Received 15 July 2002; received in revised form 9 December 2002; accepted 15 January 2003
Abstract
In automated flexible manufacturing systems the detection of tool wear during the cutting process is one of the most important
considerations. This study presents a comparison between several architectures of the multilayer feedforward neural network with
a back propagation training algorithm for tool condition monitoring (TCM) of twist drill wear. The algorithm utilizes vibration
signature analysis as the main and only source of information from the machining process. The objective of the proposed study is
to produce a TCM system that will lead to a more efficient and economical drilling tool usage. Five different drill wear conditions
were artificially introduced to the neural network for prediction and classification. The experimental procedure for acquiring vibration
data and extracting features in both the time and frequency domains to train and test the neural network models is detailed. It was
found that the frequency domain features, such as the averaged harmonic wavelet coefficients and the maximum entropy spectrum
peaks, are more efficient in training the neural network than the time domain statistical moments. The results demonstrate the
effectiveness and robustness of using the vibration signals in a supervised neural network for drill wear detection and classification.
2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Process monitoring; Drilling; Neural network; Perceptron; Pattern recognition; Sensors; Supervised learning; Vibration analysis
08906955/03/$  see front matter 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/S08906955(03)000233
708 I. AbuMahfouz / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 707–720
However, a more effective TCM system should not only time domain and the area under the power spectrum
be capable of detecting the existence of drill wear but curve to monitor various types of drill wear. Liu and
should also be able to identify the types of wear and Chen [11] used a backpropagation neural network for
forecast the remaining useful life span of the worn tool. online detection of drill wear to decide whether a drill
In most of the research conducted on drill condition was usable or not. The input vector comprised drill size,
monitoring [3–9], progressive flank wear was the domi feed rate, spindle speed, and eight features representing
nant failure mode and has been extensively investigated. four values of torque and thrust, the average, peak value,
Although, flank wear is a good indication of the drill root mean square (rms), and the area under the time sig
condition and has been used to indicate the severity of nal. Dimla et al. [12] gave a critical review of neural
drill wear, other types of wear also have an equal or network methods used in the TCM problem in metal cut
even greater influence on the hole quality and surface ting.
finish. Typically, the failure of a drill occurs by excess Measuring the torque and thrust of the drilling process
ive wear on the flank, chisel wear, crater wear, outer requires special instrumentation such as a dynamometer
corners wear, and fracture or chipping of the cutting lip that in most cases needs special mounting fixtures. This
or edge. Drill wear has a great influence on the dynamics can influence the dynamic and stiffness characteristics
of the drilling process. In the following a brief literature of the drilling system. Acoustic emission (AE) sensors
review of some of the work done in the field of drill are usually more expensive than most industrial acceler
wear monitoring is presented. ometers. AE sensors also have greater demands on sam
Li and Wu [3] introduced a fuzzy Cmeans clustering pling rate, noise filtering, data storage and retrieval
algorithm for online monitoring of four drill wear memory, speed of processing and analysis. These greater
grades, ‘Initial’, Small’, ‘Normal’, and ‘Severe’. The demands are mainly due to the fact that AE sensors are
thrust force and torque were selected as the features rel used to pick up higher frequency signals resulting from
evant to the four drill wear states. The detection of the material deformation, fracture, and chip breakage.
grade membership of the wear state ‘Severe’ was pro Accelerometers are simple to operate and are very suit
posed as a control variable for drill replacement. The able for wear monitoring because they offer the follow
Flank wear area was also used by Liu and Wu [4] in a ing advantages:
twocategory linear classifier to indicate a usable or
wornout tool. The variations of the vertical acceleration 앫 No effect on stiffness and damping properties of the
and thrust force were chosen as their indices for drill drilling system;
wear. Govekar and Grabec [5] described an adaptive 앫 Can be easily mounted close to the cutting action,
selforganizing neural network of the Kohonen type for independent of tool or workpiece;
classification of the drill flank wear. Barton and Thanga 앫 When properly shielded, they have good resistance to
raj [6] used a neural network to integrate information coolants, chips, electromagnetic or thermal influ
extracted from the frequency domain of the machine ences;
spindle vibration signals to predict the quality of the 앫 Accelerometers are easily replaceable and are very
hole. The cutting momentum and the feed force power costeffective.
