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Contents

1. Introduction
2. Inerting of tank
2.1 Interting of empty gas free tanks
2.2 Inerting during loading and simullanaouis discharge of ballast
2.3 Loaded sea vayage
2.4 Discharging and basllasing
2.5 Ballast vayange
2.6 Tank cleoning
2.7 Gas freeing
3 Emergency Operation
Annex: MSC/Circ.353 (Annex)

Figures

1. Fig.1 Condilion: inerting of tanks filled with air


2. Fig.2 Condilion: simullanaous loading and deballasling
3. Fig.3 Condilion: loading or ballasiing
4. Fig.4 Condilion: topping up of tanks
5. Fig.5 Condilion: Discharge
6. Fig.6 Condilion: Simullanaous discharge and ballasling
7. Fig.7 Condilion: Tank cleaning
8. Fig.8 Gas freeing by the dilullan melhod
9. Fig.9 Gas freeing by the displacerneni melhod
10. Fig.10 Condilion: Ventilation with permanenliy insialled ventilation
11. Fig.11 Condilion: gas freeing with inert gas ians

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1. Introduction

In this paper the principles for the operation of inert gas plasnts loang dillerens lional
modes ol oil tankers will discussed.

On board oil tankers required to have as inort gas system the cargo tanks snould prelerably
at all times be inerted ad have a tank al mosphere with an oxygen content not exceeding 8
percent by except when the tank need io be gas free.

This means that during normal operation of oil tankers the following operational modes
trequenlly take place :

- Inerting of empty tanks


- Inerting during loading and simullaneous dischsrge ol ballast
- Inerting during loaded sea voyage
- Inerting during discharging and ballasting
- Inerting during tank cleaning
- Purging prior io gas freeing and use of the IGS during gas freeing

In the following the varios operational modes as menlioned above will be described .

The vessel used as example in this paper is filled with so called ‘’ purge pipers’’ lor ventilation and
purging (see item in Fig .1)

On board vessel without purge pipes but with slad pipes (i.e.vent pipes from deck level and about
2.500 mm up vertically from deck level ) these pipes are lo be opened inslead of the purge pipes
mentioned in this paper.

The vessel is not filled with SBT ( Segregaled Ballast Tank ) capacity according MARPOL 73/79, and
ballast waler has lo be carried in cargo oil tanks on ballast voyages

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2. Interling of Tank

2.1 Interting of empety gas free tanks

Start up the inert gas plant according io instructions.Close all tank halches and check proper
function of O2-analyser. Open lids or halch covers on sland pipes or purge pipes on lanks to be
inerted.Open lan discharge valve (6) and main isolaling valve (10) (see Fig.1). Il the gas pressure control
valve (7) is on “automatic”. There is now a risk of ‘’overload’’ of the scrubber due lo a limited presuure
drop in pipes and tanks. The ‘’overload’’ of the scrubber may result in ‘’carry over’’ of water or high
temperature trip of plant.Because of the above .

it is therelore sometimes necessary to control the pressure manualliy to reduce the gas lllow during the
first part of the inerting, until a minimum gas back preeure is established in the tanks .when this
minimum gas pressure for stable operation is established the inert gas plant can be operated
automatically al full capacity.

Fig.1 indicales the plant in operation

Figure 1 condition : inerting of tanks lilled with air

1. Boiler gas uplake or inert gas generator 14. P/V valves (individual)
2. Gas uplake valve 15. P/v valve in ventilation line
3. Scrubber 16. By. Pass valve
4. Fan isoaling valves suclion side 17. Tank halch
5. Freshair intake valve 18. Level Indicator
6. Fan isolating valaes pressure side 19. Purge pipe
7. Pressure control valve
8. Deck water seal
9. Non return valve
10. Deck line isolating valve
11. Tank isolating valves
12. Ventilation mast(riser)
13. Pressure/vacuum breaker (common)
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Figure 2.condition: Simulataneous loading and de ballasing.

1. Boiler gas uptake or inert gas generation


2. Gas uptake valves
3. Scrubber
4. Fan isolating valves suction side
5. Fresh air intake falve
6. Fan isolating valfes pressure side
7. Pressure control valve
8. Deck water seal
9. Non return valve
10. Deck line iselating valve
11. Tank isolating valves
12. Ventilation masl (riser)
13. Pressure/vacuum breaker (common)
14. P/V valves (individual)
15. P/V valve in ventilations
16. By pass valve
17. Tank hatch
18. Level indicator
19. Purge pipe

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The oxcygen content in the tanks should be checked frequently, all least every hall hour. The inerting
should be continued until the gas leaving the tank has had a O2-content of less than 8 percent lor a
minimum 30 minutes. This is because of the possibilitiy ol local air pockets in the tanks.

When all tanks are satisfactority inerted the tanks should be put under a slight overpresuure normally
300-600 mm W.G. and the plant closed down according to instructions and the tank isolating valves
closed.

2.2 interting during loading and simullaneous discharge of ballast water

The vessel is supposed to arrive at the loading port with all cargo inerted if the ship is lilled with a
central gas vent outlet.all tanks to be loaded are conncted to the vent system.

In caso only the local P/V valves are lilled,the valves are checked and adjusted for gas evacuation
through the speed valves.

It should be checked that all tank hatches are cicsed and possible iloat leve indicator are operable

2.2.1 Discharge of ballast

Discharge of ballast can be done either before of during the loading. During dischsrge of ballast before
loading is commenced, the inerting procedure is the same as during discharge of cargo.see next capter.

Al simullaneous loading of cargo and discharge capacity is normally nigher than the ballast water
discharge capacity.this moans that the inert gas volume available in the ullage space above the oil level
in the thans boing loaded is more than sullicient for the inert gas needed in the ballast tanks during
discharge. By simply connecting the ballast tank to the cargo tanks with the inert gas lines on deck, inert
gas will lloh from the cargo tanks. See fig.2

The innert gas system can be operated bot will normally not deliver any gas to the deck lines .

