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Paper Title
A Combined Method for Capacitated Periodic Vehicle Routing Problem with Strict Time Windows Considering Pickup and Delivery
Authors
Marlan, Elly Rosmaini, Herman Mawengkeng
Abstract
The paper develops a model for the optimal management of periodic deliveries of a given commodity with known capacity called Capacitated Periodic Vehicle Routing Problem (CPVRP). Due to the large number of customers, it is necessary to incorporate strict time windows, and pick-up and delivery in the periodic planning.. The goal is to schedule the deliveries according to feasible combinations of delivery days and to determine the the routing policies of the vehicles. The objective is to minimize the sum of the costs of all routes over the planning horizon. We model the problem as a large-scale linear mixed integer program and we propose a combined approach to solve the problem.
Keywords
Capacitated vehicle routing problem, Periodic scheduling, Integer programming, combined method
Citation/Export
MLA
Marlan, Elly Rosmaini, Herman Mawengkeng, “A Combined Method for Capacitated Periodic Vehicle Routing Problem with Strict Time Windows Considering Pickup and Delivery”, October 17 Volume 5 Issue 10 , International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 64 – 68
APA
Marlan, Elly Rosmaini, Herman Mawengkeng, October 17 Volume 5 Issue 10, “A Combined Method for Capacitated Periodic Vehicle Routing Problem with Strict Time Windows Considering Pickup and Delivery”, International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication (IJRITCC), ISSN: 2321-8169, PP: 64 – 68

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Volume: 5 Issue: 10 64 – 68

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Strict Time Windows Considering Pickup and Delivery

Departement of Mathematics Departement of Mathematics Departement of Mathematics

University Simalungun Siantar University of Sumatera Utara University of Sumatera Utara

Indonesia Indonesia Indonesia

Abstract—The paper develops a model for the optimal management of periodic deliveries of a given commodity with known capacity called

Capacitated Periodic Vehicle Routing Problem (CPVRP). Due to the large number of customers, it is necessary to incorporate strict time

windows, and pick-up and delivery in the periodic planning.. The goal is to schedule the deliveries according to feasible combinations of

delivery days and to determine the the routing policies of the vehicles. The objective is to minimize the sum of the costs of all routes over the

planning horizon. We model the problem as a large-scale linear mixed integer program and we propose a combined approach to solve the

problem.

Keywords-Capacitated vehicle routing problem, Periodic scheduling, Integer programming, combined method

__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

were developed by [10]. But the first mathematical formulation

A well known combinatorial optimization problem which were given by [11] and [12]. [13] use the idea of the

requires the determination of an optimal set of routes used generalized assignment method proposed by [14] and assign a

by a fleet of vehicles with known capacity to serve a set of visiting schedule to each vertex. Eventually a heuristic for the

customers is called capacitated vehicle routing problem VRP is applied to each delivery day. [15] developed a heuristic

(CVRP). Generally, using graph concept, CVRP can be organized in four phases. Solution methods in these papers

defined as follows. Let G = (V, A) be a connected digraph, have focused on two-stage (construction and improvement)

where V = {v1,v2,.. . ,vn} is a set of vertices and A {(vi, vj) : heuristics. [16] present another algorithm: The solution

i j, vi, vj V} is the arc set. The problem is to find an optimal algorithm is a travelling salesman heuristic which, differently

set of routes, composed of a cyclic linkage of arcs starting and from the other heuristics, may allow infeasible solutions during

ending at the depot, in order to satisfy demands a given set of the search process. Similarly, good results were obtained in the

customers at vertices. The objective is to minimize the total more recent work of [17], [18], and [19] who provide specific

travel cost, which is proportional to the travel times or practical applications of the PVRP. [20] propose a flexible

distances and other operational costs. Due to its important role periodic vehicle routing problem.

in the logistic system, the research domain of CVRP has been [21] address a vehicle routing problem where the service to the

widely explored. [1] propose a model of CVRP for deploying customers has to be provided over multiple periods. It is

