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This is an introduction to formal logic for high school students. It was prepared to aid mozambican students who study the national curriculum in english language. Several topic are covered from the basic operations in logic to predicate logic.

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You are on page 1of 29

Older than algebra (9th century) and even geometry (300 years BC) is the study of logic. Some

of the material used in this section was developed by Aristotle, one of the most famous of the

ancient Greek philosophers, yet it is still used today by people as diverse as mathematicians,

lawyers, engineers and computer scientists. All of our modern digital technology owes its birth

to the application of the principles of logic; every meaningful computer program ever written

has relied on the principles you will learn in this chapter. Furthermore, logic can be seen as

the study of argument. You will be able to analyze logically the arguments of teachers,

politicians and advertisers to determine if they should convince you of their ideas, programs

and products.

1. STATEMENTS

DEFINITION

A statement (or proposition) is a sentence which is either true or false but not both.

For example, ‘This book is about Mathematics’ is a true (T) propositions, while ‘The capital

of Mozambique is Xai-xai’ is a false (F) statement.

Some sentences are not statements at all. ‘Go to the store’ is an instruction, ‘How old are

you?’ is a question, ‘See you later!’ is an exclamation, ‘You should see the latest Spielberg

movie’ is a suggestion.

To determine whether a sentence is a statement, put the expression ‘It is true that ...’ (or

‘It is false that ...’) at the front of the sentence. If it still makes sense, then it is a statement.

Beware of some ‘near-statements’ such as ‘I am tall’, or ‘She is rich’, because these are

relative sentences. They can be turned into statements by saying ‘I am taller than Mary’ or

‘She has more than 1 million dollars’.

WORKED EXAMPLE 1

Classify the following sentences as either statements, instructions, suggestions, questions,

exclamations or ‘near-statements’.

a) Germany won World War II.

b) Would you like to read my new book?

c) The most money that Mary can earn in one day is $400.

d) When it rains, I wear rubber boots.

e) Hello!

f) You will need to purchase a calculator in order to survive Year 11 Mathematics.

SOLUTION:

a) This is a (false) statement.

b) This is a question.

c) This is a statement. We cannot at this time determine if it is true or false without

further information.

d) This is a (presumably true) statement.

e) This is an exclamation.

f) This is a (true) statement.

1

2. COMPOUND STATEMENTS AND TRUTH TABLES

We now introduce three symbols that are used to build more complicated logical

expressions out of simpler ones. The symbol ∼ denotes not, ∧ denotes and, and ∨ denotes

or.

Given a statement p, the sentence “∼p” is read “not p” or “It is not the case that p” and

is called the negation of p.

Given another statement q, the sentence “p ∧ q” is read “p and q” and is called the

conjunction of p and q.

The sentence “p ∨ q” is read “p or q” and is called the disjunction of p and q.

In expressions that include the symbol ∼as well as ∧ or ∨, the order of operations specifies

that ∼ is performed first. For instance, ∼p ∧ q = (∼p) ∧ q. In logical expressions, as in

ordinary algebraic expressions, the order of operations can be overridden through the use

of parentheses. Thus ( p q ) represents the negation of the conjunction of p and q. In

this, as in most treatments of logic, the symbols ∧ and ∨ are considered coequal in order

of operation, and an expression such as p ∧ q ∨ r is considered ambiguous. This expression

must be written as either ( p q ) r or p (q r ) to have meaning.

A variety of English words translate into logic as ∧, ∨, or ∼. For instance, the word but

translates the same as and when it links two independent clauses, as in “Jim is tall but he

is not heavy.” Generally, the word but is used in place of and when the part of the sentence

that follows is, in some way, unexpected. Another example involves the words neither-nor.

When Shakespeare wrote, “Neither a borrower nor a lender be,” he meant, “Do not be a

borrower and do not be a lender.” So if p and q are statements, then

neither p nor q means ∼p and ∼q.

WORKED EXAMPLE 2

Write each of the following sentences symbolically, letting h = “It is hot” and s = “It is

sunny.”

b) It is neither hot nor sunny.

SOLUTION:

a) The given sentence is equivalent to “It is not hot and it is sunny,” which can be written

symbolically as ∼h ∧ s.

b) To say it is neither hot nor sunny means that it is not hot and it is not sunny. Therefore,

the given sentence can be written symbolically as ∼h ∧ ∼s.

The notation for inequalities involves “and” and “or” statements. For instance, if x, a, and

b are particular real numbers, then

xa means x a or x a

a xb means a x and x b .

2

WORKED EXAMPLE 3

Suppose x is a particular real number. Let p, q, and r symbolize “0 < x,” “x < 3,” and “x =

3,” respectively. Write the following inequalities symbolically:

SOLUTION:

a) q ∨ r b) p ∧ q c) p ∧ (q ∨ r)

The truth value of a proposition is the attribute assigned to it in respect of its truth (T or 1) or

falsehood (F or 0).

We now define compound sentences as statements by specifying their truth values in terms of

the statements that compose them.

2.1.1. Negation

The negation of a statement is a statement that exactly expresses what it would mean for the

statement to be false when it is true and vice-versa.

DEFINITION

If p is a statement variable, the negation of p is “not p” or “It is not the case that p” and is

denoted ∼p. It has opposite truth value from p: if p is true, ∼p is false; if p is false, ∼p is true.

p ~p

T F

F T

2.1.2. Conjunction

In ordinary language the sentence “It is hot and it is sunny” is understood to be true when both

conditions—being hot and being sunny—are satisfied. If it is hot but not sunny, or sunny but

not hot, or neither hot nor sunny, the sentence is understood to be false. The formal definition

of truth values for an and statement agrees with this general understanding.

DEFINITION

If p and q are statement variables, the conjunction of p and q is “p and q,” denoted

p ∧ q. It is true when, and only when, both p and q are true. If either p or q is false,

or if both are false, p ∧ q is false.

The truth values for conjunction can also be summarized in a truth table. The table is obtained

by considering the four possible combinations of truth values for p and q. Each combination is

displayed in one row of the table; the corresponding truth value for the whole statement is

placed in the right-most column of that row. Note that the only row containing a T is the first

one since the only way for an and statement to be true is for both component statements to be

true.