spectrum were used as the sensory part of the input vec
tor, while the descriptive part was encoded from the cor Artificial neural network algorithms are regarded as
responding drill flank wear. Liu and Anantharaman [7] multivariate nonlinear analytical tools capable of reco
used back propagation with an adaptive activationfunc gnizing patterns from noisy complex data and estimating
tion slope neural network trained by the drilling thrust their nonlinear relationships. Their major advantages
and torque to predict flank wear. They concluded that a include superior learning, noise suppression, and parallel
9 × 14 × 1 architecture yielded the best results. The data processing capabilities. The objective of this study
thrust and torque signals were also used by Lin and Ting is to demonstrate the performance of an Artificial Neural
[8] for comparing several structures and parameters of Network approach based on vibration signals for the
a cumulative backpropagation algorithm with regression detection, and characterization of twist drill wear and
models for drill flank wear monitoring. Li et al. [9] damage. In this paper the artificial neural network term
presented a hybrid learning method to map the relation will be referred to simply as ‘ANN’, and the feedfor
ship between the features of cutting vibration and the ward back propagation term will be referred to as
drill flank wear condition. Their method was based on ‘FFBP’.
a neural network model with fuzzy logic trained by the
r.m.s. of the frequency distribution of the vibration sig
nals. They showed that the r.m.s. of the frequency bands 2. Experimental setup
increased as the flank wear increased. ElWardany et al.
[10] used the vibration signature in drill condition moni Fig. 1 shows a schematic presentation of the experi
toring. They presented a study using the kurtosis of the mental setup. Conventional uncoated highspeedsteel
I. AbuMahfouz / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 707–720 709
Fig. 3. Five types of artificially induced drill wear. Drawings are not
to scale (all dimensions are in mm).
Fig. 2. Nomenclature and geometry of conventional twist drill. Drilling experiments were performed on a Bridgeport
710 I. AbuMahfouz / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 707–720
3axis CNC vertical milling machine. The work material 3.1. Timefrequency by harmonic wavelets
used in this research was a 1040 carbon steel. The work
piece hardness was measured to be 235 BHN. A simplified form of the harmonic wavelet analysis,
One accelerometer (model PCB IMI607A61) with a presented in [13], was utilized here as one method for
sensitivity of 10.2mV/(m/s2) and a measurement range feature extraction from the vibration signals of the drill
of ± 490m/s2, was used to measure the vibration signals. ing process. Timefrequency wavelet analysis is con
As shown in Fig. 1, the accelerometer was mounted on cerned about correlating an input signal f(t) with a wave
the clamping fixture of the work piece. The analog sig let base function f(t). The wavelet coefficient c(t) is
nals from this sensor were fed into a PCP 482series defined by the following correlation equation
Charge amplifier and then to a National Instruments PCI
data acquisition board, with a sampling rate capability
of 1.2 MHz, for signal digitization and conditioning. A c(t) ⫽ 冕 ⫹⬁
⫺⬁
f(t) f∗(t⫺t) dt, (1)
Pentium III (650 MHz and 256 MB RAM) was used for
data collection, analysis and neural network training and where f∗(t) is the complex conjugate of f(t), t is a time
testing. The vibration signals were recorded only during parameter, and t is the center of f along the time axis
steady state cutting, i.e., not including the penetration t. Transforming this Eq. (1) from the time domain to the
and exit stages of the drilling process. Drilling tests were frequency domain, using the Fourier transform becomes
performed at four sets of cutting conditions listed in C(w) ⫽ F(w) f∗(w), (2)
Table 1, which are used for offline training and testing.