If by chance the ballast discharge ras hingher than the loading rate.the inert gas system must be in
operations and the deck pressure adjusted sullicienlly hing to give a positive outllow of inert gas the
ventilations mast (or the individual P/V- valves on the tanks). This is to avoid air being sucked into the
system by a possible underpressure in the tanks.in order to start the loaded voyage with positive
pressure in the tanks, the IGS has lo be started and tanks purged to a pressure of 300-600 W.G

2.3 Loaded sea voyage

During the loaded voyage the cargo tanks should as far as possible be kapl inerted with a positive
pressure.

This positive presuure may however, be dislurbed by several lactors,the most common are :

- Leakages in valves and hatch covers


- Charge ol pressure in the tanks due lo imperature variations (i.e. day and night and sea/air
temperature chages)
- Rolling and heaving in rounh sea

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The effect of the different conditions as mentioned above is partly a pressure drop in the tanks escape
of inert gas and pantly the risk of ingress of air into the tanks ( emperature aspiration and local
underpresure in tanks due lo rolling and heaving).

Consquenlly the oxcygen content and the tank pressure should be frequennly checked during the sea
voyange. The frequency should depend on weather and deck equipment conditions

“toping up’’ of the tank inerts gas pressure may be done by starting up of the inert gas system or by
using a special ‘’toping up’’ inerts gas generation if litlled , or by starting up the IGS , the volume needed
for this topping up operations is normally small in loaded condition ‘’ toping up’’ is demonstsrted in
Fig.4

2.2.2 Loading

During loading without de ballasing it is normally not necessary to operate the inert gas system.

Fig.3 indicatos this operation with stopped inert gas system

Figure 3.condition : loading for ballasing

1. Boiler gas uptake or inert gas generation 14. P/V valves (individual)
2. Gas uptake valves 15. P/V valve in ventilation line
3. Scrubber 16. By pass valve
4. Fan isolating valves suction side 17. Tank hatch
5. Fresh air intake falve 18. Level indicator
6. Fan isolating valfes pressure side 19. purge pipa
7. Pressure control valve
8. Deck water seal
9. Non return valve
10. Deck line iselating valve
11. Tank isolating valves
12. Ventilation masl (riser)
13. Pressure/vacuum breaker (common) 6
The ventilation mast P/V valve should be in open position or by passed during this operation .this is lo
allow free llow ol the insert gas above the oil level to the almos phere during the loading.

When the loading operation is linished . the bypass valve be closed and the P/V valve adjusted to
normal operation conditions if the ship is the se should to adjustd to normal operating conditions
accordingly

At this moment the ‘’ ullage ‘’ volume in the tanks is lilled inert with gas mixed with hydrocarbon , gases
al about almospheric pressure. If this inert gas and HC gas mix ture an oxcygen content ol 8 percent or
below, this almosphere is non explosive ad safe

Figure 4 condition ‘’topping up’’ of tanks

1.Boiler gas uptake or inert gas generation


2.Gas uptake valves
3.Scrubber
4.Fan isolating valves suction side
5.Fresh air intake falve
6.Fan isolating valfes pressure side
7.Pressure control valve
8.Deck water seal
9.Non return valve
10.Deck line iselating valve
11.Tank isolating valves
12.Ventilation masl (riser)
13.Pressure/vacuum breaker (common)
14.P/V valves (individual)
15.P/V valve in ventilations
16.By pass valve
17.Tank hatch
18.Level indicator
19.Purge pipe

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2.4 Discharging and ballasing
2.4.1 Discharging

When the vessel at the discharge the inert gas system should be tester and ready to operation
in due time discarging

Before cargo oil pumping is started the inert gassystem should in operations connected tho deck
line, with the pressure control in the automatic posilion

Since the ullange volume is normally small in loaded condition, the desiered overpres sure is
reached in a shord time (minutes)

All deck opening and hatches should be closed , all P/V valves in the operations position and by
pass valves closed

When the pumping (discharge) start the pressure in the vikllage volume will drop now when
control valve (7) will start operating and open for inert gas compensate the pressure drop keep
a constani preselected pressure in the tanks after some time the required pressure is
established all this moment the voume delivered from the inert system is requeb to the cargo
pupm delivery. This conditions is ilusrated in fig.5

Figure 5.condition dishcarge

If for any reasons access to the cargo tanks is necessary during discharge the following preducure
should be following.
1. Reduce the inert gas pressure by adjusting the presuure control valve sel point
2. When the tanks inert gas pressure is reduced to near almospheric pressure a suitable ullage
hatch has to be opened carelully
3. When reading is linished, the hateh may be closed and pressure raised il desired
When oischarge and stripping are linished , the tanks should be put under the desired positive
pressure

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2.4.2 Ballasing during discharge of cargo

Normally time may be saved by kaking in ballast ehite discharging. This is normally done in the last
period (during) of the discharge

This means that some thanks displace inert gas white some consume inert gas. During the stripping of
the last tanks. The discharge rate is normally less than the ballast rate in the case there is a surplus ol
inert gas. And the inert gas system many. If desired be
Stopped n case of the reverse, tho inert gas system must be in operations io preve air from baeing
sucked into tho tankhs . see Fig .6

Figure 6. Condition : simultaneous discharge and ballasing

1.Boiler gas uptake or inert gas generation


2.Gas uptake valves
3.Scrubber
4.Fan isolating valves suction side
5.Fresh air intake falve
6.Fan isolating valfes pressure side
7.Pressure control valve
8.Deck water seal
9.Non return valve
10.Deck line iselating valve
11.Tank isolating valves
12.Ventilation masl (riser)
13.Pressure/vacuum breaker (common)
14.P/V valves (individual)
15.P/V valve in ventilations
16.By pass valve
17.Tank hatch
18.Level indicator
19.Purge pipe
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The procedure for these operations is the sme as for discharging cargo. In case the ballasing rate
exceedes the striiping rste. However the bypass valve in the ventilation must be open ( our in the case
of individual P/V valves the valves must be opened ) The inert gas pressure will in this case be reduced
to almospheric pressure.