3

Truth Table for p ∧ q

p q p∧q

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F F

2.1.3. Disjunction

In the case of disjunction—statements of the form “p or q”—intuitive logic offers two

alternative interpretations. In ordinary language or is sometimes used in an exclusive sense (p

or q but not both) and sometimes in an inclusive sense (p or q or both). A waiter who says you

may have “coffee, tea, or milk” uses the word or in an exclusive sense: Extra payment is

generally required if you want more than one beverage. On the other hand, a waiter who offers

“cream or sugar” uses the word or in an inclusive sense: You are entitled to both cream and

sugar if you wish to have them. Mathematicians and logicians avoid possible ambiguity about

the meaning of the word or by understanding it to mean the inclusive “and/or.” The symbol ∨

comes from the Latin word vel, which means or in its inclusive sense. To express the exclusive

or, the phrase p or q but not both is used.

DEFINITION

If p and q are statement variables, the disjunction of p and q is “p or q,” denoted p ∨ q. It is

true when either p is true, or q is true, or both p and q are true; it is false only when both p

and q are false.

p q p∨q

T T T

T F T

F T T

F F F

Note: The statement “2 ≤ 2” means that 2 is less than 2 or 2 equals 2. It is true because 2 2 .

p q pq

T T F

T F T

F T T

F F F

Note that the connective exclusive or is true when the individual propositions have opposite

truth values.

To express exclusive or in English language we will use “either… or”.

Note:

In logic and Mathematics the word “or” is frequently used in the inclusive sense. Thus, when

we talk about disjunction, it must be understood as inclusive or.

4

2.1.4. Conditional

DEFINITION

If p and q are statement variables, the conditional of q by p is “If p then q” or “p implies q”

and is denoted p → q. It is false when p is true and q is false; otherwise it is true. We call p

the hypothesis (or antecedent) of the conditional and q the conclusion (or consequent).

As is the case with the other connectives, the formal definition of truth values for → (if-then)

is based on its everyday, intuitive meaning. Consider an example.

Suppose you go to interview for a job at a store and the owner of the store makes you the

following promise: If you show up for work Monday morning, then you will get the job. Under

what circumstances are you justified in saying the owner spoke falsely? That is, under what

circumstances is the above sentence false? The answer is: You do show

up for work Monday morning and you do not get the job. After all, the owner’s promise only

says you will get the job if a certain condition (showing up for work Monday morning) is met;

it says nothing about what will happen if the condition is not met. So if the condition is not

met, you cannot in fairness say the promise is false regardless of whether or not you get the

job.

The above example was intended to convince you that the only combination of circumstances

in which you would call a conditional sentence false occurs when the hypothesis is true and the

conclusion is false. In all other cases, you would not call the sentence false. This implies that

the only row of the truth table for p → q that should be filled in with an F is the row where p is

T and q is F. No other row should contain an F. But each row of a truth table must be filled in

with either a T or an F.

Thus all other rows of the truth table for p → q must be filled in with T’s.

p q p→q

T T T

T F F

F T T

F F T

In general, when the “if” part of an if-then statement is false, the statement as a whole is said

to be true, regardless of whether the conclusion is true or false.

2.1.5. Biconditional

Sometimes (but certainly not always) the conditional connective works both ways. That is,

sometimes when we say "If p then q", then we can also say "If q then p". As an example, the

statement:

If the triangle is equilateral then the triangle has three equal angles.

is precisely the same as the statement :

If the triangle has three equal angles, then the triangle is equilateral.

When this happens we can replace the two statements with the if and only if clause, so that

we can say:

The triangle is equilateral if and only if it has three equal angles.

DEFINITION

Given statement variables p and q, the biconditional of p and q is “p if, and only if, q” and is

denoted p ↔ q. It is true if both p and q have the same truth values and is false if p and q have

opposite truth values. The words if and only if are sometimes abbreviated iff.

5

The biconditional has the following truth table:

Truth Table for p ↔ q

p q p↔q

T T T

T F F

F T F

F F T

1. ∼ Evaluate negations first.

2. ∧, ∨ Evaluate ∧ and ∨ second. When both are present, parentheses may be needed.

3. →, ↔ Evaluate → and ↔ third. When both are present, parentheses may be needed.

EXERCISES 1

1. Write the negation of the following 5. Write each of the following sentences

propositions: symbolically, letting p = “Paulina

a) School book is a working tool. Chiziane is a Mozambican writer” and q

b) Cars are means of transportation. = “Mia Couto is a Mozambican writer”.

c) All the students love Mathematics. a) Paulina Chiziane and Mia Couto are

d) a b ab Mozambican writers.

e) is an irrational number b) Paulina Chiziane is a Mozambican

writer and Mia Couto is not a

f) All prime numbers are odd.

Mozambican writer.

c) Neither Paulina Chiziane nor Mia

2. Write the negation of each of the

Couto is a Mozambican writer.

following propositions and determine

the truth value of each proposition and

6. As you know, Paulina Chiziane and Mia

the truth value of its negation.

Couto are great Mozambican writers.

a) 2 3 12

Therefore, which of the propositions in

b) 1 1, 2,3 the previous exercises are true?

c) 23 6

7. Consider the statements

2 5

2

d) 20 a : I eat fruits.

3. Consider the proposition: b : I eat sweets.

Write each of the following sentences

p: 3

565 symbolically.

a) Find its truth value. a) I either eat fruits or sweets.

b) Write the negation of p b) I don’t eat fruits or sweets (but not

c) What is the truth value of ~p? both)

a : Water is an essential need c:1+1=2

b : Protecting the environment is d : Logic is a type of potato.

everyone’s responsibility. Write the following expressions in

Write the following expressions in English language.

English language. a) c d

a) a b b) ~ a b b) d ~ c

6

9. Find the truth values of the statements 15. Write each of the following sentences

in 8 a) and 8 b). symbolically, letting p = “It rains”, q =

“The sun shines” and r = “It is hot”.

