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PHYSICAL REVIEW E 69, 016703 共2004兲

Lattice kinetic scheme for the incompressible viscous thermal flows on arbitrary meshes
Y. Peng, C. Shu, and Y. T. Chew
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260, Singapore

T. Inamuro
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
共Received 11 June 2003; revised manuscript received 22 August 2003; published 30 January 2004兲
A lattice kinetic scheme was developed for the incompressible viscous thermal flows on arbitrary meshes.
The work was based on the lattice kinetic scheme proposed by Inamuro and the technique of Taylor series
expansion- and least-square–based lattice Boltzmann method 共TLLBM兲. Compared with the lattice Boltzmann
method, the lattice kinetic scheme can save the computer memory since there is no need to store the density
distributions. The implementation of the boundary condition is direct and just the same as the convectional
Navier-Stokes solvers. By using the idea of TLLBM, the lattice kinetic scheme can be applied on arbitrary
meshes, which makes this scheme suitable for practical applications. In order to validate this lattice kinetic
scheme used on arbitrary meshes, numerical simulations of the natural convection in a square cavity and the
natural convection in a concentric annulus between an outer square cylinder and an inner circular cylinder are
carried out, and the results are compared very well with available data in the literature.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.69.016703 PACS number共s兲: 47.11.⫹j, 45.50.⫺j

I. INTRODUCTION mentation of the boundary condition is very easy since on


the boundaries only the macroscopic variables rather than the
In recent years, the lattice Boltzmann method 共LBM兲 has density distributions are needed as for the conventional
been developed into an alternative promising tool for fluid Navier-Stokes 共NS兲 solvers. This feature is very useful when
mechanics. It has been widely used in many kinds of com- the flow problems with complex geometry are concerned.
plex flows such as turbulent flow, multiphase flow, and mi- However, since this scheme is in the early stage of the
croflow 关1兴. However, there are still some items in need of development, its use is currently limited to the two-
further study. One is the collision model. The Bhatnagar- dimensional uniform grids. When the flow problems with
Gross-Krook 共BGK兲 model with a single relaxation time is curved boundaries are encountered, the boundaries cannot be
usually used for the collision term. The shortcomings of the well defined when the uniform grids are used. Even when the
BGK model are pointed out in the works of d’Humieres 关2兴 flows are confined in the regular geometries, nonuniform
and Lallemand and Luo 关3兴. The other is the boundary con- grid is preferred at high Reynolds number or Rayleigh num-
dition. The bounce-back scheme in the LBM was originally ber. In order to meet these requirements and exploit the good
taken from the LGA method. Although this heuristic scheme feature of the lattice kinetic scheme in the implementation
is very simple to implement, it is found to be the first order of the boundary conditions, its extension to the applications
in the numerical accuracy at the boundaries 关4,5兴. In order to on arbitrary meshes is necessary for its development into a
improve the numerical accuracy, other boundary treatments competitive method. In this paper, we follow the idea of
have been proposed. It appears, however, that the extension
the Taylor series expansion- and least-square–based LBM
of these treatments to the complex boundary surface is diffi-
共TLLBM兲 关8 –10兴, and propose a lattice kinetic scheme for
cult. Chen et al. 关6兴 proposed a boundary condition using a
its application on the arbitrary mesh. The final form is an
second-order extrapolation scheme of the distributions in the
flow to obtain the unknown particle distribution functions on algebraic formulation, in which the coefficients only depend
the boundaries. When the flow problems with complex ge- on the coordinates of the mesh points and lattice velocity,
ometries, especially in the three dimensions, are encoun- and can be computed once in advance.
tered, the determination of the unknown particle directions is In order to validate our lattice kinetic scheme, the numeri-
troublesome. All the implementations are not so direct since cal simulations of the natural convection in a square cavity
on the boundaries the macroscopic variables, not the density and the natural convection in a concentric annulus between a
distributions, are given. Related to these two difficulties, a square outer cylinder and a circular inner cylinder are carried
lattice kinetic scheme for the incompressible viscous flows out and compared with available data in the literature.
was developed by Inamuro 关7兴. This scheme is based on the
idea that if the dimensionless relaxation time in the LBM
with the BGK model is set to unity, the macroscopic vari- II. METHODOLOGY
ables such as velocity components and density instead of the
density distribution functions become the dependent vari- Our lattice kinetic scheme is based on the original lattice
ables in the computation. As compared to the standard LBM, kinetic scheme and the idea of TLLBM. Before introducing
this scheme can save computer memory because there is no our lattice kinetic scheme, we will give a brief description
need to store the density distribution functions. The imple- about the original lattice kinetic scheme.