Two other sets of cutting conditions were later used for where the following definitions apply
冕
generalization testing of the ANN. All experiments were ⫹⬁
performed under dry cutting conditions. The cutting 1
C(w) ⫽ c(t)e(⫺iwt)dt,
speed and feed were two input features to the ANN. 2p ⫺⬁
Fig. 4. FFT, 16 HWC, and Burg Power Spectra for 12.7 mm twist drill cutting at 300 mm/min, and 400 rpm, (a) new drill, (b) chisel wear, (c)
crater wear, (d) flank wear, (e) edge fracture, and (f) outer corner wear (Cutting at 440 mm/min, and 570 rpm).
a histogram under the FFT plot for two of the sample MESA and their corresponding location in the frequency
cutting conditions. domain were presented as another input feature vector
to the ANN. The MESA method computes the power
3.2. Maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA) spectral density from the Burg algorithm [15],
PM
The Burg algorithm [14] and [15], a parametric spec Sxx(f) ⫽ (4)
 冘
M 2
tral estimation method, was used to give an estimate of
the power spectral density (PSD) of the discretetime for
the vibration signals. The Burg method gives a smoothed
2fs 1 ⫹
m⫽1
Amexp(⫺jpmf⌬t)

PSD presentation, compared, for example to the Welch where PM is the residual power of the Mth order autore
method, plus it is computationally efficient. In this study, gressive prediction error filter (PEF), with coefficients
the highest eight local maxima of the Burg PSD or Am, while fs is half the sampling frequency. After some
712 I. AbuMahfouz / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 707–720
Fig. 4. Continued
冘
the variance V, the Kurtosis K, and the skewness S and N
The skewness (S) is a measure of the asymmetry of listed above. In most cases these parameters tend to
the data around the sample mean. The skewness of a reach a constant value for a discrete time history segment
normal distribution (or any perfectly symmetric of at least 6000 points. The four parameters at 8000 data
distribution) is zero. The skewness is the third statistical samples for each time record were considered as input
moment of a distribution and is defined as: features to the ANN. The preprocessing techniques illus
E(x⫺m)3 trated above were the result of extensive trials using vari
S ⫽ , (7) ous quantifying descriptions and were found to lead to
s3
the best network performance. One reason for combining
where E(x) is the expected value of x. different signal analysis subroutines was to reduce the
The kurtosis (K) is a measure of how outlierprone a sensitivity of the TCM system to variables other than
distribution is [16]. The kurtosis of a normal distribution tool wear condition. Another reason was that more than
is 3. Distributions that are more outlierprone than a nor one type of wear might develop at different locations of
mal distribution have a kurtosis greater than 3; distri the drill point at the same time.
butions that are less outlierprone have a kurtosis less
than 3. The kurtosis of a distribution is the fourth statisti
cal moment and is defined as: 4. Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
冘 (xi⫺x̄)
N 4
1
K ⫽ (8) Recent work in the field of artificial neural networks
Ni ⫽ 1 s4
has proven that they can be particularly useful in the
where x̄ is the average vibration amplitude or mean m. modeling of nonlinear mapping and in the recognition
In [10] it was demonstrated that the kurtosis was rather of distinctive features from incomplete or chaotic input
sensitive to the occurrence of spikes or impulses in the data. The power of a neural model depends on how many
time domain of the vibration signal. neurons there are, how they are connected and how each
Fig. 5 shows samples of the four statistical parameters neuron operates. Back propagation is a supervised algor
Fig. 5. The influence of the number of vibration signal data points used in calculating the four statistical measures for the ANN (a) kurtosis, (b)
skewness, (c) standard deviation, and (c) variance.