Fig. 6 indicstes the positions of the dilferent main system during this operations mode. The capacity of
the inert gas system should always be adjusted to give positive follow of inert gas through tho
ventilation mast . this is done to prevent air from being sucked into the tanks

When the vessel is ballast the by pass valve should be closed snd the tank inert gas pressure raised to
the desired pressure before the main isolating valve is closing and the inertgas plant stooped.

2.5 Ballast voyage

After vessel has left the discharge port , the inert gas system should be in operation for purging ol all
cargo tanks to reduce the HC gas conceration. The operation the operation should be controlled by
ce=hecikng the HC gas concerations in gas leaving the purge pipes , or with lests taken at different in
the I tanks

When the tanks have been auged and the HC gas concerations checjed to be blow ab 2,5 percent by
volume, the tanks should be presuurized and the inert gas system closed down .

The lank pressure and oxygen conceration should the monitored during the voyage as discussed in
chapter 4, and, new purging or ‘’ topping up’’ should be done when necessary

2.6 Tank cleaning

The oxygen conten in the tank atmosphere shold be cheked before any tanks cleaning is started .
(COW) or with water , should be started unless the oxygen content is 8 percent by volume or iess
measured in the tanks

For tankers with crude oil washing system the following procedure is lo be complied with

Before esch tank is crude oil washed the oxcygen shall be delermined al a point 1 metre from dexk and
the middle region of the ullarge space and neither of these. The oxygen level of the gas being delivered
during the wash ing procces shall be continuously monitored. Il during crude oil washing:

(i) the oxygen level of thr inert gas being delivered excededs 8 percent by volume or

(ii) the pressure of the atmosphere at the tanks is no longer positive .

When the washing must be stopped until salisfactory conditions are restored

In Fig .7 the conditions during tank cleaning are shown.

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Figure 7.condition : tank cleaning

2.7 Gas freeing

When acces to the cargo tanks is necessary to inspection , repair a.s.o. the inert gass or inert gas/ HC
gas mixlure has be replaced with inest air , this replacemen is called ‘’gas freaing’’

The glas freeing is normally carried out by on more of the following melhods :

1. By portable tank ventilators


2. By permanelly installed tank ventilator blowing air to tanks throung the cargo oil piping system
3. By using the inert gas system lans with suction from fresh air insleated the scrubber

Whenever a method is being used for gas freeing the following sleps should be taken
1. Hydrocarbon gas concerations to be measured in each tank to begas freed
2. If the HC gas concentrations is 2.5% by volume or less ventilations with fresh air may start
immedialely
3. If the HC gas concertration is above 2.5% by volume the lanks should be purged with inert gas
until HC gas concentration is 2.5% by volume or less before ventilation with fresh air starts
4. Ventilation should continue until HC gas contretation is 5% LEL or less and the oxygen is 21%by
volume before the tank is certilied gas free.
Gas freeing can take place either by a dilution method or by a displacemen method as indicaled on Figs
8 and 9

Using the dilution or mixing method the fress air is blown into the tank al deck level lorced down to the
bollom through the purge pipe see Fig.9

When a turbulent mixing flow is wanted using the dilution method, the opposile is wanted using the
displacemne melhoud . conequenlly the dillerent methoud require dillirent air nozzle arragoments
where fresh air enters the tank .

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Figure 9 gas freeing by the dilution methoud figure 9 gas freeing by the displacemne
menthod

2.7.1 Gas freeing with portable tank ventilator

If the vessel is litlled with standpiper the displacement menthod for gas freeing should be used . This
means that no particular requirement has to be put or blowers exept that they should give as liltle
lurbalance in the air intel area as possible , for minimum mixing between the tanks almosphere and the
air

If the mixing methoud is used , the intel air should have an intel speed sufficient to forces the air jet down
to bottom of the tanks, (30-40m/sec) fress air outlet to the tank bottom . see Fig 8 and 9

2.7.1 Gas freeing using permanelly instated ventilator

Fig.10 show the principie for ventitiaon with permanently instaiied ventilator through the vessel cargo oil
piping system

Figure 10. Condition : ventilation with pe rmanenly instslled ventilators

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1. Boiler gas uptake or inert gas generation
2. Gas uptake valves
3. Scrubber
4. Fan isolating valves suction side
5. Fresh air intake falve
6. Fan isolating valfes pressure side
7. Pressure control valve
8. Deck water seal
9. Non return valve
10. Deck line iselating valve
11. Tank isolating valves
12. Ventilation masl (riser)
13. Pressure/vacuum breaker (common)
14. P/V valves (individual)
15. P/V valve in ventilations
16. By pass valve
17. Tank hatch
18. Level indicator
19. Purge pipe

The tank isolations valves should be closed , or the connection between the tanks and the inert gas
system blid this operations .

2.7.3 Gas freeing with the inert gas fans

The modern IGS generally litted a fresh air suction duct to the suction side of the fans this can be
connected to the fans instead of the normal suction line to the scrubber

When the fresh air ducts are connected to the lans the inert gas system is started the normal way .close
the openings on deck , but open the purge pipelids or andjust local P/V valves in open positions the by
pas valve in the ventilation mast should be closed

Fig. 11 swoh aplant using the displacemen method for gas freeing

Figure 11. condition Gas freeing with inert gas fans

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This method is normally fast and efficied the mixing effect at the air inlot is not too extensive

For a plant using the mixing method the result is a discuused in chapter 8, dependent upon the intel air
velocity and the fact that the air jet penelrales to the buttuom tank

The glass freeing should be continued until the oxcygen content in the glass leaving the tanks ( through
purge or stand pipes ) has been massured to 21 percwnt for al least 30 tank

This shold however , norbe considered sulficient safe entry of the tanks .