1063-651X/2004/69共1兲/016703共8兲/$22.50 69 016703-1 ©2004 The American Physical Society


PENG et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 69, 016703 共2004兲

A. Original lattice kinetic scheme ␣ ⫽0,1, . . . ,N, 共1兲


The evolution equation for the density distribution f ␣ (x,t)
in the two dimensions with the particle velocity e␣ can be
written as where ␶ is the single relaxation time, f ␣eq is the corresponding
equilibrium density distribution function, ␦ t is the time step,
f ␣ 共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲 ⫽ f ␣ 共 x⫺e␣ ␦ t,t 兲 and N is the number of discrete particle velocities. On the
uniform grid, ␦ t is chosen so that the particles travel one-
f ␣ 共 x⫺e␣ ␦ t,t 兲 ⫺ f ␣eq 共 x⫺e␣ ␦ t,t 兲 lattice spacing during this time. When the particle velocity
⫺ ,
␶ model D2Q9, which is defined as

e␣ ⫽ 再 0, ␣ ⫽0
„cos关共 ␣ ⫺1 兲 ␲ /2兴 ,sin关共 ␣ ⫺1 兲 ␲ /2兴 …, ␣ ⫽1,2,3,4
&„cos关共 ␣ ⫺5 兲 ␲ /2⫹ ␲ /4兴 ,sin关共 ␣ ⫺5 兲 ␲ /2⫹ ␲ /4兴 …, ␣ ⫽5,6,7,8
共2兲

is used, a suitable equilibrium distribution function for this 1


model is given by ␷ ⫽ ␦ t. 共9兲
6


f ␣eq ⫽w ␣ ␳ 1⫹3e␣ •V⫹
9 共 e␣ •V兲 2 3V2
2

2
, 册 共3兲 This may yield a relatively large viscosity.
In order to remove this shortcoming, one can flexibly
choose the equilibrium distribution function f ␣eq provided
where w 0 ⫽4/9, w ␣ ⫽1/9 for ␣⫽1,2,3,4, and w ␣ ⫽1/36 for that the macroscopic equations recover the NS equations
␣⫽5,6,7,8. The macroscopic density ␳ and fluid velocity V 关11兴. In this work, the following equilibrium density distri-
are calculated in terms of the density distributions as bution function given by Inamuro 关7兴 is used:


8 8
1 9 共 e␣ •V兲 2 3V2
␳⫽ 兺 f␣ ,
␣ ⫽0
V⫽ 兺
f e .
␳ ␣ ⫽0 ␣ ␣
共4兲 f ␣eq ⫽w ␣ ␳ 1⫹3e␣ •V⫹
2

2

The pressure p is related to the density by


⫹A ␦ t 冉 ⳵u␦ ⳵u␥
⫹ 冊
e e .
⳵ x ␥ ⳵ x ␦ ␣ ␦ ␣␥ 册 共10兲

p⫽ 共5兲 The inclusion of the last term in the equilibrium density dis-
3
tribution function is to provide part of the viscous stress
and the kinematic viscosity ␷ is given by tensor in the process of Chapman-Enskog expansion, which

冉 冊
can be seen in the following two equations:

冉 冊
1 1
␷⫽ ␶ ⫺ ␦ t. 共6兲 2 ⳵u␣ ⳵u␤
3 2 0兲
⌸ 共␣␤ ⫽ 兺 e␣ e␤ f eq ⫽ p ␦ ␣␤ ⫹ ␳ u ␣ u ␤ ⫹ 9 ␳ A ␦ t ⫹
⳵x␤ ⳵x␣
,
When the dimensionless relaxation time ␶ in Eq. 共1兲 is set 共11兲

冉 冊 冉 冊
to unity, we can obtain
1 2 ⳵u␣ ⳵u␤
f ␣ 共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲 ⫽ f ␣eq 共 x⫺e␣ ␦ t,t 兲 . 共7兲
1兲
␧⌸ 共␣␤ ⫽␧ 兺 e␣ e␤ f 共 1 兲⫽⫺ ␳ ␶⫺ c ␦t
2 s

⳵x␤ ⳵x␣

Then using Eq. 共4兲, we can get

␳ 共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲 ⫽ 兺
8

f ␣eq 共 x⫺e␣ ␦ t,t 兲 , ␳ 共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲 V共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲


␶ ⫽1
⫽ ⫺␳
1
6
␦t 冉
⳵u␣ ⳵u␤

⳵x␤ ⳵x␣
. 冊 共12兲
␣ ⫽0
The recovered momentum flux tensor in the Navier-Stokes
8
equations is
⫽ 兺
␣ ⫽0
f ␣eq 共 x⫺e␣ ␦ t,t 兲 e␣ . 共8兲
0兲
⌸ ␣␤ ⫽⌸ 共␣␤ 1兲
⫹␧⌸ 共␣␤ ⫽ p ␦ ␣␤ ⫹ ␳ u ␣ u ␤
By using Eqs. 共3兲 and 共8兲, one can calculate the density and
fluid velocity without the density distributions. The pressure
is obtained with Eq. 共5兲 and the kinematic viscosity is given
⫹␳ 冉 2
9
1
6 冊冉
A⫺ ␦ t
⳵u␣ ⳵u␤

⳵x␤ ⳵x␣
. 冊 共13兲

by So, the kinematic viscosity is given by

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LATTICE KINETIC SCHEME FOR THE . . . PHYSICAL REVIEW E 69, 016703 共2004兲

␷⫽ 冉 1 2
⫺ A ␦t
6 9 冊 共14兲

which can avoid the large viscosity by adjusting the param-


eter of A. The equation system 共8兲 and 共10兲 is called the
lattice kinetic scheme.
In the same way, the lattice kinetic scheme for the fluid
temperature T can be constructed as

T 共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲 ⫽ 兺
␣ ⫽0
g ␣eq 共 x⫺e␣ ␦ t,t 兲 共15兲

with
FIG. 1. Configuration at calculation point P.
g ␣eq ⫽w ␣ T 关 1⫹3e␣ •V兴 ⫹w ␣ B ␦ t 共 e␣ •“T 兲 . 共16兲
8

␳ 共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲 ⫽ 兺
␣ ⫽0
f ␣eq 共 x␣ ,t 兲 , ␳ 共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲 V共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲
The thermal diffusivity ␹ of the fluid is given by
8