10. Assuming that the following a) If the sun shines, then it is hot.

propositions are true b) If it rains, then it is not hot.

a : Paulino is 17 years old. c) If it doesn’t rain and the sun shines,

b : Mia is 16 years old. then it is hot.

Write the following expressions in

English language and find their truth 16. Given the propositions a , b and c

values. a:22 5

a) a b b : is an irrational number

b) a b c : 3 is an irrational number

Write the following expressions in

11. Write each of the following sentences English language and find their truth

symbolically, letting p = “Paulo is a values.

student”, q = “Paulo is a programmer” a) a ~ b

and r = “João is a student”. b) ~ a c

a) Paulo is a student or programmer. c) b c ~ a

b) Paulo is either a student or a

programmer. d) a ~ c ~ b

c) Paulo and João are students or Paulo

is a programmer. 17. Find the truth values of each of the

statements of the previous exercise.

12. Given the propositions a and b ,

a :5 8 18. Given that the proposition p q is

7 1 false, what are the truth values of the

b: 2

3 3 following propositions?

a) What is the truth value of each of a) ~ p q

the given statements? b) p q

b) Write the following expressions in c) pq

English language and find their

truth values.

19. Given the propositions a , b and c

i. a b a : Paulino studies Math.

ii. ~ a b b : Paulino wants to be a scientist.

iii. ~ a ~ b c : Paulino wants to be a journalist.

Write the following expressions in

13. If p and q are proposition and p q English language.

is true, find the truth value of the a) a b

following statements and explain you b) a ~ c

answer.

a) p q

c) a b ~ c

b) ~ p ~ q

20. Given the propositions p , q and r

p : 12 is an even number.

14. Let p be any proposition. What is the

truth value of:

1

q: is a rational number.

a) p ~ p 3

b) p ~ p r : 2 is an irrational number .

c) p ~ p Write the following expressions in

English language.

a) p q c) ~ p q ~ r

b) p ~ r d) p ~ r q

7

21. Find the truth values of each of the 22. Given that the proposition a b is

statements of the previous exercise. true, what are the truth values of the

following propositions?

a) a ~ b

b) a b ~ a

c) a b a

The statements

6 is greater than 2 and 2 is less than 6

are two different ways of saying the same thing. Why? Because of the definition of the

phrases greater than and less than. By contrast, although the statements

(1) Dogs bark and cats meow and (2) Cats meow and dogs bark

are also two different ways of saying the same thing, the reason has nothing to do with the

definition of the words. It has to do with the logical form of the statements. Any two

statements whose logical forms are related in the same way as (1) and (2) would either

both be true or both be false. You can see this by examining the following truth table, where

the statement variables p and q are substituted for the component statements “Dogs bark”

and “Cats meow,” respectively. The table shows that for each combination of truth values

for p and q, p ∧ q is true when, and only when, q ∧ p is true. In such a case, the statement

forms are called logically equivalent, and we say that (1) and (2) are logically equivalent

statements.

DEFINITION

Two statements forms are called logically equivalent if, and only if, they have identical

truth values for each possible substitution of statements for their statement variables.

The logical equivalence of statement forms P and Q is denoted by writing P ≡ Q.

To test for logical equivalence of 2 or more statements, construct a truth table that includes

every variable to be evaluated, and then check to see if the resulting truth values of the

statements are equivalent.

Let p, q and r be any proposition. The connectives “∧” and “∨” have the following properties:

Commutative law pq q p pq q p

Associative law p q r p q r p q r q p r

Distributive law p q r p q p q p q r p q p q

8

There are statement forms that are always true, for example p ~ p . This type of statements

are called tautologies.

A tautology is a statement form that is always true regardless of the truth values of the

individual statements substituted for its statement variables. A statement whose form is a

tautology is a tautological statement.

There are also statement forms that are always false, like p ~ p . Such statements are called

contradictions.

A contradiction is a statement form that is always false regardless of the truth values of the

individual statements substituted for its statement variables. A statement whose form is a

contradiction is a contradictory statement.

WORKED EXAMPLE 4

Show that the statement form p ∨ ∼p is a tautology and that the statement form p ∧ ∼p is a

contradiction.

SOLUTION:

Double negative law

For any statement p, it true that

~ ~ p p

The negation of an and statement is logically equivalent to the or statement in which each

component is negated.

~ p q ~ p ~ q

The negation of an or statement is logically equivalent to the and statement in which each

component is negated.

~ p q ~ p ~ q

9

WORKED EXAMPLE 5

Write negations for each of the following statements:

a) John is 6 feet tall and he weighs at least 200 pounds.

b) The bus was late or Tom’s watch was slow.

SOLUTION:

a) John is not 6 feet tall or he weighs less than 200 pounds.

b) The bus was not late and Tom’s watch was not slow.

Since the statement “neither p nor q” means the same as “∼p and ∼q,” an alternative answer

for (b) is “Neither was the bus late nor was Tom’s watch slow.”

If x is a particular real number, saying that x is not less than 2 (x ≮ 2) means that x does not lie

to the left of 2 on the number line. This is equivalent to saying that either x = 2 or x lies to the

right of 2 on the number line (x = 2 or x > 2). Hence,

x ≮ 2 is equivalent to x ≥ 2.

Pictorially,

Similarly,

x ≯ 2 is equivalent to x ≤

2,

x 2 is equivalent to x >

2, and

x 2 is equivalent to x <

2.

WORKED EXAMPLE 6

Use De Morgan’s laws to write the negation of −1 < x ≤ 4.

SOLUTION:

The given statement is equivalent to

−1 < x and x ≤ 4.

By De Morgan’s laws, the negation is

−1 ≮ x or x 4,

which is equivalent to

−1 ≥ x or x > 4.

Pictorially, if −1 ≥ x or x > 4, then x lies in the shaded region of the number line, as shown

below.

10

2.2.3. Properties of the conditional

Equivalence between ∼p ∨ q and p → q

We can easily demonstrate that

p q p q

by using a truth table as shown below

p q p q

The logical equivalence of “if p then q” and “not p or q” is occasionally used in everyday

speech. Here is one instance.