No tanks should be entered before all part of the tank are checked for possible pockets of remaning inert
or hydrocarbon gases if in double . fresh air breathing apparatus should be used

For other sfetly measures- sea next chapter .

3 . Emergency operation

In the event of malfunction or total lailure of the IGS , special attention must be paid to all sleps of the
cargo handing procces
For the reader guidance an annex to this peper including a chapter of circular 353
From the IMO marine safety commilee is provided

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KAPAL TANKER DAN PERALATANYA

- FUNGSI

Fungsi kappa tanker dibuat untuk mengangkut melalui laut atau perairan . minyak mentah dari
pelabuhan muat atau pelabuhan produksi ke plabungkar / pengelolahan dan minyak produk
dari pelabuhan pengelolahan menuju pelabuhan bongkar muat / industri

Ukuran dari pengangkut minyak mentah biasanya lbih besar dari pengangkut minyak produk ,
tapi pengangkut minyak produk biasanya dalam pengukuran jaringan-jaringan pipa-pipanya
lebih complex.

Di samping itu masi ada kapal pengangkut serba guna yaitu O.O carrier dan O.B.O carier atau
pengangkut minyak biji-bijian dan curah

- DESAIN DAN KONSTRUKSI

Ffaktor –faktor yang mempegaruhi desain dan konstruksi kapal tanker ialah :

a. safety : sebagai pengagnkut barang berbahaya


b. stabilitas : mengangkut muatan cairan yang bebas sehingga berpengaruh besar
terhadap keseimbangan / stabilitas kapal
c. pencemaran : pengangkut minyak di laut yang dapat terjadi tumpahan / pencemaran

perlu di perhatikan juga perbedan-perbedaan yang timbul akibat factor-faktor terhadap


muatan misalya.

a. KONSTRUKSI
biasaya tanki muatan di bagi menjadi tigaa bagian secara melintang di pisahkan dinding-
dinding longitudinal , masing’’ disebut tanki wing kiri dan kanan tanki center.

Sedang pembagian secara membujur sesuai kebutuhan dan ukuran kapal dasar berganda
(double bottom ) hanya di kamar mesin , di tanki-tanki tanpa dasar berganda
Sebagian besar khususya bagi tanker baru ruangan kamar mesin, akomodasi dari anjungan
terletak di belakang ruangan muatan di pisahkan oleh kamar pompa, cofferdam dan tanki
bunker.

b. KESEIMBANGAN/STABILITAS
Kehilangan stabilitas karena permukaan cairan yang bebas sudah dapat di kurangi dengan
adanya dua dinding pemisah longitudinal bagi tanker-tanker biasa .namun bagi kapal’’ khusus
O.O dan O.B.O persoalan ini perlu mendapat perhatia khusus missalya , dalam cara muat
bongkar khusus ya bila muatan dari jenis muatan curah dan biji-bijian.

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c. LOAD LINE
Sesuai ketentuan load line regulation bahwa kapal tanker mempunyai lambung bebas /free
board minimum lebih kecil dari kapal cargo , karena pada kapal tanker ruangan
muatanya/tanki muatan di lengkapi dengan acces opening atau lubang’’ lewat jauh lebih kecil
dan lebih kedap dari pada cargo hole/palka muatan di kapal –kapal cargo , sehinnga untukk
tanker termasuk dalam type A sedang kapal lainya type B

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3.PERALATAN MUAT/SISTEM PEMUAT

3.1 Penataan pipa

Pada dasarya hal ini tergantung dari fungsi kapal atau jenis muatan yang diangkut , misalya untuk
kapal-kapal tanker pengangkut minyak mentah penantan papaya lebih sederhana dibandingkan
dengan tanker pengagkut minyak produk jenis dan terdiri dari beberapa grade .

Ada beberapa jenis penataan pipa ialah

a. sistim lingkaran pipa utama/ring main system .sistim ini umumya di gunakan pada kapal tanker
tua pengangkut minyak produk. Untu k jelasya lihat gambar

b. sistim langsung/direet system

sistim ini umumya di gunakan pada. Tanker pengagkut minyak mentah ukuran sedang dan
pengagkut produk sederhana. System ini. Di di bagi menjadi tiga bagian dimana tiap bagian
dilayani oleh satu pipa , yang mana masing-masing di hubungkan satu sama lain agar dapat di
gunakan secara bersama bila di perl ukan ( lihat diagram pada gambar ).

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3.3 peralatan ini biasay di ginakan untuk keperluan pencucian (cleaning). Dimana kapasitas mesin
pencuci .

Bisa juga di gunakan untuk ballast bersih dan pengeringan. Sebetukya alat ini sagat idieal untuk
stripping tapi karena hanya memepunyai daya mekanis/ratio yang rendah maka hasilya tidak
ekonomis.

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3.4 Ventilasi tanki

Ventilasi ini ada dua macam yaitu

- Ventilasi bersama (commor ventilation )


- Ventilasi sendiri (independent ventilation)

a. ventilasi bersama-sama adalah dengan saluran /pipa induk sepanjang kapal kemudian di pasang
cabang di masing-masing tanki.