1 1
␹ ⫽ ⫺ B ␦ t.
6 3 冊 共17兲

␣ ⫽0
f ␣eq 共 x␣ ,t 兲 e␣ , 共18兲

where x0 ⫽ P, x1 ⫽E, x2 ⫽F, x3 ⫽G, x4 ⫽H, x5 ⫽A, x6


⫽B, x7 ⫽C, and x8 ⫽D.
B. New lattice kinetic scheme
For the general case, A – H may not coincide with the
In order to extend the use of the original lattice kinetic mesh points P 1 ⫺ P 8 . We will take the point F as an ex-
scheme on the arbitrary mesh, the idea of the TLLBM is ample. F may not coincide with the mesh point P 6 . Since
introduced in the original lattice kinetic scheme. The f ␣eq ( P 6 ,t) is known, we can build the connection between
TLLBM is based on the standard LBM, the technique of f ␣eq (F,t) and f ␣eq ( P 6 ,t) by using the Taylor series expansion
Taylor series expansion and least-squares optimization. The to the second order derivative terms. That is
details of TLLBM can be found in 关10兴. This technique and
its derivation procedure can be applied in the lattice kinetic
scheme. We will show this in the following. ⳵ f ␣eq 共 F,t 兲 ⳵ f ␣eq 共 F,t 兲
f ␣eq 共 P 6 ,t 兲 ⫽ f ␣eq 共 F,t 兲 ⫹⌬x P 6 ⫹⌬y P 6
Suppose that the calculation point is at the grid point ⳵x ⳵y
P(x,y,t). As seen from Eq. 共8兲, for the original lattice ki-
netic scheme, the macroscopic density and velocity can be 1 ⳵ 2 f ␣eq 共 F,t 兲
⫹ 共 ⌬x P 6 兲 2
calculated as the function of f ␣eq (x⫺e ␣ x ␦ t,y⫺e ␣ y ␦ t,t). For 2 ⳵x2
a uniform lattice, ␦ x⫽e ␣ x ␦ t, ␦ y⫽e ␣ y ␦ t. So, (x⫺e ␣ x ␦ t,y
1 ⳵ 2 f ␣eq 共 F,t 兲
⫺e ␣ y ␦ t) is at the grid point and the values of f ␣eq (x ⫹ 共 ⌬y P 6 兲 2
⫺e␣ ␦ t,t) can be easily determined from Eq. 共10兲. In other 2 ⳵y2
words, Eq. 共8兲 can be used to update the density and velocity
⳵ 2 f ␣eq 共 F,t 兲
exactly at the grid points. However, for a nonuniform grid, ⫹⌬x P 6 ⌬y P 6
(x⫺e ␣ x ␦ t,y⫺e ␣ y ␦ t) is usually not at the grid point (x ⳵x⳵y
⫺ ␦ x,y⫺ ␦ y). So the values of f ␣eq (x⫺e␣ ␦ t,t) cannot be ob- ⫹O 关共 ⌬x P 6 兲 3 , 共 ⌬y P 6 兲 3 兴 , 共19兲
tained from Eq. 共10兲 directly since only the macroscopic
properties, such as the density and flow velocity, at every
mesh point are known. As a result, the density and velocity at where ⌬x P 6 ⫽x P 6 ⫺(x P ⫺e ␣ x ␦ t), ⌬y P 6 ⫽y P 6 ⫺(y P
the new time level cannot be obtained using Eq. 共8兲. In order ⫺e ␣ y ␦ t). For the two-dimensional case, this expansion in-
to get the values of f ␣eq (x⫺e␣ ␦ t,t), the Taylor series expan- volves six unknowns, that is, one equilibrium distribution
sion in the spatial direction is applied. function at the point F, two first order derivatives, and three
As shown in Fig. 1, for simplicity, the point P represents second-order derivatives at this point. To solve for these un-
the calculation point (x P ,y P ,t), points A – H represent the knowns, six equations are needed to close the system. This
position (x P ⫺e ␣ x ␦ t,y P ⫺e ␣ y ␦ t,t), and points P 1 ⫺ P 8 rep- can be done by applying the second order Taylor series ex-
resent the position (x P i ,y P i ,t) with x P i ⫽x P ⫺ ␦ x i ,y P i ⫽y P pansion at six points: P, P 3 , P 4 , P 5 , P 6 , P 7 . The following
⫺ ␦ y i . So, Eq. 共8兲 gives equation system can be obtained:

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PENG et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 69, 016703 共2004兲

f k⬘ ⫽ 兵 s k 其 兵 W 其 ⫽
T

j⫽1
s k, j W j , k⫽ P, P 3 , P 4 , P 5 , P 6 , P 7 ,
共20兲
where

f k⬘ ⫽ f ␣eq 共 x k ,y k ,t 兲 ,

兵 s k 其 T ⫽ 兵 1,⌬x k ,⌬y k , 共 ⌬x k 兲 2 /2,共 ⌬y k 兲 2 /2,⌬x k ⌬y k 其

兵 W 其 ⫽ 兵 f ␣eq , ⳵ f ␣eq / ⳵ x, ⳵ f ␣eq / ⳵ y, ⳵ 2 f ␣eq / ⳵ x 2 , ⳵ 2 f ␣eq / ⳵ 2 y,


⳵ 2 f ␣eq / ⳵ x ⳵ y 其 T .

Our target is to find the first element W 1 ⫽ f ␣eq (F,t). Equa-


tion system 共20兲 can be put into the following matrix form:

关 S 兴 兵 W 其 ⫽ 兵 f ⬘其 , 共21兲
FIG. 2. Configuration of natural convection in a square
where 关 S 兴 is a matrix formed by the vector 兵 s k 其 . In practical cavity.
applications, it was found that the matrix 关 S 兴 might be sin-
points. Thus, we can say that Eq. 共24兲 can be consistently
gular or ill-conditioned using only six points 共P, P 3 , P 4 ,
used to any kind of mesh structure. But we have to indicate
P 5 , P 6 , and P 7 ). To overcome this difficulty and make the
that, as compared to the original lattice kinetic scheme, the
method be more general, more points are added and the
present method requires much more memory to store the
least-squares approach 关12兴 was introduced to optimize the
coefficients a 1,k . This is the price paid for its application to
overconstrained approximation by Eq. 共20兲. As a result, the
arbitrary mesh.
equation system for 兵W其 becomes
The same procedure can be applied to the calculation of
兵 W 其 ⫽ 共关 S 兴 T 关 S 兴 兲 ⫺1 关 S 兴 T 兵 f ⬘ 其 ⫽ 关 A 兴 兵 f ⬘ 其 . 共22兲 g ␣eq (x⫺e␣ ␦ t,t) so that the temperature can be obtained. If
we use the same particle velocity model and neighboring
From Eq. 共22兲 we can have points, the geometry matrix is the same as for f ␣eq (x
M ⫺1 ⫺e␣ ␦ t,t), which can save the computational time and
f ␣eq 共 F,t 兲 ⫽W 1 ⫽ 兺
k⫽0
a 1,k f ⬘k , 共23兲
memory space. The temperature can be obtained by
M ⫺1

where a 1,k are the elements of the first row of the matrix 关 A 兴 , T 共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲 ⫽ 兺 k⫽0

A–H
a 1,k g ⬘k , 共25兲
which is determined by the coordinates of the mesh points,
the particle velocity, and time step size, and will not be where g k⬘ ⫽g ␣eq (x k ,y k ,t). Thus the equation systems 共10兲,
changed in the calculation procedure, and M is the number of 共14兲, 共24兲 for the density, velocity, and 共16兲, 共17兲, 共25兲 for the
the points used and should be greater than 6. In the present temperature form our new lattice kinetic scheme.
study, a structured grid is used, and M is taken as 9. This
means that for a reference mesh point P, we need to select III. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
its eight neighboring points to compute the coefficients in
Eq. 共23兲. The above procedure shows the calculation of On the boundaries, usually the macroscopic variables
f ␣eq (F,t) and the same procedure can be applied to calculate and their first order derivatives are specified. These condi-
the equilibrium distribution function at other points such as tions can be implemented for the lattice kinetic scheme in
A, B, C, and so on. Then the density and velocity can be the same way as for the conventional computational fluid
obtained by
M ⫺1

␳ 共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲 ⫽ 兺 k⫽0
A–H
兺 a 1,k f ⬘k , ␳ 共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲 V共 x,t⫹ ␦ t 兲

M ⫺1

⫽ 兺 兺
A – H k⫽0
a 1,k f k⬘ e␣ . 共24兲

We can calculate the coefficients in Eq. 共24兲 once and store


them in advance, so little computational effort is introduced
as compared with the original lattice kinetic scheme. On the
other hand, Eq. 共24兲 has nothing to do with the mesh struc-
ture. It only needs the information of coordinates of the mesh FIG. 3. A typical nonuniform mesh in a square cavity.