Product-Service-System configuration in urban goods assumed that customers must be served with a certain

transport. A number of rigorous and up-to-date survey which frequency and according to a given schedule and they should

discusses all the different variations of the vehicle-routing receive a fixed quantity at each visit. The problem is to choose

problem and solution methodologies (exact and heuristics) can the visit schedule for each customer and to organize vehicle

be found in [2] and [3]. routes. Another broad class of routing problems dealing with

Whenever the delivery for each customer is done

multi-period plans is the class of Inventory Routing Problems

periodically, within a given time horizon, the CVRP is then

(IRPs) [22], [23], [24].

called capacitated periodic VRP (CPVRP). Therefore it is

necessary to have a visiting schedules associated with each [25] present PVRP with time windows (PVRPTW). The

customer. A fleet of vehicles is available and each vehicle problem requires the generation of a limited number of routes

leaves the depot, serves a set of customers, when its work shift for each day of a given planning horizon. The objective is to

or capacity is over, returns to the depot. The problem is to minimize the total travel cost while satisfying several

minimize the total length of the routes travelled by the vehicles constraints

on the periodic time horizon. Several real–world applications This paper concerns with a comprehensive model for the

deal with periodic delivery operations over a given time CPVRP incorporated with strict time windows, considering

horizon can be found in distribution for bakery companies [4] , pick-up and delivery (CPVRPPD). We propose a mixed

blood product distribution [5] or pick-up of raw materials for a integer programming formulation to model the problem. A

manufacture of automobile parts [6]. More comprehensive feasible neighborhood heuristic search is addressed to get the

applications of CPVRP can be found in [7] integer feasible solution after solving the continuous model of

Due to the complexity of the problem most of the works the problem.

present heuristic approaches, nevertheless [8] proposed an Section 2 describes the mathematical model of capacitated

exact method. [9] addressed a combined of heuristic and exact VRP. Section 3 presents the model of periodic VRP. The

64

IJRITCC | October 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 10 64 – 68

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

mathematical model for capacitated periodic VRP with pick

up and delivery (CPVRPPD) is described in Section 4. The x

jV

ijm x jim yim ,

jV

i V , m K

algorithm is described in Section 5. Finally Section 6 describes (8)

the conclusions. xijm │S│- 1,

i S j S

II.

m K ; S V \{0};S 2

MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR CVRP

As can be found in many literatures, CVRP can be define (9)

using graph concept. Let a complete undirected graph yim {0,1}, i V ; m K (10)

G (V, E) is well defined, where V { 0 ,1 ,..., n } is the xijm {0,1}, i V ; j V ; m K

set of nodes and E is the set of arcs. Node 0 V represents a

(11)

depot or a distribution centre where, in VRP concept, a fleet of Constraint (2) ensures that only one vehicle is assigned to a

K vehicles is located. It is assumed that there are k vehicles customer. Constraint (3) is to make sure that the number of

with identical capacity, namely Q, are available (ready to be vehicle used should be at least the available vehicles.

used anytime). The nodes i V \{ 0 }, i (1,..., n) are

Constraints (4) and (5) state that exactly one vehicle enters and

departs from each customer and from depot and then come

assigned for customers to be served with demand qi ,(qi 0) . back to the depot. A flow conservation equation is presented in

Constraint (6). To limit the capacity to be delivered is modeled

While arcs (i, j ) E represent route to be travelled by the in Constraint (7). The structures of routes and the elimination

vehicles from a node i V to other node j V , with of sub-tours are, respectively, given in Constraints (8) and (9).

Constraints (10) and (11) present the nature of the decision

i j , where travelling costs cij are incurred. variables.