Pada ujung saluran induk di lengkapi dengan katup P/V sebelum mast riser serta di lengkapi
dengan by pas pass yang di oprasikan manual dan ‘’ name screen “

Ada jugak ventilasi bersama ini dengan system black , yaitu ada 2 atau 3 pipa induk yang melayani
sekelompok tanki-tanki

b. ventilasi independent adalah tiap tanki satu saluran induk dengan segala kelengkapanya. Untuk
jenis ini ada jenis yang kecepatan tinggi , dimana pada ujungya di lengkapi dengan ‘’diapharagma
kontrol’’

3.5 flame /penahan nyala

Ada beberapa jenis alat ini yang perinsip kerjaya hamper sama. Yang sering di gunakan adalah jenis-
jenis

a. wire gangge arrester


b. perforated arrester
c. parahel arrester
d. hydrolic arrester
e. pocked wire arrester
f. pocked tower arrester
g. crimped ribbon arrester
h. foam metal arrester

yang perlu di perhatikan karena alat ini cukup sensitife adlah control pemeliharaan yang baik dan
persediaan / spare yang cukup

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FUNGSI PERALATAN BAGIAN DARI ODM

1. SAMPLING PUMP

- PENGAMBILAN CONTOH AIR BALLAST/AIR CUCIAN TANGKI DARI DISCHSRGE LINE ( PIPA
BUANGAN ) DIKIRIM KE TABUNG DETEKTOR
- DAPAT UNTUK PEMBILASAN PIPA-PIPA ODM DENGAN AIR TAWAR, SEBELUM ATAU SESUDAH
PROSES MONITORING .

2. BALLAST SKID
ALAT YANG DI LENGKAPI
- TWO WAY VALVE = PENGATURAN MEKANISME ALIRAN
CONTOH :
AIR BALLAST PENGATURAN MEKANISME ALIRAN BALLASING DENGAN
FRESH WATER

= DIGERAKKAN OLEH PNEUMATIC SESUAI INSTRUKSI KOMPUTER

- LASER DETEKTOR = PENDETEKSI KONSENTRASI MINYAK, PARTIKEL PADAT, UNTUK DIKIRIM


COMPUTING UNIT

3. OPTICAL/PNEUMATIC CABINET .

DI DALAMYA ADA

- LASER GENERATOR ( PENGHASIL SINAR LESER )


- PHOTO CELL ( PENERIMA SINAR KEMBALI )
- SUSUNAN VALVES PNEUMATIC.

SETELAH SINAR DITANGKAP OLEH PHOTO CELL ( YANG SEBELUMYA TELAH MELALUI TABUNG
DETEKTOR ) DI UBAH MENJADI GETARAN ARUS LISTRIK.

4. CONTROL BOX

MENERIMA ARUS LISTRIK DAN MENGUBAH MENJADI DATA INPUT BUAT COMPUTING UNIT, YAITU
DATA OIL DISCHARGE RATE DAN TOTAL QUANTITY OIL DISCHARGE

5. CONTROL PANEL
- COMPUTER YANG DIDALAMYA TERDAPAT COMPUTING UNIT.
- DATA YANG MASUK : DALAM BENTUK ARUS LISTRIK, TEKANAN PNEUMATIC DIRUBAH OLEH
CONVETER MENJADI BAHAS COMPUTER .
- DATA KELUAR : BERUPA INTRUKSI DARI COMPUTR UNTUK BUKAK /TUTUP VALVE ATAU
MENJALANKAN POMPA
- MEMPUNYAI DISPLAY , UNTUK MELIHAT HASIL PERHITUNGAN ATAU DATA-DATA YANG
DIPROGRAMKAN
- MEMPUNYAI KEYBORD UNTUK MEMPROGRAM ATAU MEMEASUKKAN DATA SECARA MANUAL

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6. SAMLING PROBE

TEMPAT DIMANA PIPA ISAP ODM MENEMBUS PIPA DISCHARGE DARI SLOP TANK / TANGKI MUAT ,
UNTUK PEGAMBILAN CONTOH AIR (SAMPLING WATER)

7. FLOW METER
ALAT UNTUK MENGUKUR DISCHSRGE RATE AIR RUANGAN , YANG DIPASANG PADA PIPA DISCHSRGE,
ADA YANG MENGGUNAKAN JENIS ORIFISE.

DISITU DI LENGKAPI DENGAN PENGUKUR TEKANAN YANG DI PASANG PADA SEBELUM DAN SESUDAH
ORIFICE.

PERBEDAAN TEKANAN DILEWATKAN ALAT DIFFERENT/PRESSURE TRANSMETER. DIRUBAH KEDALAM


BENTUK NPNEUMATIC. KEMUDIAN DIKIRIM KE CONTROL BOX.

8 SELENOIDE VALVE
- ALAT PENGATUR BUKA/TUTUP DISCHARGE VALVE, DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ANGIN
COMPRESSOR SEBAGAI TENAGA PENGGERAK .
- INTRUKSI INI DATANG DARI COUMPUTUNG UNIT .
- INTERLOCK SYSTEM
9. INTERFACE CABINET
- PANEL LISTRIK DARI TENAGA LISTRIK
- TERDAPAT SAKERING

10. TANGKI FRESH WATER


- PENAMPUNGAN AIR TAWAR GUNA PROSES PEMBILASAN (FLUSHING) PADA INSTALASI
SAMPLING.

PERINSIP PENDETEKSIAN SISTIM ODMS

1. SAMPLING WATER ( CLEAN WATER ). DIALIRKAN MELALUI DETECTOR. DI DETEKSI : ( SINAR


KELUAR DAN SINAR MASUK = SEGARIS )
2. PARTIKEL MINYAK,DI DETEKSI,SINAR DARI DETECTOR ADA DUA.
- SEGARIS DENGAN SINAR MASUK.
- TIDAK SEGARIS DENGAN SINAR MASUK
3. PARTIKEL MINYAK LAGI.DIDETEKSI SINAR KELUAR DARI DETEKTOR SAMA DENGAN SEBELUMYA ,
HANYA INTENSITASYA BERUBAH.
4. PARTIKEL PADAT DIDETEKSI,SINAR KELUAR ADA 3 TITIK YAITU :
- YANG SEGARIS DENGAN SINAR MASUK
- YANG TIDAK SEGARIS
- YANG TIDAK SEGARIS LAINYA.