714 I. AbuMahfouz / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 707–720
ithm consisting of the training and testing phases, [17] feature data x = (x1,...,xN) to neurons in the hidden layer.
and [18]. Training is carried out by presenting to the The middle, or hidden layer contains artificial neural
neural model a sequence of examples of the problem to nodes, as does the output layer on the right. The hidden
be solved. The training set is sometimes called the input layer is used to process and connect the information from
stimuli (or epoch). The number of epochs must be large the input layer to the output layer only in a forward
enough to perform the training process adequately so direction. The hidden layer performs feature extraction
that generalization behavior of the classifier is assured. on the input data. Only one hidden layer was used in
These epochs are in the form of input data, together with the present study. Each neuron in the hidden layer (Fig.
the expected neural model output. In supervised learn 6 (b)) sums up its input signals after weighting them
ing, the model weights are repeatedly and adaptively with the strengths of the respective connections wnm and
modified to make the model’s output agree with that computes its output ym as a function of the sum;
specified in the training data. The weighted sum is
passed to a transfer function to calculate the output of
冉冘 冊
N
the node. The output of the transfer function is then fed ym ⫽ h wnmxn , (m ⫽ 1,...,M). (9)
to the input of another node (neuron) in a neural model. n
m
umjym , (j ⫽ 1,...,J). (10)
ing nodes, which are not artificial neurons. Neurons in
the input layer act as buffers for distributing the input Here, we take h = g=f, where f() can be a simple thres
hold function or a sigmoidal, hyperbolic tangent or radial
basis function. This ANN used a unipolar sigmoid (S
shape) nonlinear activation function [18]
1
f(s) ⫽ , (11)
[1 ⫹ exp(⫺a(s⫺b))]
w(r+1)
nm ⫽ wnm
(r)
⫺h1 冉 ∂E(w(r),u(r))
∂wnm 冊
⫹ g1[wnm
(r)
⫺w(r⫺1)
nm ]
冉 冊
(12)
∂E(w(r),u(r))
u(r+1)
⫽ u ⫺h2
(r)
mj mj
∂umj
⫹ g2[umj
(r)
⫺u(r⫺1)
mj ],
where,
冘
J
冪冘(t
J
1
E(q) ⫽ (q)
j ⫺zj(q))2. (15) The concatenated vector {(16 HWC), (eight MESA
J
j
peaks, and their eight frequencies), (four statistical
The weights were further updated through learning as moments), (cutting speed), (cutting feed)}, comprising
more and more exemplar patterns (q = 1,...,Q) were 38 components altogether, was used as an input to the
given to the ANN. FFBPALL and FFBPFULL ANNs. The number of
Five connective structures, shown in Fig. 7, were nodes in the hidden layer should be small enough to
taken as follows: reduce noise and weight drift, but sufficiently large to
increase mapping accuracy. In this study no attempt was
1. FFBPI: Input only the 16 HWCs feature vector and made to determine the optimum number of neurons in
branch to six hidden neurons. the hidden layer M or the number of hidden layers
2. FFBPII: Input only eight Burg spectrum peaks and required for optimum performance of the ANN. How
their frequencies and branch to six hidden neurons. ever, it was proposed to use as few processing elements
3. FFBPIII: Input only four statistical parameters and as possible. This was because the use of more processing
branch to six hidden neurons. elements in the hidden layer not only required a larger
716 I. AbuMahfouz / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 707–720
Drill wear introduces changes in the drill point Fig. 9. Correct predictions of wear classes as a function of the num
geometry that lead to unbalanced cutting forces which ber of feature vectors used for testing and further training.
subsequently cause a wandering motion and impacts
between the drill and the wall of the hole. From Fig. 4, it between the wear classes. As discussed in the previous
is clear that various drill wear patterns result in different section, the FFT coefficients were not used in training
vibration signatures in the FFT, HWC, and the PSD the ANN, instead the information manifested by the
plots. The erratic (aperiodic) nature of the cutting pro HWC and the Burg PSD were considered. This helps
cess dynamics is evident from the broadband nature of reducing the feature vector dimension making training
the FFT spectra. The frequency bands (0–1000 Hz), more practical and less expensive. Experimental results
(around 2000 Hz), (3500–4500 Hz), and (7000–8500 are presented to verify the feasibility of this intelligent
Hz) show distinctive features that support separation tool failure diagnosis system in drilling operations.