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LATTICE KINETIC SCHEME FOR THE . . . PHYSICAL REVIEW E 69, 016703 共2004兲

lidity of the lattice kinetic scheme to solve the thermal prob-


lems with curved boundaries. When the curve boundary is
involved and the bounce back boundary condition is to be
used, as shown in 关10兴, the determination of the directions
where the density distributions are unknown is time consum-
ing and troublesome. When the lattice kinetic scheme is ap-
plied, this problem can be avoided.
For the natural convection, the Boussinesq approximation
is applied to the buoyancy force term. This means that the
properties ␤ and ␷ are considered as constants, the density ␳
is constant, and the buoyancy term is assumed to depend
linearly on the temperature,
␳ G⫽ ␳ ␤ g 0 共 T⫺T m 兲 j, 共26兲
where ␤ is the thermal expansion coefficient, g 0 is the accel-
FIG. 4. Sketch of the physical domain. eration due to the gravity, T m ⫽(T 1 ⫹T 2 )/2 is the average
temperature, in which T 1 and T 2 are low and high tempera-
dynamics 共CFD兲 solvers. This is one of the attracting ad- tures, respectively, and j is the vertical direction opposite to
vantages of the lattice kinetic scheme over the standard that of the gravity. Correspondingly, the external force term
LBM. 3w ␣ g 0 ␤ (T⫺T m )e ␣ y ␦ t is added to the density equilibrium
distribution function 共10兲.
The dimensionless parameters for the natural convection
IV. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS problems are the Prandtl number Pr and the Rayleigh number
In order to examine the accuracy of the lattice kinetic Ra, defined by
scheme to solve the incompressible thermal flows on the Pr⫽ ␷ / ␹ , 共27兲
arbitrary meshes, two test problems are calculated. One is the
natural convection in a square cavity. The top and bottom ␤ 共 T 2 ⫺T 1 兲 g 0 L 3 ␤ ⌬Tg 0 L 3
walls are insulated and the side walls are maintained at con- Ra⫽ ⫽ . 共28兲
␷␹ ␷␹
stant but different temperatures. The problem definition and
the boundary conditions are displayed in Fig. 2. The nonuni- For the natural convection in a square cavity, L is the height
form grid is used and a typical nonuniform grid is shown in of the square cavity, while for the natural convection in a
Fig. 3. It can be seen clearly from Fig. 3 that the mesh points concentric annulus between an outer square cylinder and an
are stretched near the walls to capture the thin boundary inner circular cylinder, L is the side length of the square
layer. In the middle part of the flow field, the mesh is rela- cylinder.
tively coarse since the velocity and temperature gradients are In Eq. 共28兲, 冑␤ g 0 ⌬TL is the characteristic velocity. To
not very large in this region. The other is the natural convec- ensure the code working properly in the near-incompressible
tion in a concentric annulus between an outer square cylinder regime, the value of 冑␤ g 0 ⌬TL should be carefully chosen.
and an inner circular cylinder. Heat is generated uniformly It is chosen to be 0.1 at low Rayleigh number and be 0.15 at
within the circular inner cylinder with high temperature T 2 high Rayleigh number. This means that the Mach number is
⫽2, which is placed concentrically within the cold square 0.1 at low Rayleigh number and 0.15 at high Rayleigh
cylinder with temperature T 1 ⫽1. A schematic view of the number.
geometry of this problem is shown in Fig. 4. The nonuniform Once the two dimensionless parameters Pr and Ra are
grid, in which mesh points are stretched near the walls, is given, the kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity are
adopted. The reason to choose this case is to testify the va- determined by solving Eqs. 共27兲 and 共28兲. Then the two

TABLE I. Comparison of numerical results between the lattice kinetic scheme and a Navier-Stokes
solver.