SISTEM PENDETEKSIAN SEPERTI INI TERLIHAT PADA SISTEM ODMS YANG MEMENUHI SYARAT
RRESOLUSI IMO NO.A 586 (14)

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3. Pneumatic electric converter

Converter terdiri dari satu unit pengaturan dan suatu untuk penguat

Ketika tekanan yang masuk dipakai pada unit pengatur. Diafragma pengatur, poros penghubung dan
elektroda yang dapat bergerak. Di gerakkan kea rah kanan, menyebabkan perbedaan dalam
kemampuan antara C1 dan C2.

Perbedaan kemampuan ini di periksa dengan menggunakan tengagan ac pada elektroda-elektroda


yang terpasang dan mengubahya kedalam signal listrik dari 4-20 ma DC.

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Pupm.

Control signal dari posisi kerangan buang akan di tunjukan dengan menyatakan lampu signal dan di
cetak pada SMC Computer.

KETERANGAN

TABEL ‘’ FACTOOR SWITCH’’

1. Minyak heavy fuel Venezuela Indonesia : HC


2. Arabian crude : Normal
3. Gasolin afrika utara, Nigeria : LC

Note in of mistake the key operation .pess push button C (cancel) and typein the reasonable
data.

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(DISPLAY PANEL ) UPERT PART

( KEY BCARD ) LOWER PART

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2 stop bilge feeed pump dan tutup semua valve-valve pada bilge discharge pipe line.

3 putar ke ‘’ OFF ‘’ switch pada automatic oil level controller

Sekarang pengopprasian dari sparting tank sudah distop.

Apa bila pengopraian di mulai lagi,bukah penuh semua valve-valve pada bilge discharge
pipe line dan jalankan pompa.

Ini tidak benar memerlukan pengisisan air laut. Kecuali separating tank di keringkan untuk
pembersiahan dan sebagianya . tangki harus di jaga sampaii penuh

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INCINATOR
I. PENDAHULUAN

Incinerator adlah tungku pembakaran . peralatan ini sebagai kelengkapan dari oily water
separator (ows) atau sebagai alat pencegah pencemaran di laut.

II.DESING/KONSTRUKSI

Merupakan satu unit tersendiri yang terdiri dari bagian-bagian :

a. Rumah pembakaran
b. Ruang pembakaran
c. Pompa minyak
d. Brander
e. Penyala/pametik brander
f. Fan
g. Safety device
h. Control panel.

Bagian peralatan tersebut dirakit sedemikan rupa sehingga dalam pengoprasian dan
pengamatan sewaktu operasi dapat dilakuakan dari bagian depan saja

III. FUNGSI

1. .Untuk membakar minyak kotor/waste oil yang berasal dari hasil pemisahan minyak dan
air pada OWS/oily water separator .
2. Memebakar majun bekas ,serbuk kayu , kertas dll
3. Membakar minyak pelumas .

IV. CARA MENJALANKAN / MENGOPRASIKAN

A.Persiapan.

Sebelum menjalankan .perlu dikerjakan langkah-langkah persiapan seperti di bawah ini ,


agar dalamb propertiya tidak menemeui hambatan .

1. Panasi tangki minyak kotor s/d 60*c


2. Cerat air yang mungkin masi ada di tangki minyak kotor
3. Cerat udara dari pipa-pipa waste oil dan diesel oil melalui saringan isapya
4. Hidupkan swich (source) periksa lampu-lampu indicator , yakinkan tidak ada yang
menunjuk pada “abnormal” sirene alrm tidak berbunyi
5. Aduk waste oil melalui agiatanting swich (on)

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6. Buka damber pemasukan udara dan pengeluaran gas bekas
7. Masukan majun bekas dll melalui pintu pemasukan ke ruang pembakaran
8. Buka dan atur kerangan-kerangan supply & return dari diesel oil waste oil

B. Mnjalankan

1. Tekan tombol ‘’ON’’ dari fan burner .gas yang tidak perlu di dalam ruang
pembakaran akan di hembus keluar
2. Tekan tombol/select switch ‘’on’’ dariwaste oil input
3. Tekan tombol/select switc ‘’on’’ dari ingnitore.
Percikan bunga api dilihat melalui lubang/kaca intip pompa diesel oil akan hidup
4. Tunngu /biasrkan menyala + 10 menit untuk pemanasan ruang pembakaran .
5. Tekan tombol ‘’on’’ solenoid valve main burner ( waste oil) akan menyala di
tunjukan dengan menyalaya lampu hijau dai fire kalu tidk menyala tekan tombol
reset dan langi langka 3-4
6. Untuk mendapatkan pembakaran yang bstabil , panaskan pembakaran secara
simulator (diesel oil & waste, dua duanya menyala)
7. Matikan ‘’ingnore’’
8. Pematik akan mati dan pembakaran berjalan normal

C. Menghentikan
1. Tutup karangan pemanas dan matikan agitator dari waste oil tank
2. Bilas pipa waste oil dengan mengalirkan diesel oil ke pipa tersebut ( dengan
membuka / menutup kerangan yang perlu
3. Teka tombol ‘’OFF’’ dari solenoid palpe api di brander akan padam
4. Tekan tombol ‘’OFF’’ dari ‘’ Waste oil pump’’
5. Tekan tombol ‘’OFF’’ dari ‘’SOURCE’’
6. Selagi incinacator masi hangat di bersihkan atomizing cup dan kaca lubang-
lubangintip

V.PERAWATAN DAN PEMELIHARAAN .