WORKED EXAMPLE 7

Rewrite the following statement in if-then form.

Either you get to work on time or you are fired.

SOLUTION:

Let ∼p be

You get to work on time.

and q be

You are fired.

Then the given statement is ∼p ∨ q. Also p is

You do not get to work on time.

So the equivalent if-then version, p → q, is

If you do not get to work on time, then you are fired.

q.”

~ p q p ~ q

You can also obtain this result by starting from the logical equivalence p → q ≡ ∼ p ∨ q. Take

the negation of both sides to obtain

11

∼(p → q) ≡ ∼(∼p ∨ q)

≡ ∼(∼p) ∧ (∼q) by De Morgan’s laws

≡ p ∧ ∼q by the double negative law.

Yet another way to derive this result is to construct truth tables for ∼(p → q) and for p ∧ ∼q

and to check that they have the same truth values.

WORKED EXAMPLE 8

Write negations for each of the following statements:

a) If my car is in the repair shop, then I cannot get to class.

b) If Sara lives in Athens, then she lives in Greece.

SOLUTION

a) My car is in the repair shop and I can get to class.

b) Sara lives in Athens and she does not live in Greece. (Sara might live in Athens, Georgia;

Athens, Ohio; or Athens, Wisconsin.)

CAUTION! Remember that the negation of an if-then statement does not start with the word if.

The contrapositive of a conditional statement of the form “If p then q” is

If ∼q then ∼p.

Symbolically,

The contrapositive of p → q is ∼q → ∼p.

A conditional statement is logically equivalent to its contrapositive.

p q ~ q ~ p

Show this equivalence by a truth table.

WORKED EXAMPLE 9

Write each of the following statements in its equivalent contrapositive form:

a) If Howard can swim across the lake, then Howard can swim to the island.

b) If today is Thursday, then tomorrow is Friday.

SOLUTION

a) If Howard cannot swim to the island, then Howard cannot swim across the lake.

b) If tomorrow is not Friday, then today is not Thursday.

By using a truth table, we can show that

p q p q q p

as illustrated below

p q pq q p pq p q q p

T T T T T T

T F F T F F

F T T F F F

F F T T T T

12

Negation of biconditional

~ p q p ~ q q ~ p

Use a truth table to show the equivalence above.

The properties that we studied are important for simplifying statement forms.

WORKED EXAMPLE 10

Simplify the following statement forms:

a) a ~ a b b) p p q c) a b b

SOLUTION:

a) a ~ a b a ~ a a b b) p p q p F p q

F a b p F q

a b p F

p

c) a b b ~ a b b by p q ~ p q

~ a b b b ~ a b by p q p q q p

a b ~ b b ~ a ~ b b by distrib. law, commut. law, associative law

a b T ~ a T by ~ b b T

a b T by p T p and p T T

ab

EXERCISES 2

1. Use a truth table to show that the 4. Given that the truth value of p is 1,

following statement forms are determine the truth value of the

equivalent, where p and q are negation of the following statement

statement variables. forms:

a) p q q p a) ~ q p

b) p T T p p b) ~ p q r

c) p p p

c) r ~ p ~ r

2. Let a , b and c be any statement.

Show that the following statement 5. Write in the simplest form the

forms are tautologies. negation of the statement forms

a) a b a b

below.

a) a ~ b

b) b ~ a b b) a b ~ c

c) ~ a b ~ a ~ b c) ~ a b

d) a b ~ c

3. Use a truth table to show that

p q r p q p q . 6. Write the negation of the following

statements without using the

negation symbol ~.

a) 5 7 8

b) 3 2 3 2

13

7. Given the propositions: 15. Write the negation of the following

a : Jorge is a doctor statement forms without using the

b : Jorge studies Mathematics symbol ~.

Write the following statement forms a) 2 2 5 2 2 4

in words. b) 2 3 5 2 3 1 7

a) a ~ b

b) ~ a ~ b 16. Use a truth table and the properties

of logical connective to prove that

8. Prove by using the properties of the p q q p q , where p and

logical connectives, that the following q are any propositions.

statement forms are equivalent:

a) a ~ a b F 17. Simplify the following statement

b) a ~ a b T forms:

a) a ~ a b

c) a b ~ a a b

b) p p q

d) a b ~ a a b

c) a b a ~ b

9. Given that p q is true for any d) a ~ b b

proposition q . What can you say

about the truth value of p ? 18. Prove by using the properties of the

logical connectives, that the

10. Construct a truth table to show that following statement forms are

p q ~ p q . equivalent:

a) a b a a b

b) ~ a b ~ b ~ a b ~ a

11. Write the negation of the following

statement forms in their simplest

form:

a) ~ a b c) ~ a ~ a b a b a b

b) a ~ b c

c) a ~ b ~ c

19. Verify by simplification, that the

following statement forms are

tautologies.

a) ~ a a a

12. Write the negation of the following

proposition without using the

symbol ~. b) ~ a b ~ a ~ b

If 2 3 7 13 , then

c) ~ a b a ~ ~ a ~ b

5 2 3 7 60 .

20. Remove the unnecessary brackets

13. Simplify the statement form from the following propositions

a b a b . according to the order of operations

of logical operators given on page 5.

14. Use a truth table to prove that a) p q p r

~ a b a b .

b) p q q r

c) p ~ p q p q ~ r q

14

3. PREDICATES AND QUANTIFIERS

The sentence “He is a college student” is not a statement because it may be either true or false

depending on the value of the pronoun he. Similarly, the sentence “x + y is greater than 0” is not

a statement because its truth value depends on the values of the variables x and y.

In logic, predicates can be obtained by removing some or all of the nouns from a statement. For

instance, let P stand for “is a student at Bedford College” and let Q stand for “is a student at.”

Then both P and Q are predicate symbols. The sentences “x is a student at Bedford College” and

“x is a student at y” are symbolized as P(x) and as Q(x, y) respectively, where x and y are

predicate variables that take values in appropriate sets. When concrete values are substituted

in place of predicate variables, a statement results. For simplicity, we define a predicate to be a

predicate symbol together with suitable predicate variables. In some other treatments of logic,

such objects are referred to as open sentences.