The optimal decision to be made for CVRP is to find the III. MODELS OF THE PVRP

route for the vehicle in which all customers are visited with

their corresponding demands considering the limited In the PVRP, it is not allowed to assign directly customers

cumulative capacity Q, such that the total operation costs are to directly to vehicles instead customers are visited a preset

minimized. number of times over the period with a schedule that is chosen

Before we formulate the mathematical model of CVRP, it is from a menu of schedule options.

necessary to define two binary variables. To formulate the model, firstly we denote T as the horizon

of days time period. Let K denote the set of vehicles. For each

xijm = 1, if vehicle m K visits customer j immediately vehicle m K , let Qk denote the capacity of vehicle k. In a

periodic problem, it is necessary to define the number of

after serving customer i with (i j ) distinct delivery combinations, ND. Relating with that, let Si be

the set of allowable delivery combinations or menu of schedule

= 0, otherwise for customer i. The parameter ast links schedules to days, where

a ast = 1 if day t T is in schedule s S and ast = 0 otherwise.

yim = 1, if a vehicle m K is assigned to customer i

Each schedule s S has an associated visit frequency

s

The objective is to minimize the travel costs s tT ast .For a given schedule option s, the headway

Minimize c x

between visits is defined in terms of the visit frequency as

H s 1/ s .

ij ijm

iV jV \{0} mK

(1)

Subject to a set constraints Denote the set of n customers (/nodes) by N 1, 2,, n .

y

mK

im 1, i V \{0} Denote the depot by 0, n 1 Each vehicle starts from 0

and terminates at n 1 . Each customer i N specifies a

(2)

mK

y0m k

set of days to be visited, denoted by Ti T . On each day

(3)

t Ti , i N requests service with demand of qit

customer

x0 jm 1, j V \{0}

mK (4) in weight and pit in volume, service duration d it and time

mK jV \{0}

xijm 1, i V window ai , bi . Note that, for the depot i 0, n 1 on

(5) day t, we set qit pit dit 0 . The travel time between

x

iV

ijm x jim 1;

iV

j V \{0}, m K

customer i and j is given by cij .

(6)

q y

iV

i im Q, m K

(7)

65

IJRITCC | October 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 10 64 – 68

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

IV. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION OF CPVRPPD Variables:

Let K denote the set of vehicles. For each vehicle k K , t

xijm Binary variable indicating whether vehicle

let Qk and Pk denote the capacity in weight and in volume,

respectively. We assume the number of vehicles equals to the m K travels from node i N0 to j N0

number of drivers. Denote the set of n customers (/nodes) by

on day t T ,

N 1, 2,, n . Denote the depot by 0, n 1 . Each

wis Binary variable indicating whether customer

vehicle starts from 0 and terminates at n 1 . Each

i N0 is served with s delivery combination,

customeri N specifies a set of days to be visited, denoted t

by Ti T . On each day t Ti , customer i N requests

yim Binary variable stating whether customer i is

visited on day t using vehicle m

service with demand of qit in weight and pit in volume,

v t

The time at which vehicle m K starts

d it and time window ai , bi . Note that, for

im

service duration

service at node i N0 on day t T ,

the depot i 0, n 1 on day t, we set q p d 0 .

t

i

t

i i

t

tjm Number of pick up demand of customer j served

Notations used are given as follows :

Set: by vehicle m K on day t T

T The set of workdays in the planning horizon, t

jm Number of delivery demands of customer j served

K The set of vehicles, by vehicle m K on day t T

N The set of customers,

N0 The set of customers and depot N0 = {0, n + 1}

∪ N, The CPVRPPD problem is to design route to deliver

Ki The set of preferable vehicles for customer i ∈ customers demand periodically such that to minimize the

N, travelling cost of all vehicle used and to satisfy several

Ti The set of days on which customer i N constraints, such as, a strict time windows between each

orders, delivery, capacity of vehicles and logical conditions.

Firstly, we formulate the objective function to minimize

ND The number of distinct delivery combinations

the travelling cost

S The set of allowable delivery combinations, in this

case S [1,..., ND]

Minimize c x

tT iN0 jN0 kK

t

ij ijk

(12)

