute or above. Almost all polyacrylonitrile resins are
copolymers made from mixtures of monomers with acrylonitrile as the main
component. It is a versatile polymer used civil and military aircraft primary
and secondary structures, missiles, solid propellant rocket motors, pressure
vessels, fishing rods,tennis rackets, badminton rackets & high-tech bicycles.

FIGURE OF POLYACRLONITRILE
5.Polyvinyl chloride:- Polyvinyl chloride, commonly
abbreviated PVC, is the third-most widely produced plastic, after
polyethylene and polypropylene. PVC is used in construction because it is
cheaper and stronger than more traditional alternatives such as copper or
ductile iron. It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition
of plasticizers. In this form, it is used in clothing, electrical cable insulation,
inflatable products and many applications in which it replaces rubber.
Pure polyvinyl chloride without any plasticizer is a white, brittle solid. It is
insoluble in alcohol, but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran.
FIGURE OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE

6.POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE (PMMA) :- Its monomer is


methylmethacrylate. It is commercially known as plexi glass or Perspex. It has
excellent light transmission properties even better than glass. It is used in the
preparation of transparent domes, lenses, light covers, aircraft window and
artificial jewellery, etc.

FIGURE OF POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE(PMMA)
7.POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE(PTFE) :-
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of
tetrafluoroethylene that finds numerous applications. The best known brand
name of PTFE is Teflon by DuPont Co.
PTFE is a fluorocarbon solid, as it is a high-molecular-weight compound
consisting wholly of carbon and fluorine. PTFE is hydrophobic: neither water
nor water-containing substances wet PTFE, as fluorocarbons demonstrate
mitigated London dispersion forces due to the high electronegativity of
fluorine. PTFE has one of the lowest coefficients of friction against any solid.
PTFE is used as a non-stick coating for pans and other cookware. It is very
non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon–fluorine bonds, and
so it is often used in containers and pipework for reactive and corrosive
chemicals. Where used as a lubricant, PTFE reduces friction, wear, and
energy consumption of machinery.
FIGURE OF POLYTETYRAFLUOROETHYLENE (PTFE)

8.Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE or PTFCE) :-


Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE or PTFCE) is a thermoplastic
chlorofluoropolymer with the molecular formula (CF2CClF)n, where n is the
number of monomer units in the polymer molecule. It is similar to
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), except that it is a homopolymer of the
monomer chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) instead of tetrafluoroethylene. It
has the lowest water vapor transmission rate of any plastic.

FIGURE OF POLYMONOCHLOROTRIFLUOROETHYLENE

SOME COMMONLY USED CONDENSATION POLYMERS :-


1.Nylon 6 (polycaprolactam, polyamide 6, PA6) :-
Nylon 6 is a a polymer developed by Paul Schlack at IG Farben to
reproduce the properties of nylon 6,6 without violating the patent on its
production. Unlike most other nylons, nylon 6 is not a condensation
polymer, but instead is formed by ring-opening polymerization. This makes it
a special case in the comparison between condensation and addition
polymers. Its competition with nylon 6,6 and the example it set have also
shaped the economics of the synthetic fiberindustry. It was given
the trademark Perlon in 1952. It is a semicrystalline polyamide.

Nylon 6 fibres are tough, possessing high tensile strength, as well


as elasticity and lustre. They are wrinkle-proof and highly resistant
to abrasion and chemicals such as acids and alkalis. The fibres can absorb
up to 2.4% of water, although this lowers tensile strength.

Nylon 6 is used as thread in bristles for toothbrushes, surgical sutures, and


strings for acoustic and classical musical instruments, including guitars,
sitars, violins, violas, and cellos. It is also used in the manufacture of a large
variety of threads, ropes, filaments, nets, and tire cords, as well as hosiery
and knitted garments. It can also be used in gun frames.