DEFINITION

A predicate is a sentence that contains a finite number of variables and becomes a

statement when specific values are substituted for the variables. The domain of a

predicate variable is the set of all values that may be substituted in place of the variable.

WORKED EXAMPLE 11

Let P x be the predicate “ x 2 x ” with domain the set of all real numbers. Write P 2

1 1

P , and P , and indicate which of these statements are true and which are false.

2 2

SOLUTION:

P 2 : 22 2, or 4 2 . True.

2

1 1 1 1 1

P : , or . False.

2 2 2 4 2

2

1 1 1 1 1

P : , or . True.

2 2 2 4 2

When an element in the domain of the variable of a one-variable predicate is substituted for the

variable, the resulting statement is either true or false. The set of all such elements that make

the predicate true is called the truth set of the predicate.

DEFINITION

If P x is a predicate and x has domain D , the truth set of P x is the set of all

elements of D that make P(x) true when they are substituted for x . The truth set of

P x is denoted

x D | P x

WORKED EXAMPLE 12

Let Q(n) be the predicate “n is a factor of 8.” Find the truth set of Q(n) if

a) The domain of n is the set Z+ of all positive integers

b) The domain of n is the set Z of all integers.

15

SOLUTION:

a) The truth set is {1, 2, 4, 8} because these are exactly the positive integers that divide 8 evenly.

b) The truth set is {1, 2, 4, 8, −1, −2, −4, −8} because the negative integers −1, −2, −4, and −8

also divide into 8 without leaving a remainder.

Some predicates may have more than one variable. If it has two variables we represent it by

One sure way to change predicates into statements is to assign specific values to all their

variables. For example, if x represents the number 35, the sentence “x is (evenly) divisible by 5”

is a true statement since 35 5 7 . Another way to obtain statements from predicates is to add

quantifiers. Quantifiers are words that refer to quantities such as “some” or “all” and tell for how

many elements a given predicate is true.

The symbol ∀ denotes “for all” and is called the universal quantifier. For example, another way

to express the sentence “All human beings are mortal” is to write

∀ human beings x , x is mortal.

When the symbol x is introduced into the phrase “∀ human beings x,” you are supposed to think

of x as an individual, but generic, object—with all the properties shared by every human being

but no other properties. Thus you should say “x is mortal” rather than “x are mortal.” In other

words, use the singular “is” rather than the plural verb “are” when describing the property

satisfied by x. If you let H be the set of all human beings, then you can symbolize the statement

more formally by writing

∀x ∈ H, x is mortal,

which is read as “For all x in the set of all human beings, x is mortal.”

The domain of the predicate variable is generally indicated between the ∀ symbol and the

variable name (as in ∀ human beings x) or immediately following the variable name (as in ∀x ∈

H). Some other expressions that can be used instead of for all are for every, for arbitrary, for any,

for each, and given any. In a sentence such as “∀ real numbers x and y, x + y = y + x,” the ∀

symbol is understood to refer to both x and y.∗

DEFINITION

Let Q(x) be a predicate and D the domain of x. A universal statement is a statement

of the form “∀x ∈ D, Q(x).” It is defined to be true if, and only if, Q(x) is true for

every x in D. It is defined to be false if, and only if, Q(x) is false for at least one x in

D. A value for x for which Q(x) is false is called a counterexample to the universal

statement.

WORKED EXAMPLE 13

a) Let D = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, and consider the statement

x D, x 2 x .

Show that this statement is true.

b) Consider the statement

x , x 2 x .

Find a counterexample to show that this statement is false.

16

SOLUTION

a) Check that “ x 2 x ” is true for each individual x in D .

12 1 , 22 2 , 32 3 , 42 4 , 52 5 .

Hence “ x D, x 2 x ” is true.

1 1

b) Counterexample: Take x . Then x is in (since x is a real number) and

2 2

2

1 1 1

.

2 4 2

Hence “ x , x 2 x ” is false.

If all the elements in the universe of discourse can be listed then the universal quantification ∀xP(x)

is equivalent to the conjunction:

P(x1) ∧ P(x2) ∧ P(x3) ∧ ... ∧ P(xn) .

For example, if C 1,3,5 is the universe of discourse, then saying

1 is an odd number ∧ 3 is an odd number ∧ 5 is an odd number

is the same as saying

“Every element of C is an odd number”

or symbolically,

x C , x is odd

The symbol ∃ denotes “there exists” and is called the existential quantifier. For example, the

sentence “There is a student in Math 140” can be written as

∃ a person p such that p is a student in Math 140,

or, more formally,

∃p ∈ P such that p is a student in Math 140,

where P is the set of all people. The domain of the predicate variable is generally indicated either

between the ∃ symbol and the variable name or immediately following the variable name. The

words such that are inserted just before the predicate. Some other expressions that can be used

in place of there exists are there is a, we can find a, there is at least one, for some, and for at least

one. In a sentence such as “∃ integers m and n such that m + n = m ·n,” the ∃ symbol is

understood to refer to both m and n.∗ Sentences that are quantified existentially are defined as

statements by giving them the truth values specified in the following definition.

DEFINITION

Let Q(x) be a predicate and D the domain of x. An existential statement is a statement of the

form “∃x ∈ D such that Q(x).” It is defined to be true if, and only if, Q(x) is true for at least one

x in D. It is false if, and only if, Q(x) is false for all x in D.

WORKED EXAMPLE 14

1. Consider the statement

∃m ∈ Z+ such that m2 = m.

Show that this statement is true.

∃m ∈ E such that m2 = m.

Show that this statement is false.

17

SOLUTION

1. Observe that 12 = 1. Thus “m2 = m” is true for at least one integer m.

Hence “∃m ∈ Z such that m2 = m” is true.

52 25 5, 62 36 6, 7 2 49 7, 82 64 8.

Thus “∃m ∈ E such that m2 = m” is false.

If all the elements in the universe of discourse can be listed then the existential quantification ∃xP(x)

is equivalent to the conjunction:

P(x1) ∨ P(x2) ∨ P(x3) ∨ ... ∨ P(xn) .