Parameter: Subject to a set constraints

Pk The volume capacity of vehicle k K , mK (13)

cij The travel time from node i N0 to node y

mK

0m k

(14)

j N0 ,

𝑚∈𝐾 𝑥0𝑗𝑚 = 1, ∀𝑗 ∈ 𝑉\{0}

[ai, bi] The earliest and the latest visit time at node (15)

i N0 , 𝑚∈𝐾 𝑗∈𝑉{0} 𝑥𝑖𝑗𝑚 = 1, ∀𝑗 ∈ 𝑉 (16)

iV

ijm x jim 1;

iV

j V \{0}, m K

(17)

i N0

qit The weight demand of node on day

qi yim Q, m K

t Ti , iV (18)

p t

i The volume demand of node i N0 on day x

jV

ijm x jim yim ,

jV

i V , m K

(19)

t Ti ,

x

e The extra service time per pallet when a non-

preferable vehicle is used, ijm │S│- 1,

t i S j S

[ gl , hlt ] The start time and the latest ending time of

m K ; S V \{0};S 2 (20)

driver l D on day t T ,

it Pick up quantity for customer i on day t Ti , w

sS

i

s

1, i N0

(21)

it Delivery quantity for customer I on day t Ti , y w z ,

t

i

s

i st t T , i N 0

sS (22)

66

IJRITCC | October 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

Volume: 5 Issue: 10 64 – 68

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

x

kK

k

0j 1, j N Constraints (36-38) define the binary and the continuous

variables used in this model.

(23)

y y t t

x

kK

t

ijk i

2

j

, t T , i, j N, (i j) V. THE ALGORITHM

(24) Stage 1.

xijmt

jN

jN0

t

xijk , m K , i N0 , t T Step 1. Get row i* the smallest integer infeasibility.

(This step is motivated by the desire for minimal

(25) deterioration in the objective function, and clearly

x

mK iN0

t

ijm y, t

j j N , t T corresponds to the integer basic with smallest integer

(26) infeasibility).

x

Step 2. Do a pricing operation

t

0 jm 1, m K , t T 1

vi* ei* B

T T

jN

(27)

x 1 i N, t Ti Step 3. Calculate ij vi* j as the maximum movement of

t T

ijm (28)

mK jN0 nonbasic j, if any

qit xijmt Qm m K, t T (29) With 𝑗 corresponds to

iN jN0 d j

px

iN jN0

t t

i ijm Pm m K, t T (30)

min

j

ij

Otherwise go to next non-integer nonbasic or

bi vim

t

ai i N, m K, t Ti (31)

superbasic j (if available). If none go to next i*.

v0t m ( glt ylm

t

) m K, t T (32) Step 4.

lD Solve Bj* = j* for j*

vt

n 1,m (h y ) m K, t T

l

t t

im (33) Step 5. Do ratio test in order to stay feasible due to the

lD

releasing of nonbasic j* from its bounds.

Step 6. Exchange basis

t

jm tj j N , t T (34) Step 7. If row i* = {} go to Stage 2, otherwise

mK

Repeat from step 1.

mK

t

jm tj j N , t T (35) Stage 2. Pass1 : adjust integer infeasible superbasics by

fractional steps to reach complete integer feasibility.

x , wis , yim

t

ijm

t

{0,1} i, j N0, m K, t T, s S (36) Pass2 : adjust integer feasible superbasics. The

objective of this phase is to conduct a highly

t

vim 0, i N0, m K, t T (37) lovalized neighbourhood search to verify local

optimality.

jm , tjm {0,1, 2,...} j N , m K , t T

t

(38)

VI. CONCLUSIONS

The explanation of Constraints (13) to (20) can be found in This paper was intended to develop efficient technique for

the explanation of Constraints (2) to (9). solving one of the most economic importance problems in

Constraint (21) is to make sure that one and only one optimizing transportation and distribution systems. The aim of

combination is chosen for each customer. In Constraint (22), this paper was to develop a model of Capacitated Periodic

we schedule service days for each customer which related to vehicle Routing with strict Time Windows, Pick-up and

the chosen service combination. Constraint (23) is to guarantee Delivery Problem This problem has additional constraint which

that only one vehicle will leave the depot (distribution center) is the limitation in the delivery periodic time schedule. The

to serve a customer. In Constraint (24), we define that the route proposed algorithm employs nearest neighbor heuristic

chosen by a vehicle is related to visited-day of a customer. In algorithm for solving the model.

order to ensure that vehicles will visit and leave a node of

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IJRITCC | October 2017, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org

_______________________________________________________________________________________

International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169

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