Fig. 8. (a)–(e) Root mean square (RMS) error of the ANN output vs the number of iterations for different ANN architectures. (f) Number of
iterations to reach RMS error ⬍ 0.05.
I. AbuMahfouz / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 707–720 717
Fig. 8 shows the normalized root mean square (rms) depends somewhat on the type of wear. In general, the
error (Eq. (15)) of the output of the neural network convergence was faster for the chisel and crater classes
against the number of iterations for different ANN mod and slower for the edge and corner classes of drill wear.
els. The results were recorded during the early training The FFBPI, trained on the four statistical parameters,
phase (i.e., 10th epoch) and the error E was recorded was not sensitive in its convergence speed to drill wear
every 100 iteration up to 5000 iterations. The FFBPIII type. These phenomena were observed in most train
was able to converge much faster than all other models ing epochs.
for all wear classes. Fig. 8 (f) summarized the conver Table 2 presents percentages of correct predictions
gence speed of all the models by plotting the number of averaged over 100 test samples for each wear class. The
iterations each model took to reach a normalized value test phase helps the ANN model to generalize and
of E (Erms ⬍ 0.05). All models, with exception of FFBP increases its declaration accuracy. The numbers indicate
FULL, are seen to converge after 4000 iterations. The that the best performance was obtained by FFBPALL
FFBPFULL model took more iterations than the FFBP followed by FFBPIII and FFBPFULL and then FFBP
ALL to converge within the specified error threshold. It II and FFBPI, in that order. More correct classifications
can also be deduced that the speed of convergence were made for the chisel and crater cases. On the other
Table 2
Performance of FFBP with different network structures during testing phase of the ANN
300 400 85 82 76 81 77
400 300 88 81 75 82 78
600 200 87 79 72 85 73
FFBPI 900 150 83 78 72 77 71
350 400 84 80 78 75 78
1000 130 80 75 71 75 68
300 400 92 88 87 90 88
400 300 94 92 89 90 89
600 200 94 91 89 91 88
FFBPII 900 150 89 90 82 90 87
350 400 88 89 85 88 82
1000 130 89 88 79 86 84
300 400 92 91 91 93 90
400 300 95 92 90 93 90
600 200 96 92 90 94 91
FFBPIII 900 150 93 93 90 95 90
350 400 88 90 88 92 90
1000 130 92 90 89 93 85
300 400 93 91 90 92 89
400 300 96 94 91 95 91
600 200 94 94 93 95 91
FFBP 900 150 94 92 92 93 90
ALL
350 400 94 91 88 88 86
1000 130 90 90 92 85 85
300 400 91 89 91 88 90
400 300 92 91 91 89 87
600 200 90 90 90 92 88
FFBP 900 150 95 90 86 92 87
FULL
350 400 91 90 89 84 86
1000 130 88 85 85 82 84
718 I. AbuMahfouz / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 707–720
hand, for the flank and corner wear classes, the ANN source of the prediction difficulty. In order to further
models sometimes missed or mixed up these two classes. verify the feasibility of diagnosing drill failure using a
It was noticed that the frequency response and the spec neural network, the five ANN architectures were tested
tral measures of drills with the flank wear and outer cor with drilling data under conditions different from those
ner wear shared some similarities, which could be the used for training the network {(350 rpm, 400 mm/min)
Fig. 10. Online testing of the trained ANN; (a) corner wear, (b) flank wear, (c) crater wear, (d) chisel wear, and (e) edge breakage.