FIGURE OF CAPROLACTUM- MONOMER OF NYLON-6

FIGURE OF POLYMERIZATION OF CAPROLACTUM


2.NYLON-6,6:- Nylon 6,6 is made of hexamethylenediamine and adipic
acid, which give nylon 6,6 a total of 12 carbon atoms in each repeating unit.

FIGURE OF ADIPIC ACID


FIGURE OF HEXAMETHYLENEDIAMINE

Hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid are combined with water in a


reactor. This produces nylon salt. The nylon salt is then sent to an
evaporator where excess water is removed.The nylon salt goes into a
reaction vessel where a continuous polymerization process takes place.
This chemical process makes molten nylon 6,6.The molten nylon 6,6
undergoes a spinning process, where the nylon 6,6 is extruded and sent
through a spinneret, which is a small metal plate with fine holes. The nylon
is then air-cooled to form filaments.Nylon's chemical formula is nHOOC-
(CH2)4-COOH+n H2N-(CH2)6-NH2---->[-OC-( CH2)4-CO-NH-(CH2)6-NH-]
n+2nH2O and the part -CO-NH- will stick together becoming Nylon 6,6.

USES:- Carpet fiber, apparel, airbags, tyre cords, climbimg ropes,Conveyor


Belts, Hoses, etc.
3.BAKELITE :- Bakelite ( /ˈbeɪkəlaɪt/ BAY-kə-lyt),
or polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride, is an early plastic. It is
a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, formed from an elimination
reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. It was developed by Belgian-born
chemist Leo Baekeland in New York in 1907.
One of the first plastics made from synthetic components, Bakelite was
used for its electrical nonconductivity and heat-resistant properties in
electrical insulators, radio and telephone casings, and such diverse
products as kitchenware, jewelry, pipe stems, and children's toys.

FIGURE OF BAKELITE
4.Melamine resin or melamine formaldehyde :-
Melamine resin or melamine formaldehyde (also shortened to melamine)
is a hard, thermosetting plastic material made from melamine and
formaldehyde by polymerization. In its butylated form, it is dissolved in n-
butanol and xylene. It is then used to cross-link with alkyd, epoxy, acrylic,
andpolyester resins, used in surface coatings. It is used in making
unbreakable crockery.

FIGURE OF MELAMINE FORMALDEHYDE RESIN


RUBBERS:- Natural rubber is obtained from latex of rubber
plant.Chemically it is 2-Methylbut-1,4-diene and commonly known as
isoprene. Natural rubber is vulcanized to improve its properties.

VULCANIZATION:- Vulcanization or vulcanisation is a chemical


process for converting rubber or related polymers into more durable
materials via the addition of sulfur or other equivalent "curatives" or
"accelerators". These additives modify the polymer by forming
crosslinks (bridges) between individual polymer chains. Vulcanized
materials are less sticky and have superior mechanical properties. A vast
array of products are made with vulcanized rubber including tires, shoe
soles, hoses, etc. The process is named after Vulcan, Roman god of fire.
Hard vulcanized rubber is sometimes sold under the brand names
ebonite or vulcanite, and is used to make hard articles such as bowling
balls and saxophone mouth pieces.

NATURAL VS VULCANIZED RUBBER :-Uncured natural


rubber is sticky, deforms easily when warm, and is brittle when cold. In this
state, it is a poor material when a high level of elasticity is required. The
reason for inelastic deformation of un-vulcanized rubber can be found in its
chemical structure: rubber is composed of long polymer chains. These
chains can move independently relative to each other, which lets the
material change shape. Crosslinking introduced by vulcanization prevents
the polymer chains from moving independently. As a result, when stress is
applied the vulcanized rubber deforms, but upon release of the stress, the
article reverts to its original shape.