For example, if C 2, 1, 0 is the universe of discourse, then saying

2 1 0 11 0 0 1 0

is the same as saying

“There is at least an element in C whose sum with 1 is 0”

or symbolically,

x C : x 1 0

It is important to be able to translate from formal to informal language when trying to make

sense of mathematical concepts that are new to you. It is equally important to be able to translate

from informal to formal language when thinking out a complicated problem.

WORKED EXAMPLE 15

Rewrite the following formal statements in a variety of equivalent but more informal ways. Do

not use the symbol ∀ or ∃.

a) x , x 2 0.

b) x , x 2 1.

c) m : m2 m

SOLUTION:

a) All real numbers have nonnegative squares.

Or: Every real number has a nonnegative square.

Or: Any real number has a nonnegative square.

Or: The square of each real number is nonnegative.

b) All real numbers have squares that are not equal to −1.

Or: No real numbers have squares equal to −1.

(The words none are or no . . . are are equivalent to the words all are not.)

Or: We can find at least one positive integer equal to its own square.

Or: Some positive integer equals its own square.

Or: Some positive integers equal their own squares.

Another way to restate universal and existential statements informally is to place the

quantification at the end of the sentence. For instance, instead of saying “For any real number x,

18

x2 is nonnegative,” you could say “x2 is nonnegative for any real number x.” In such a case the

quantifier is said to “trail” the rest of the sentence.

WORKED EXAMPLE 16

Rewrite the following statements so that the quantifier trails the rest of the sentence.

a) For any integer n, 2n is even.

b) There exists at least one real number x such that x 2 0.

SOLUTION:

a) 2n is even for any integer n.

b) x 2 0. for some real number x.

Or: x 2 0. for at least one real number x.

WORKED EXAMPLE 17

Rewrite each of the following statements formally. Use quantifiers and variables.

a) All triangles have three sides.

b) No dogs have wings.

c) Some programs are structured.

SOLUTION:

a) ∀ triangles t, t has three sides.

Or: ∀t ∈ T, t has three sides (where T is the set of all triangles).

b) ∀ dogs d, d does not have wings.

Or: ∀d ∈ D, d does not have wings (where D is the set of all dogs).

c) ∃ a program p such that p is structured.

Or: ∃p ∈ P such that p is structured (where P is the set of all programs).

An appearance of a variable in a predicate is said to be bound if either a specific value is assigned

to it or it is quantified. If an appearance of a variable is not bound, it is called free. The extent of

the application (effect) of a quantifier, called the scope of the quantifier, is indicated by square

brackets [ ]. If there are no square brackets, then the scope is understood to be the

smallest predicate following the quantification.

For example, in

xP x, y , the variable x is bound while y is free.

In

x yP x, y Q x, y ,

x and the y in P x, y are bound, while y in Q x, y is free, because the scope of y

is P x, y . The scope of x is

yP x, y Q x, y .

To be more precise consider the following examples:

In the predicates below, where is the universe of discourse,

x 2x

and

x 3 5,

x is a free variable.

In the propositions,

19

x 0 , x 2x

and

x : x 3 5

x is bound.

In cases where the predicate has two variables as in the example below

x : x2 y 0

x is bound and y is free.

Consider in the predicate:

yx

To obtain a proposition from this predicate, we should use two quantifiers, as it follows:

We may use twice the universal quantifier

x y , y x or

x, y , y x

which translated to informal language becomes:

Any two real numbers are equal (false proposition).

x y : y x or

x, y : yx

which translated to informal language becomes:

there are at least two real numbers that are equal (true proposition).

1. x y : y x , in informal language becomes:

For each real number there is at least one number that is equal to it (true proposition).

There is at least one real number that is equal to all other real number (false proposition).

In a statement containing both ∀ and ∃, changing the order of the quantifiers usually changes

the meaning of the statement.

CAUTION! If a statement contains two different quantifiers, reversing their order can change

the truth value of the statement to its opposite.

Consider the statement “All mathematicians wear glasses.” Many people would say that its

negation is “No mathematicians wear glasses,” but if even one mathematician does not wear

glasses, then the sweeping statement that all mathematicians wear glasses is false. So a correct

negation is “There is at least one mathematician who does not wear glasses.”

The general form of the negation of a universal statement follows immediately from the

definitions of negation and of the truth values for universal and existential statements.

20

3.6.1. Negation of a Universal Statement

The negation of a statement of the form

x in D, Q x

is logically equivalent to a statement of the form

x in D such that Q x .

Symbolically, x D, Q x x D : Q x .

The negation of a universal statement (“all are”) is logically equivalent to an existential statement

(“some are not” or “there is at least one that is not”).

WORKED EXAMPLE 18

Write formal negation for the following statement:

“∀ primes p, p is odd.”

SOLUTION:

By applying the rule for the negation of a ∀ statement, you can see that the answer is

“∃ a prime p such that p is not odd.”

x in D such that Q x

is logically equivalent to a statement of the form

x in D, Q x .

Symbolically, x D : Q x x D, Q x .

The negation of an existential statement (“some are”) is logically equivalent to a universal statement

(“none are” or “all are not”).

WORKED EXAMPLE 19

Write formal negation for the following statement:

“∃ a triangle T such that the sum of the angles of T equals 200 ”

SOLUTION:

y applying the rule for the negation of a ∃ statement, you can see that the answer is

∀ triangles T, the sum of the angles of T does not equal 200 .

The two equivalences above, are De Morgan Laws for quantifiers and they are summarized below:

1. ~ ~

2. ~ ~

21

EXERCISES 3

1. Which of the following expressions are 6. Write symbolically the following

predicates? propositions.

a) n 2 a) There is at least one real number

e) 3 0

x7 n such that it is greater than 50.

b)

5 f) 2 n b) There is at least a prime number

such that it is even.

c) 1 3 x g) 3 x

c) There is at least a real number such

d) 1 x 1 0 h) x y 1

2

that its square is 16.

d) Some snakes are poisonous.