I. AbuMahfouz / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 707–720 719
and (1000 rpm, 130 mm/min)}. The performance of all rate of 100% was obtained for detection of the existence
models was satisfactory, though less accurate than the per of drill wear, and a rate greater than 80% for success
formance for the four cutting conditions used for training. in drill type classification was realized. For some ANN
Fig. 9 shows other averaged results during the testing configurations the rate of accurate classifications was
phase of the trained ANN. This figure shows the percent greater than 90%. The decoupled neural networks have
age number of test set presentations where the ANN suc not been found to possess significant advantages over
cessfully identified the wear type against the number of the fully connected networks. However, decoupling of
test presentations. Test feature vectors were presented input groups of data enhances convergence rate during
to the trained ANN at random. In the case of incorrect training. The ANN performance is found to be sensitive
prediction, the same feature vector was used for further to the type of input data. The HWC and the Burg spec
training of the ANN. A total of 100 vectors, different trum peaks helped the ANN to learn more about the drill
from those used to construct Table 2, were used in this wear than the four statistical moments, with the wavelet
testandtrain phase. From these results it can be deduced coefficients being superior to the PSD. The ANNs were
that the accuracy of the trained ANN does not increase found to accommodate satisfactorily changes in the cut
significantly after 60 testandtrain presentations. This ting conditions. The results reveal that once the neural
number could be satisfactory for industrial implemen network was properly trained, it become a powerful and
tation purposes. The size of the neural network shows reliable tool in solving classification and pattern recog
no significant effect on the accuracy of tool wear esti nition problems such as in this drilling process monitor
mation in this case. Overall, the results displayed in Fig. ing application. The results strongly suggest that
9 agree with the predictions of Table 2. vibration signals have tremendous promise for tool con
For purposes of illustration, Fig. 10 shows the nor dition monitoring and manufacturing process diagnos
malized output z(q) of the ANN after it was presented tics. The models discussed in this work are also appli
with I = 200 epochs. The unipolar sigmoid activation cable to the monitoring of other machining processes,
function output was from 0 to 1, which formed a meas for example; turning, milling, and grinding.
ure of the prediction weight for every wear condition.
As presented in Fig. 10, the position of the output neuron
with the maximum descriptor value determines the drill Appendix A
wear class to which the input signal feature vector was
maximally correlated. Ideally, the types of wear that do The following notation applies to the FFBP ANN:
not exist should show a neural output of zero, but here
their neurons show values greater than zero. Neverthe ai Decay (growth) rates {i = 1 (hidden layer)),
less, the results were very acceptable for online tool and, i = 2 (output layer)}
monitoring. Thresholds to predict tool failure for hole bi Biases {i = 1 (hidden layer)), and, i = 2
quality and surface finish can be designated at appropri (output layer)}
ate output values (0.4 in Fig. 10). An alarm or machine
control system can be triggered when one or more of gi Momentum coefficient
the output neurons increase beyond this threshold. Tool
life prediction models and threshold parameter settings I Number of epochs
can therefore be automated as manufacturing process J Number of output nodes
control features for drill replacement and/or regrind K Number of exemplar output target vectors
scheduling.
{t(k(q))}k=1,K
6. Conclusion (classes of drill wear)
M Number of nodes in the hidden layer
A multiple layer neural network has been successfully N Number of nodes in the input layer
applied to twist drill wear detection and classification Q Number of exemplar features
using supervised learning with experimentally obtained
vibration data. The performance of both coupled and {x(q)}q=1,Q
decoupled different configurations of the ANN has been obtained from the processed signals picked up
analyzed. The signals, collected from extensive exper by the sensory system
imentation, were analyzed using the following tech mmj Synaptic weights on the input lines of the
niques, discrete harmonic wavelet transform, Burg output layer
power spectral density (PSD), and four statistical meas wnm Synaptic weights on the input lines of hidden
ures of the time domain. The ANN algorithm success layer, and
fully mapped the vibration signals to the appropriate hi Learning rate
classes of drill wear. During the testing phase, a success
720 I. AbuMahfouz / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 707–720
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