The main polymers subjected to vulcanization are polyisoprene (natural


rubber) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), which are used for most
passenger tires.The reactive sites—"cure sites"—are allylic hydrogen
atoms. These C-H bonds are adjacent to carbon-carbon double bonds.
During vulcanization, some of these C-H bonds are replaced by chains of
sulphur atoms that link with a cure site of another polymer chain. These
bridges contain between one and eight atoms. The number of sulphur
atoms in the crosslink strongly influences the physical properties of the final
rubber article. Short crosslinks give the rubber better heat resistance.
Crosslinks with higher number of sulphur atoms give the rubber good
dynamic properties but with lesser heat resistance. Dynamic properties are
important for flexing movements of the rubber article, e.g., the movement of
a side-wall of a running tire.
SOME COMMERCIALLY IMPORTANT RUBBERS :-
1.NEOPRENE :- Neoprene or polychloroprene is a family of synthetic
rubbers that are produced by polymerization of chloroprene. Neoprene
exhibits good chemical stability, and maintains flexibility over a wide
temperature range. It is used in a wide variety of applications, such
as laptop sleeves,orthopedic braces (wrist, knee, etc.),conveyor belts in coal
mines.
FIGURE REPRESENTING NEOPRENE

FIGURE REPRESENTING FORMATION OF NEOPRENE

2.STYRENE – BUTADIENE RUBBER :- Styrene-butadiene or styrene-


butadiene rubber (SBR) describe families of synthetic rubbers derived from
styrene and butadiene. These materials have good abrasion resistance and good
aging stability when protected by additives.The styrene/butadiene ratio influences
the properties of the polymer: with high styrene content, the rubbers are harder
and less rubbery.

FIGURE REPRESENTING STYRENE-BUTADIENE RUBBER

The elastomer is used widely in pneumatic tires, shoe heels and soles, gaskets and
even chewing gum. It is a commodity material which competes with natural rubber.
It is also used in building applications, as a sealing and binding agent. In the latter
application, it offers better durability, reduced shrinkage and increased flexibility,
as well as being resistant to emulsification in damp conditions.

3.Buna-N :- Nitrile rubber, also known as Buna-N, Perbunan, or NBR,


is a synthetic rubber copolymer of acrylonitrile (ACN) and butadiene. Trade
names include Nipol, Krynac and Europrene.
Nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) is a family of unsaturated copolymers of 2-
propenenitrile and various butadiene monomers (1,2-butadiene and 1,3-
butadiene). Although its physical and chemical properties vary depending
on the polymer’s composition of nitrile, this form of synthetic rubber is
generally resistant to oil, fuel, and other chemicals (the more nitrile within
the polymer, the higher the resistance to oils but the lower the flexibility of
the material).
Nitrile butadiene is used to create moulded goods, footwear, adhesives,
sealants, sponges, expanded foams, and floor mats.
Its resilience makes NBR a useful material for disposable lab, cleaning, and
examination gloves. Nitrile rubber is more resistant than natural
rubber to oils and acids, but has inferior strength and flexibility. Nitrile gloves
are nonetheless three times more puncture-resistant than natural rubber
gloves.

BIODEGRADABLE SYNTHETIC POLYMERS :-


Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) :-
PHBV is a polyhydroxyalkanoate-type polymer. It is biodegradable, non
toxic, biocompatible plastic produced naturally by bacteria and a good
alternative for many non-biodegradable synthetic polymers. It is
a thermoplastic linear aliphatic polyester.

FIGURE OF PHBV
PHBV is a co-polymer of 3-hydroxybutanoic acid and 3-hydroxypentanoic
acid.
PHBV find its applications in controlled release of drugs, medical implants
and repairs, specialty packaging, orthopedic devices and manufacturing
bottles for consumer goods.
It has very good scope in tissue engineering. The favoring properties are
biocompatibility and in vivo degradation into its monomers, which are
normal in the blood.
DEGRADATION :-
When disposed, PHBV degrades into carbon dioxide and water. PHBV
undergo bacterial degradation. PHBV, just like fats to human, is an energy
source to microorganisms. Enzymes produced by them degrade it and are
consumed.
PHBV has a low thermal stability and the cleavage occurs at the ester bond
by β elimination reaction.
DRAWBACKS:- Low thermal stability, expensive, brittle, processing
difficulty and primitive mechanical properties.