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The Respiratory System

Section 7.1 Structures of the Respiratory System


1. Name the four most common gases in the atmosphere (What percentage of the atmosphere does each
makes up?) /4
2. What is nitrogen in the air used for in your body? /1
3. What is the main function of the human respiratory system?. /2
4. State the two main requirements for respiration to occur. /2
5. The stages in respiration are _________________, __________ _____________, ___________
_____________, and _________________. /4
6. Identify the site of exchange in external respiration: ___________ and _________; and the site of
exchange in internal respiration: ___________ and ___________. /4
7. Draw and label a diagram of the respiratory system inside the thoracic cavity: /15
8. Why is it bad to pluck out nose hairs? /1
9. Why is snot good? /1
10. Another word for the windpipe is: _____________________ /1
11. What keeps the trachea from collapsing? /1
12. What reflex kicks in if your epiglottis reflex malfunctions? /1
13. The voicebox, also known as the ____________________________ contains two ligaments called the
___________________ __________________. When these are more relaxed (and therefore thicker), a
_____________________ pitched sound is produced. What causes males voices to 'crack' during puberty?
____________________ /4
14. What is the biggest difference in structure between the bronchi and the bronchioles? /1
15. In what two ways do ciliated cells help to protect the lungs? /2
16. An asthma attack involves the contraction of: ________________ /1
17. The alveoli is a sac filled with ____________________________. The walls of the alveoli are
____________ cell(s) thick to facilitate _____________________ of gases. There are approximately
_________________________ alveoli in each lung. (hint: read the FYI) /4
18. Alveoli are lined with _________________________. Why? /2
19. What is the pleural membrane? /1

Section 7.2 Breathing and Respiration


20. Gases always move from areas of _____________________ pressure to areas of ___________________
pressure. /2
21. The __________________________ controls the air pressure inside the thoracic cavity. When it is relaxed,
pressure is _____________________. When it contracts, pressure is
_______________________________. /3
22. Draw a picture of a thoracic cavity with a relaxed diaphragm, and then one with a contracted diaphragm. /2
23. What muscles cause the chest to expand and inspire air? /1
24. A collapsed lung is also known as ___________________ . (hint: FYI) /1
25. State the five different volumes that are recorded by a spirometer. The graph of this data is called a
________________. /6
26. In order for gas exchange to occur, the walls of the ___________ and the ___________ are one cell thick. /
2
27. When oxygen in the air diffuses across the alveoli membrane, it bonds with
____________________________ in the red blood cells to form ______________________________.
This molecule is carried via the RBCs to cells in the body. /2
28. In the cells, ________________________________ gas is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration.
When this dissolved in fluid (water), ___________________ ________________ forms. (Chemical
formula: ____________) /2
29. The carbonic acid dissociates into _____________________ and _____________ ions. /2
30. After it releases oxygen at the cells, the _______________________ picks up the
_____________________ ions, thus acting as a buffer to keep blood from becoming too acidic. /2
31. When the blood gets back to the alveolus, the _________________ ion separates again from the
hemoglobin. The bicarbonate ion breaks into ______________________ and
______________________________ gas. The gas diffuses into the __________________________, and
the __________________________ is also breathed out. /5
32. Hemoglobin is the most common method of oxygen transport in the blood (~ _____%) but only transports
about _______ % of carbon dioxide. /2
33. Identify four traditional remedies used historically and what they treat. / 8
Section 7.3 Respiratory Health
34. What is the inflammation of the pleural membrane called? What causes it? What are the symptoms? /3
35. Infection of the tonsils is called _________________________. /1
36. Inflammation of the larynx is __________________ and symptoms include ____________ and
________________. /3
37. Inflammation of the bronchioles is associated with ________________________,
______________________ and ______________________. In these conditions, _____________________
is very difficult. The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is __________________. /4
38. In emphysema, the walls of the _____________________ lose their ____________. This causes
movement of air out of the lungs to be very difficult. This leads to low _________________ levels in the
blood. /3
39. The genetic condition that can affect the lungs is called ___________ __________. The mucus becomes
__________ and traps pathogens. /3
40. Constant inflammation of the airway and high sensitivity to pollutants in the air is know as
________________. Is it curable? /2
41. The most common cause of death in Canadian men and women is __________________
__________________. Cells reproduce but are not able to do their work, creating a lump of tissue in the
lung that doesn’t do its job. Name two reasons this is harmful. /4

Bonus: Explain why you can’t hold your breath until you die. /2

42. Match the following diseases with their descriptions:

a. Tuberculosis _____ Caused by drastic changes in air pressure, nitrogen


gas bubbles form in the blood, causing extreme pain in the joints
in addition to dizziness, nausea, vomiting and convulsions.

b. Emphysema joints _____ Linked strongly with smoking, there is a resistance to expiration of air
from the lungs. The alveoli eventually stretch and rupture, and low gas
exchange takes place, causing low O2 in the blood.

c. The Bends _____ Tumour that forms in the bronchi or the alveoli – blocks air passage
and spreads very easily due to the high blood flow through the area

d. Asthma _____ Constriction of the muscles surrounding the bronchi, causing


shortness of breath and difficulty breathing out. Commonly linked to allergies
and genetic causes

e. Lung Cancer _____ A reflex that is aimed at getting excess mucous out of the lungs. The
mucous is caused by the decrease in the cilia in the respiratory tract as well as
extra thick mucous.

f. Smoker’s Cough _____ A bacterial infection in the lungs that can also cause mental illness.
Fatigue, abnormal sounds in the lungs, fever, and coughing up blood.

g. Pneumonia _____ Any inflammation of the lining of the thoracic cavity that surrounds the
lungs. Surfaces become dry, rough and rub together, causing extreme pain
during breathing movements.

h. Bronchitis _____ A bacterial or viral infection in the lungs that leads to fluid in the lungs.
Symptoms include chills, high fever, pain in the chest, and weakness due to
low oxygen in the blood.

j. Pleurisy _____ Viral infection also known as the flu. Fever, chills, aches, pains,
sweating and nausea are common symptoms.

_____ An infection of the trachea or bronchi caused by bacterial infection or


pollution. Mucous cells produce excess mucous, narrowing air passages.
Mucousy, hacking cough is common.