A. Furnee body:
1. Dapur :
- Check dan bersihkan ruangan dapur setiap selesai di pakai
- Chek semen dan tahan apinya.

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E. Brander waste oil (main burner ) tidak nyala :

- Pastikan tiap relay berfungsi atau tidak


- Kelebihan udara : kurangi pembukaan damper udara
- Waste nilai kalorya rendah : camour dengan nilai kolor tiggi

VII. KAPASITAS
Untuk kapal-kapal type 3000-an baru (3003-3012 )
- 10 Kg/jamwaste oil. Nilai kalor 8000 keal/kg dengan konsentrasi air 30% atau kurang
- Majun/serpihan kayu : 6kg

VIII. SPESIFIKASI
A. Incinerator
Type : OSL-10
Capacity : 8x 10 kcal / jam
Cont sys.of burner : manual switching for ingnition automatic control for safety
Cooling syst : air cooling with fin
Composition : double casing of steel plate with fire resist wall of castable
Hole dimension : w200 x 11.210 mm

B. Waste oil burner


Burning syst : rotary cup system
Mdel : OSR-O2
Combustion caps : 10KG/HR
Power circuit : AC 400 V 60 H2 3 0
Control circuit : AC 100 V 60 H2 1 0

C. Waste oil pump


Type : GEAR TYPE
Model no : TOP -204
Capacity pressure : 0,4-0,6kg/ cm
Motor : 440 v 0,2 kw 4p (0,58 ) yaskawa fleet mig japan

D. Maker : Osaka sunrilame CO.LTD

IX PENUTUP :
Bahan referensi : inscruction book waste oil incinerator “p.3006”

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ADVACED OIL TANKER OPERATION
IMO MEDEL COURSE -1.02.STCW-CODE

THE MATERIAL ARE ARRANGED UNDER TEN MAIN HEADING


1. Introduction
2. Basic properties of petroleum and its hazard
3. Safety
4. Pollution prevention
5. Oil tanker desing and equipment
6. Oil tanker operasions
7. Miscellaneous
8. Emenrgency procedures
9. Inert gas systems (IGS)
10. Crude oil washing (COW)

LEARNIG OBJECTIVE
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Oil tanker
1.2 International and National Regulations concerning oil tanker.
2. BASIC PROPERTIES OF PPETROLEUM AND ITS HAZARDS
2.1 Basic physic
2.2 Properties of petroleum
2.3 Hazard Associated with the handling and carriage of petroleum
a. Toxicity in genereal
b. Toxicity of petroleum
c. Toxicity of inert gas
d. Oxcygen defiency
e. Flammability and explosivenees
f. Electrostatic hazards
g. Hazard to the marine environment
3. SAFETY
3.1 General precautions
3.2 Entry into enclosed spaces
3.3 Precautions against electrostatic hazards
3.4 Gas indicators
3.5 Fire- Figthing principles
3.6 Protective Equipment
4. POLLUTIONS EREVENTION
4.1 Ship and Equipment
4.2 operational pollutions
a. At sea
b. In port
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4.3 oil record book

4.4 action in case of oil spills

a. At sea
b. In port

4.5 Air pollution

5. OIL TANKER DESING AND EQUIPMENT


5.1 construction
a. Safety considerations
b. Environmental considerations

5.2 pumping ,piping and discharge arrangements

5.3 cargo heating systems

5.4 venting arrangements

5.5 level gauges

5.6 environmental protecton equipment

6. OIL TANKER OPERATIONS


6.1 General precauitions
a. Superstructure
b. Pump rooms
c. Cargo hoses

6.2 loading and discharging deballasing

6.3 ballasing and deballasting

6.4 tank cleaning

6.6 purging and gas- freeing

6.7 ship / shore liaison

7. MISCELLANEOUS
7.1 Pump theory and characteristics
7.2 pressure surge

8. ENMERGENCY PROCEDURES
8.1 emergency plan
8.2 emergency alarms
8.3 emergency organization
8.4 action on discovering an emergency

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9. INERT GAS SYSTEMS (IGS)
9.1 general
9.2 the inert gas system
9.3 inert gas plant
9.4 scrubber
9.5 inert gas blowers
9.6 inert gas pressure regulating valve
9.7 non return devices
9.8 inert gas distributions and venting
9.9 gas anallysing, recording and indicating equipment
9.10 operations
9.11 meters, indicators and alarms
9.12 emergency procedures
9.13 maintenance and testing

10. CRUDE OIL WASHING ( COW )


10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.2 desing of COW systems
10.3 COW piping
10.4 tank washing machines
10.5 pumps
10.6 stripping systems
10.7 operations

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FIRE CHEMISTRY
DEFINITION :

Fire is : a chemical reaction in progress..between the three elements of the fire triangle
and reach the right composition/ the chain reaction followed by light and
smoke .

Flame is a mixture burns.

Stoichiometric mixture is the mixture of flammable vapor and air, which burns best.

The fire triangle elements are :


FUEL : physical states : gases, liquids, solid.

Oxcygen (O2) : approximately 16% in air required

Heat : Energy .

Heat source to reach ingnition temperature i.e open flame , friction,spark,&


arcs, chemical action.

In “ Fire tetrahedron “ the fourth element is called the chemical chain reaction.

Fire is spread by :

a. Radiation : heat waves transmitted by air.


b. Conduction : heat may be conducted via solid material I,e, metal, wood
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The ‘’ fire tetrahedron”

The fire tetrahedron is a four –sided solid , including chemical chain reaction as another
component necessary for burning.
The components would then form a pyramid.

FLASHPOINT : is the lowest temperature at ehich a substance give off flammable vapors
insufficient to ignite.

