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Determine h and k such that the solution set of

x1 + 3x2 = k

4x1 + hx2 = 8

(a) is empty, (b) contains a unique solution, and (c) contains infinitely many solutions. (Give

separate answers for each part, and justify them.)

Solution.

Row reducing the augmented matrix of the linear system, we find

1 3 k 1 3 k

∼ .

4 h 8 0 h − 12 8 − 4k

Hence, we have the following possibilities:

(a) The system is inconsistent (i.e., the solution set is empty) if the third column of the augmented

matrix contains a pivot. This is the case if h − 12 = 0 and 8 − 4k 6= 0, that is, if h = 12 and

k 6= 2.

(b) The system has a unique solution if the first two columns contain pivots, that is, if both x 1

and x2 are basic variables. Hence, h 6= 12 must hold for the second column to contain a

pivot. Note that k is arbitrary.

(c) The system has infinitely many solutions if x2 is a free variable and if the third column does

not contain a pivot, which is the case for h = 12 and k = 2.

Determine if the following vectors are linearly dependent or linearly independent. (Justify your

answers.)

−4 0 0

0 0 4 4 −1 2 8

(a) , , ,

(b) , , , ,

1 0 3 4 3 5 1

5 0 6

−8 2

(c) 12 , −3 .

−4 −1

Solution.

(a) The set is linearly dependent, since it contains the zero vector 0. (Any set containing the zero

vector is linearly dependent.)

(b) The set is linearly dependent, since it consists of four vectors in R 2 . (Any set containing

more vectors than each vector has entries is linearly dependent.)

(c) The set is linearly independent, since it contains two vectors neither of which is the zero

vector, and since these vectors are not multiples of each other.

Let the matrix A be given by

1 3 −2 2

0 1 1 −5

,

1 2 −3 7

−2 −8 2 −1

(b) Based on your answer in (a), decide whether the matrix equation Ax = b has a solution for

every b in R4 . (Justify your answer.)

Solution.

1 3 −2 2 1 3 −2 2 1 3 −2 2

0 1 1 −5 ∼ 0 1 1 −5 ∼ 0 1 1 −5

.

1 2 −3 7 0 −1 −1 5 0 0 0 0

−2 −8 2 −1 0 −2 −2 3 0 0 0 −7

The row reduced matrix contains three pivot positions and therefore does not have a pivot in

every row. Hence, the columns of A do not span R4 , see Theorem 4.

(b) No, Ax = b does not have a solution for every b in R 4 , since that would be equivalent to the

columns of A spanning R4 , again by Theorem 4.

Consider the following system of linear equations,

x1 − 3x2 −4x3 = b1

−3x1 + 3x2 +6x3 = b2

5x1 − 3x2 −8x3 = b3 ,

(a) Write the system first as a vector equation and then as a matrix equation.

(b) Show that the system is not consistent for all possible b = (b 1 , b2 , b3 ), and describe the set of

all b for which it does have a solution.

(c) Find the solution sets of the system for b = (0, 0, 0) and for b = (2, 0, −2). Write them in

parametric vector form; then, illustrate and compare them geometrically.

Solution.

1 −3 −4 b1

x1 −3 + x2 3 + x3 6 = b2 ,

5 −3 −8 b3

1 −3 −4 x1 b1

−3 3 6 x2 = b2 .

5 −3 −8 x3 b3

(b) To determine for which choices of b = (b1 , b2 , b3 ) the system is consistent, we row reduce

the augmented matrix:

1 −3 −4 b1 1 −3 −4 b1 1 −3 −4 b1

−3 3 6 b2 ∼ 0 −6 −6 b2 + 3b1 ∼ 0 −6 −6 b2 + 3b1 .

5 −3 −8 b3 0 12 12 b3 − 5b1 0 0 0 b3 − 5b1 + 2b2 + 6b1

The system is inconsistent if the last column contains a pivot, that is, if b 3 − 5b1 + 2b2 + 6b1 =

b1 + 2b2 + b3 6= 0. The set of all b for which the system is consistent is described by

b1 + 2b2 + b3 = 0, which is a plane in R3 .

(c) To explicitly find solutions of the system for specific choices of b, we reduce the augmented

matrix to reduced echelon form:

b1 − 3b12+b2

1 −3 −4 b1 1 −3 −4 b1 1 0 −1

0 −6 −6 b2 + 3b1 ∼ 0 1 1 − 3b16+b2 ∼ 0 1 1 − b1 +3b

6

2

.

0 0 0 b1 + 2b2 + b3 0 0 0 b1 + 2b2 + b3 0 0 0 b1 + 2b2 + b3

1 0 −1 0

0 1 1 0 ;

0 0 0 0

the general solution is given by x1 = x3 , x2 = −x3 , and x3 free. In parametric vector form,

this corresponds to

x1 x3 1

x = x2 = −x3 = x3 −1 ,

x3 x3 1

which defines a line in R3 through the origin. For b = (2, 0, −2), the augmented row reduced

matrix becomes

1 0 −1 −1

0 1 1 −1 ;

0 0 0 0

the general solution is x1 = −1 + x3 , x2 = −1 − x3 , and x3 free. In parametric vector form,

this can be written as

x1 −1 + x3 −1 1

x = x2 = −1 − x3 = −1 + x3 −1 ,

x3 x3 0 1

which is a line through the point (−1, −1, 0). Hence, the solution sets of the homoge-

neous system and the nonhomogeneous system are parallel lines in R 3 offset by the vector

(−1, −1, 0).

Let the transformation T : R2 → R3 , x 7→ T (x) be defined by

Solution.

(a) Since

−3x1 + 2x2 −3 2 −3 2

x 1

T (x1 , x2 ) = x1 − 4x2 = x1 1 + x2 −4 = 1 −4 ,

x2

x2 0 1 0 1

−3 2

A = 1 −4 .

0 1

Therefore, also, T must be linear, since every transformation that can be described by a

matrix is linear.

(b) T is one-to-one, since the columns of A are linearly independent (they are non-zero, and not

multiples of each other). T is not onto, since the columns of A do not span R 3 . (Alternatively,

T is one-to-one since A contains a pivot in every column; however, it is not onto, since A

does not contain a pivot in every row.)

Determine whether the statements below are true or false. (Justify your answers: If a statement

is true, explain why it is true; if it is false, explain why, or give a counter-example for which it is

false.)

(a) Two linear systems are equivalent if they have the same solution set.

(c) A linear combination of vectors a1 , . . . , an can always be written in the form Ax for a suitable

matrix A and vector x.

Solution.

(b) False. Every linear transformation from Rn to Rm is a matrix transformation. (The corre-

sponding matrix is the standard matrix of the transformation.)

x1

x1 a1 + . . . + xn an = [a1 . . . an ] ... ,

xn

with A = [a1 . . . an ].

(d) False, the reduced echelon form of a matrix is unique. For example, the matrices

1 3 1 3

and

0 −2 0 1

1 3

.

2 4

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