Ra 103 104 105 106

Method Present 关13兴 Present 关13兴 Present 关13兴 Present 关13兴


Grid size 101⫻101 101⫻101 151⫻151 201⫻201
u max 3.653 3.649 16.224 16.190 34.467 34.736 64.779 64.775
Y 0.815 0.815 0.825 0.825 0.853 0.855 0.857 0.850
␯ max 3.706 3.698 19.779 19.638 69.667 68.640 225.471 220.64
X 0.176 0.180 0.121 0.120 0.066 0.065 0.037 0.035
Nu 1.118 1.118 2.250 2.245 4.533 4.523 8.900 8.800
兩 ␺ mid兩 1.176 1.175 5.090 5.075 9.118 9.117 16.640 16.270

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PENG et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 69, 016703 共2004兲

TABLE II. Comparison of ␺ max N̄u for the natural convection in


an annulus between an outer square cylinder and a heated inner
circular cylinder.

␺ max N̄u

Ra Grid Present 关15兴 Present 关15兴

104 201⫻61 0.96 0.97 3.23 3.24


5⫻104 241⫻121 4.83 4.82 4.03 4.02
105 241⫻121 8.19 8.10 4.89 4.86

where n and n⫹1 represent the old and new time levels,
respectively.

A. Natural convection in a square cavity


Numerical simulations for the natural convection in a
square cavity at a wide range of Rayleigh numbers from 103
to 106 on the nonuniform grids were carried out.

1. Definition of the Nusselt number


FIG. 5. Streamlines for natural convection in a square cavity at
Ra⫽103 , 104 , 105 , and 106 . Nusselt number Nu is one of the most important dimen-
sionless parameters in describing the convective heat trans-
parameters A and B in Eqs. 共10兲 and 共16兲 can be deter- port. Its average in the whole flow domain and along the
mined through the relationships expressed by Eqs. 共14兲 vertical line of x⫽x 0 can be defined by
and 共17兲.
The convergence criterion for all the cases is set to
Nu⫽
L 1
␹ ⌬T L 2
冕冕L

0
L

0
q x 共 x,y 兲 dxdy, 共30兲

max兩 冑共 u 2i, j ⫹ ␯ 2i, j 兲 n⫹1 ⫺ 冑共 u 2i, j ⫹ ␯ 2i, j 兲 n 兩


⭐10 ⫺7
,max兩 T n⫹1 n ⫺7
i, j ⫺T i, j 兩 ⭐10 , 共29兲
Nu⫽
L 1
␹ ⌬T L
冕 L

0
q x 共 x 0 ,y 兲 dy, 共31兲

where q x (x,y)⫽uT(x,y)⫺ ␹ ( ⳵ / ⳵ x)T(x,y) is the local heat


flux in the horizontal direction.

2. Validation of the numerical results


Table I shows the numerical results of the maximum hori-
zontal velocity u max on the vertical midplane of the cavity
and its location Y, the maximum vertical velocity ␯ max on the
horizontal midplane of the cavity and its location X, the av-
erage Nusselt number throughout the cavity Nu, and the
value of the stream function at the center point of the cavity
for a wide range of Rayleigh numbers. The numerical results
of the Navier-Stokes equations given by Shu and Xue 关13兴
using the differential quadrature 共DQ兲 method are also in-
cluded for comparison. From this table, we can see that our
numerical results using the lattice kinetic scheme agree very
well with the benchmark results. This shows the validity of
the use of the lattice kinetic scheme on the nonuniform grids.
Figures 5 and 6 show the corresponding streamlines and
isotherms at Ra⫽103 , 104 , 105 , and 106 . For Ra⫽103 , the
stream function value is in the range of 0–1.176. The maxi-
mum stream functions are 5.096, 9.651, and 16.890 for Ra
FIG. 6. Isotherms for natural convection in a square cavity at ⫽104 – 106 , respectively. These plots agree well with those
Ra⫽103 , 104 , 105 , and 106 . obtained by Shu and Xue 关13兴.