2. Write symbolically the following

propositions. 7. Rewrite the following propositions in

a) All human beings are mortal. informal language and state their truth

b) All fishes have gills. values:

c) All integers are real numbers a) x : x 2 3x 2 0

b) x : x 2 3x 2 0

3. Rewrite the following propositions in

c) x : x2 3 0

informal language and state their truth

values: d) x : 3x 2 x

e) x : 3x 2 x

a) x , x 2 0;

b) x , n 1 n;

8. When a predicate has only one solution

c) x P, x fishes breathe through in a given domain the symbol “ ! ” is

gills (P is the set of all fishes) used and it is read “there is one and

d) x , x 4 0; only one…” or “there is exactly one…”.

e) x , x 4 0; Therefore, state whether the following

propositions are true or false.

4. What is the truth value of each of the a) ! x : x2 4 0

following propositions? b) ! x : x2 4 0

a) x , x

x

; c) x : x2 4 0

2

x 9. State whether the variables in the

b) x , x ;

2 following expressions are bound or free

x 1 x2 2 x 1, x variables.

2

c)

a) x is a multiple of y

x 1 x2 2 x 1, x

2

d) b) x : x 0 x

c) y : x y 0

5. Let A 2,3, 4 , write the following in d) x , x 3 2

quantified form.

a) 2 0 3 0 4 0 10. State whether the expressions in the

b) 2 2 2 3 2 3 4 2 4 previous exercise are predicates or

propositions.

x C : x 2 y 6 , where

C 1, 2,3, 4 . What is the truth set of

the predicate?

22

12. Consider the predicate x y 0 , in . 13. What is the truth value of each of the

a) To transform the predicate into a following propositions:

proposition, use: a) x y : xy x ;

(i) two universal quantifiers b) x y , xy x .

(ii) two existential quantifiers

(iii) universal and existential 14. Write the negation of each of the

quantifiers in the given order following propositions:

(iv) existential and universal a) x T , x plays soccer.

quantifiers in the given order

b) x T : x plays chess x plays

b) Rewrite each of the previous

checkers

propositions in informal language

c) x : 2x 1 x 5 .

and find their truth values.

d) x : x 2 2x 5 0 .

propositions by using De Morgan laws

for quantifiers without the symbol ~.

x y : x 3 y .

4. MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

Mathematical induction is one of the more recently developed techniques of proof in the history

of mathematics. It is used to check conjectures about the outcomes of processes that occur

repeatedly and according to definite patterns.

Let P n be a property that is defined for integers n , and let a be a fixed integer.

Suppose the following two statements are true:

1. P a is true.

Then the statement

for all integers n a, P (n)

is true.

positioned one behind the other in such a way that if any given domino falls backward, it makes

the one behind it fall backward also. (See Figure below) Then imagine that the first domino falls

backward. What happens? ... They all fall down!

If the kth domino falls backward, it pushes the (k + 1)st domino backward also.

23

The validity of proof by mathematical induction is generally taken as an axiom. That is why it is

referred to as the principle of mathematical induction rather than as a theorem.

Proving a statement by mathematical induction is a two-step process. The first step is called the

basis step, and the second step is called the inductive step.

Consider a statement of the form, “For all integers n ≥ a, a property P(n) is true.”

To prove such a statement, perform the following two steps:

Step 1 (basis step): Show that P(a) is true.

Step 2 (inductive step): Show that for all integers k ≥ a, if P(k) is true then

P(k + 1) is true. To perform this step,

suppose that P(k) is true, where k is any

particular but arbitrarily chosen integer with k ≥ a.

[This supposition is called the inductive hypothesis.]

Then

show that P(k + 1) is true.

WORKED EXAMPLE 20

Use mathematical induction to prove that

n n 1

1 2 ... n , n

2

SOLUTION:

Proof (by mathematical induction):

Let the property P n be the equation

n n 1

P n :1 2 3 ... n

2

Step 1: Show that P 1 is true

11 1

1 P 1

2

But the left-hand side of this equation is 1 and the right-hand side is

11 1 1 2 2

1

2 2 2

also. Hence P 1 is true.

Step 2: Show that for any natural number k , if P k is true then P k 1 is also true.

k k 1 P k

1 2 3 ... k

2 Inductive hypothesis

[We must show that P k 1 is true. That is:] We must show that

k 1 k 1 1

1 2 3 ... k 1 ,

2

or, equivalently, that

1 2 3 ... k 1

k 1 k 2 . P k 1

2

24

[We will show that the left-hand side and the right-hand side of P k 1 are equal to the same

quantity and thus are equal to each other.]

The left-hand side of P k 1 is

1 2 3 ... k 1

1 2 3 ... k k 1 by making the next-to-last term explicit

k 1

2 hypothesis

denominator of the second term by 2 to

2 2

obtain a common denominator

k 2 k 2k 2

by multiplying out the two numerators

2 2

k 2 3k 2 by adding fractions with the same

denominator and combining like terms.

2

And the right-hand side of P k 1 is

2 2

Thus the two sides of P k 1 are equal to the same quantity and so they are equal to each

[Since we have proved both the basis step and the inductive step, we conclude that P n is true.]

WORKED EXAMPLE 21

Define a sequence a1 , a2 , a3 ,... as follows.

a1 5

ak 3 ak 1 for all natural number k 2

a) Write the first four term of the sequence

b) It is claimed that for each natural number n 1, the nth term of the sequence has the same

value as that given by the formula 3n 2 . In other words, the claim is that the terms of the

sequence satisfy the equation an 3n 2 . Prove that this is true for all natural numbers.

SOLUTION:

a) a1 5

a2 3 a21 3 a1 3 5 8

a3 3 a31 3 a2 3 8 11

a4 3 a41 3 a3 3 11 14

b) To use mathematical induction to show that every term of the sequence satisfies the

equation, begin by showing that the first term of the sequence satisfies the equation. Then

suppose that an arbitrarily chosen term a k satisfies the equation and prove that the next

term a k also satisfies the equation.

25

Let a1 , a2 , a3 ,... be the sequence defined by specifying that a1 5 and ak 3 ak 1 for all

natural numbers k 2 and let the property P n be the equation

P n : an 3n 2

We will use mathematical induction to prove that for all natural numbers n ≥ 1, P n is true.

a1 3 1 2 P 1

a1 5 by definition of a1 , a2 , a3 ,...

also. Hence P 1 is true.