IGNITION TEMPERATURE : Is the lowest temperature at whitch a substance will ignite and burn,
without an external source of ignition?

BOILING POINT : is a temperature at which a substance boils and chages to a vapor ?

EXPLOSIVE RANGE : IS the range of mixtures of flammable vapor in air, which will burn .?

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL) : is the minimum percentenge of a flammable vapor in air , whitc
will burn ? below this limit a mixture is too lean to burn.

UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (U E L) : is the maximum percentage of a flammable vapor in air , which
will burn? Above this limit a mixture is too rich burn.

Smoke is the of incomplete combustion.

COLOR OF SMOKE : yellow, red purple , normally indicate the presence of toxic gases.
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CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE .U.S. COAST GUARD VERSION

Class ‘’A’’ fire : carbonaseus / ordinary fires, in materials : wood, paper ,rubber etc.

Class ‘’B’’ fire : liquid with flashpoint < 140of, not soluble in water, such as : light fuel , motor
spirit etc.

Class ‘’C’’ fire : liquid with flashpoint < 140of, soluble in water , such as : alcohol , ecthanol etc.

Class ‘’D’’ fire : liquid with flashpoint >140of, not soluble , such as : diesel , heavy fuel, etc

Class “ E’’ fire : liqud with flashpoint > 140of, soluble in water, such as : molasses ? sugar , glycol
etc

Class ‘’F’’ fire : life electrical fires.

Class ‘’G’’ fire : metal fire, such as : magnesium , zatrcoim, sodium,(Na) potassium (K)etc.

The main extinguishing media is sea / fresh water in the form of jet/solid stream, spray of fog.
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VII. STANDART UNIT SATUAN


1. Panjang : dalam millimeter satuan bulat

2. Temperature : dalam derajat celcius dengan dua angka di belakang


koma

3. Density : dalam angka dengan empat dengan empat angka di


belakang koma

4. Api gravity : dalam angka dengan satu angka di belakang koma

5. Specific grav :dalam angka dengan empat angka di belakang koma

6. Koefisien mual kubik dinding tangki : dalam angka dengan tuju angka di belkang koma

7. Volume correction facto (VCF) : dalam angka dengan enam angka di belakang koma

8. Weinght coreection factory (WCF) : nlong ton dalam angka dengan empat angka di
belakang koma

9. Hasil perhitungan : metric, dalam angka dengan dua angka di belakang


koma

Akhir volume : dalam


a. Liter 15oC satuan bulat
b. Bls 60oF dengan tiga angka di belakang koma .

10. Berat : dalam


a. Metric ton dengan tiga angka di belakang koma
b. Long ton dengan tiga angka di belakang koma
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STEP PERHITUNGAN MINYAK DI TANGKI KAPAL


CONTOH :

DRAFT = F= 6,80 meter

= TRIM = + 1 meter

A= 7,80 meter

REEL = 1 (p/s)

1. a. ulange cairan = 1.500 MM


heel correction = -82 MM
correction trim = 76 MM
corr’d ulange cairan =1,494 MM

b. free water uilage = 16.080 MM


heel correction = -81 MM
trim correction = 77 MM
corrd’ Fw. Uilage = 16.076MM

2. gross obs, vol (1) = 6154,82 KL


fw .obs .vol (2) = 71.88 KU
net. Obs. Vol =6082,94 MM

3. A. suhu sample = 32 oC
Density observed = 0,8352
Dens. 15 oC (T 53) = 0,8465
o
B. suhu tangki = 31 C
Vol.corr. fact (T54) = 0,987060 (5)
C. BNS 60O F (T 52) = 6293
o
1000 Ltrs 15 C
D. Longtons (T57) = 0,8321
o
1000 Ltr 15 C

4. a. KL 15O = Net obs. Vol . x VCF


= (3) x (5) = 6004,226756

b. barell 60o = KL 15o x (fac T 52 )


= (8) x (6) = 37,784,59898

c.. Longtons = KL 15oC x ( fact. T 57)


= (8) X (7) = 4996.117084
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STCW 95
STCW Convention
Resolution of the 1995 conference
STCW CODE

ANNEX
Amendements to the annex to the international convention on standart of
traning, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers 1978.

CHAPTER 1
General provisons
Definitions clarification

CHAPTER II
Master deck departemen
Mandatory minimum requirements for certification of officers in chage of a
navigational watch on ship

CHAPTER III.
Engine department
Mandatory minimum requirements for ceitification of officers in chage of an
engineering watch in a manned engine – room or desingnated duty engineers,

CHAPTER IV
Radiocomunications and radio personil for certification of GMDSS radio personel

CHAPTER V
Special training requrements for personil on certain types of ship
Section A-v /1 of the STCW code
Regulation : mandatory minimum requiments for the traning and qualification of
ratings on tanker
Section Av/v paragraph 1 of STCW kode
Regulation v/2 mandatory minimum requirements for the training and
qualifications of master officer , ratings and otherer personil on ro ro pesenggers
ship

CHAPTER VI.
Emergrncy ,occupational safety , medical care and survival functions.

Regulation VI/I : mandatory minimum requirements for familiarization basic


safety and instruction for all seafarers.

Regulations VI/2 : mandatory minimum requipments for the issue of cerficates of


the issue of certificates of proficiency in survival craft rescue boats and fast rescue
boats

Regulations VI/2 : mandatory requimenst for traning in advanced fire-figthing

Regulation VI/2 mandatory minimum requipmens relating to medical


firsmedicalcare

CHAPTER VII.
Alternative certifications issue of alternatifve certivications

CHAPTER V111.
Wacth keeping
Regulation VIII/I :
Fitness for duty
Regulations VIII/2 :
Wachkeeping arrangements and princples to be observed.