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LATTICE KINETIC SCHEME FOR THE . . . PHYSICAL REVIEW E 69, 016703 共2004兲

FIG. 7. Streamlines for the


natural convection in a concentric
annulus between a square outer
cylinder and a circular inner cyl-
inder at Ra⫽104 , 5⫻104 , and
105 .

B. Natural convection in a concentric annulus between an outer


h̄S ⳵ T
square cylinder and an inner circular cylinder N̄u⫽ ⫽ S, 共34兲
k ⳵n
Numerical simulations of the natural convection in a con-
centric annulus between an outer square cylinder and an in-
ner circular cylinder were carried out at various Rayleigh where S is defined as half of the circumferential length of the
numbers. The geometry ratio between the square cylinder inner cylinder surface due to the symmetry, which is the
and circular cylinder is defined as rr⫽L/2r i and is fixed at same as in the work of Moukalled and Acharya 关14兴 for the
2.5 in the present work. purpose of comparison, and h̄ is the average heat flux along
the boundary.
1. Definition of the Nusselt number
The local heat transfer rate on the inner cylinder can be 2. Validation of the numerical results
computed by The numerical results of the maximum stream function
␺ max and the average Nusselt number N̄u for Rayleigh num-
⳵T* bers of 104 to 105 at the geometry ratio of 2.5 are shown in
2 ⫺T *
q⫽h 共 T * 1 兲 ⫽⫺k , 共32兲 Table II. The benchmark results using the DQ method 关15兴
⳵n
are also included for comparison. From this table we can see
that the numerical results using new lattice kinetic scheme
where T * is the dimensional temperature, T 2* , T 1* are, re- agree very well with the benchmark results. This validates
spectively, the temperatures on the inner and outer walls, h the use of the lattice kinetic scheme on the arbitrary meshes
represents the local heat transfer coefficient, and k is the with curved boundaries.
thermal conductivity. From Eq. 共32兲 we can get The respective streamlines and isotherms are shown in
Figs. 7 and 8. For Ra⫽104 , the stream function value is in
⳵T the range of 共⫺0.96 –0.96兲. The stream functions are in the
h⫽⫺k . 共33兲 ranges of 共⫺4.83– 4.83兲 and 共⫺8.19– 8.19兲 for Ra⫽5⫻104
⳵n and 105 , respectively. They are in good agreement with the
plots shown in 关15兴.
Here T is the nondimensional temperature, which is defined
as T⫽(T * ⫺T * 1 ) and ⳵ T/ ⳵ n is the temperature
2 ⫺T *
1 )/(T * V. CONCLUSIONS
gradient in the direction normal to the boundary.
Since at the steady state, the Nusselt numbers along the A lattice kinetic scheme for the incompressible viscous
inner and outer walls are the same, there is no need to pay thermal flows on the arbitrary meshes is developed following
separate attention to the average Nusselt numbers for the the original lattice kinetic scheme and the idea of TLLBM.
outer and inner boundaries. The average Nusselt number for The numerical results of the natural convection in a square
the inner boundary is determined by cavity and the natural convection in a concentric annulus

FIG. 8. Isotherms for natural


convection in a concentric annulus
between a square outer cylinder
and a circular inner cylinder at
Ra⫽104 , 5⫻104 , and 105 .

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PENG et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 69, 016703 共2004兲

between an outer square cylinder and an inner circular cyl- tribution functions. On the other hand, the implementation of
inder validate the use of the lattice kinetic scheme on the the boundary condition becomes easier and more direct, es-
arbitrary meshes. This scheme has the following good fea- pecially in the presence of curve boundaries. These good
tures. On one hand, it can save the memory space as com- features and the preliminary calculations show that this
pared with TLLBM, since there is no need to store the dis- scheme is very suitable for practical applications.

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