3 1 2 5

Thus the two sides of P 1 are equal to the same quantity, and hence P 1 is true.

Step 2: Show that for any natural number k , if P k is true then P k 1 is also true.

ak 3k 2 P k

Inductive hypothesis

[We must show that P k 1 is true. That is:] We must show that

ak 1 3 k 1 2 ,

or, equivalently, that

ak 1 3k 5 P k 1

ak 1 3 a k 11 by definition of a1 , a2 , a3 ,...

3 ak since ( k 1) 1 k

[Since we have proved the basis step and the inductive step, we conclude that the formula holds

for all terms of the sequence.]

Exercises 4

1. Let un be a sequence defined by 2. Prove, by mathematical induction that

a) 2 4 6 ... 2n n 2 n, n .

u1 2

b) 3n 2n 3 2 , n

n

1 un

un 1 , n

2 c) 1 3 5 ... (2n 1) n 2 , n

Prove, by mathematical induction that 1 1 1 n

d) ... , n

n n 1 n 1

1n

un 1 2 , n . 1 2 23

26

REVISION EXERCISES

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1. Letting p = “Milton is a journalist” and q 8. Which of the following expressions is

= “Ana is a nurse”, the proposition not a proposition?

“Milton is not a journalist and Ana is a a) x , x 1 b) x , x 1

nurse”, symbolically is: c) x , x 0 d) x , x y 0

a) p q b) ~ p q

c) p ~ q d) ~ p q

9. The proposition “There is a rational

number greater than 101000 ” is

2. Given the propositions p and q

symbolically represented by:

p : Maputo is a city.

a) x : x 101000

q : Bilar wrote a book.

b) x , x 101000

What is the translation of p ~ q , into

informal language? c) x : x 101000

a) Either Maputo is a city or Bilar d) x , x 101000

wrote a book.

b) If Maputo is a city, then Bilar wrote

10. Which of the following statements is

a book.

c) If Maputo is a city, then Bilar didn’t true?

write a book. a) n , n 1 b) x , x 2 0

d) Maputo is a city and Bilar wrote a c) x , x d) x , 3 x

book.

3. Given that the position p q is false, 11. The negation of the proposition “

it is correct to assert that: y : y 0 y 2 0 ” is:

a) pq is true b) ~ p q is false a) y : y 0 y2 0

c) pq is false d) ~ p p q is false b) y , y 0 y 2 0

c) y , y 0 y 2 0

4. The statement form a a ~ b is

d) y , y 0 y 2 0

equivalent to

a) a ~ b b) ~ a b

12. The negation of the proposition “

c) a b d) a ~ b

x , x 3 x 2 ” is:

5. The statement form ~ a b a is a) x : x 3 x 2

equivalent to b) x , x 3 x 2

a) ~ a b b) a b

c) x : x 3 x 2

c) ~ a ~ b d) ~ a ~ b

d) x : x 3 x 2

6. The negation of the statement form

a ~ b is 13. Given the propositions

a) ~ a b b) a ~ b p : x y :x y x

c) ~ a ~ b d) a b p : x y :x y x

Which of the following statements is

7. The negation of the statement form true?

a ~ b ~ c is a) p q b) p q

a) ~ a b c b) ~ a b c c) p q d) p q

c) a b c d) a b c

27

REVISION EXERCISES

CLASSIC QUESTIONS

1. Given the propositions: 5. Write symbolically the following

p : Ronaldo was a football player. propositions.

q : Yuran was a doctor. a) All natural numbers are positive.

r : Amarah was a student. b) There are negative real numbers.

Let p and q be true propositions and c) The absolute value of a rational

r a false proposition. number is always nonnegative.

Translate into informal language the d) The equation x x 6 impossible

following propositions and find the in .

truth value of each of them. e) There some integers between -5 and

a) ~ r q 5.

b) ~ q r f) There are no integers between 4 and

c) p q r 5.

p : Robson visited Maputo. informal language and state their truth

values:

q : Robson visited Tete.

a) x , x is a real number.

r : Robson visited Nacala.

a) Write symbolically the following b) p L, p p p

statement. c) x : x 7 0

(i) Robson did not visit Maputo or

1

he visited Tete d) n , n

(ii) If Robson visited Maputo, then n

he visited Nacala or Tete 1

e) y :y

(iii) If Robson visited Maputo and y

did not visit Nacala, then he did

not visit Tete. f) x 1;5 : x 5

b) Assuming that p is false, state the

trurh value of each of the 7. Rewrite the following propositions in

propositions in a). informal language:

a) x H , x was in the moon. (H is the

3. Given the proposition: set of human beings)

p :~ a ~ a b a b . b) x , x 2 x .

Show that, for any truth value of a and c) State the truth values of the

b , p a is a tautology by propositions in a) and b).

a) using a truth table d) Write the negation of the

b) simplifying p . propositions in a) and b) without

using the symbol ~.

8. Write the following propositions

a : Manuel studies physics

symbolically by using two quantifiers.

b : Manuel studies Math a) For any integer, there is at least

c : Manuel studies biology another integer that is less than it.

a) Translate into informal language the b) There is at least an integer that is

negation of a b . less than all other integers.

b) Assuming that the proposition c) What are truth values of the

a ~ b a c is false, what propositions in a) and b).

are the subjects studied by Manuel?

28

9. State the truth value of each of the 11. Some properties of addition in , are

following propositions: given below. Write them symbolically.

a) x y , y x . a) Commutative law

b) x y , y x . b) Additive identity (neutral element)

c) Additive inverse property

10. Multiplication in , has the following

properties:

(i) x, y ! z , z xy ;

(ii) x, y , xy yx ;

(iii) x, y, z , xy z x yx

(iv) u x , xu ux x ;

(v) x \{0} y , xy yx 1

b) What is the truth value of each of the

propositions below

(i) x u , xu ux x ;

(ii) y x \{0}, xy yx 1

29

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