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DESIGN OF PRE-STRESSED SILO

Prepared By-
Ankita Roy Chowdhary PT 400116
Roshan Prajapati PT 401716
Dhairya Parikh PT 401216
Mahak Bassi PT 400616
INDEX
• GAD (General Arrangement Drawing)
• Pressure Calculation
Pw, Ph, Pv - IS Code
Pressure – ACI Code
Find thickness for maximum pressure
• Temperature Calculation
Moment due to change in temperature
Area of steel and check for minimum steel required
• Pre-stress Calculation
Strand data assumptions
Calculation of losses
Net capacity of strands
• Conclusion
Y

11400
22800
X X'

11400
Plan @ Lvl. +18.00 m.
Y'
22000

46500
75000

2500
12500

2000
16000

4000
5000

SECTIONAL
23000
ELEVATION
Design of Prestressed Silo
Internal Diameter 22 m Grade of Concrete M400
Total height above FGL 75 m
2
Type of hopper Inverted σcbc 10 kg/cm
2
σsa 2100 kg/cm
Height of storage above 46.5 m
apex of Hopper
Total height of storage 59 m
Lvl of bottom of cone from GL 16 m
Height of freeboard 2 m
Height of hopper bottom 15.6 m
Angle of hopper with horizontal 60 ⁰
Internal Temperature, Ti 105 ⁰
Outside Temperature, To 33 ⁰
Stored Material Cement
3
Bulk Density 1400 kg/m
Angle of Internal Friction, ф 25 ⁰
Type of Material Powdery Material

Opening for material 2.5 m


3
Volume of material stored 20201 m
Pressure Calculations:

Cl. 6.1.1.1-IS 4995:1974 (Part 1) Cl. 6.1.1.3-IS 4995:1974 (Part 1)

Table 2, Cl. 5.3-IS 4995:1974 (Part 1) Cl. 4.4.2.1-ACI 313-7


Ph FILLING (IS) EMPTYING (IS) ACI
Angle of wall friction, δ 25 ⁰ 25 ⁰
Frictional coefficient, μ 0.466 0.466 0.466
Pressure ratio, λ 0.5 0.7
Height (m) Phf (kg/m2) Phe (kg/m2) q (kg/m2)
0 0 0 0
10 5705 7391 7211
20 9440 11474 12323
30 11884 13729 15947
40 13483 14975 18515
46.5 14213 15467 19769
Pv FILLING (IS) EMPTYING (IS) ACI
Angle of wall friction, δ 25 ⁰ 25 ⁰
Frictional coefficient, μ 0.466 0.466 0.466
Pressure ratio, λ 0.5 0.7
Height (m) Phf (kg/m2) Phe (kg/m2) q (kg/m2)
0 0 0 0
10 11411 10559 7211
20 18879 16391 12323
30 23767 19613 15947
40 26966 21393 18515
46.5 28425 22096 19769
Pw IS ACI
Angle of wall friction, δ 25 ⁰
Frictional coefficient, μ 0.466 0.466
Pressure ratio, λ 0.5
Height (m) Pw (kg/m2)
0 0 0
10 2661 7211
20 4402 12323
30 5541 15947
40 6287 18515
46.5 6627 19769
Thickness of Silo wall:

Cl. 5.5.4-IS 4995:1974 (Part 2)


26 cm
21 cm

c) n 0.0003
2
Es 2.0000E+06 kg/cm
2
σsa 2100 kg/cm
m 9.33
2
σt' 23.8 kg/cm
(Ty)st 156343 kg/m

t (min) 78 cm

d) 10 cm
MOMENT DUE TO CHANGE IN TEMPERATURE
Internal Temperature ( Ti ) 105 ⁰C
Outside Temperature ( To ) 30 ⁰C
thickness of silo wall ( t ) 450 mm
Surface conductance of concrete to air ( Ca ) 15 kcal/m2hC
Thermal conductivity of reinforced concrete ( Cc ) 1.75 kcal/mhC
Surface conductance of concrete to stored material ( Cs ) 2 kcal/m2hC
Coefficient of heat transmission ( K ) 1.214 kcal/m2hC
b 1000 mm
∆T 23.41 °C

bending moment across the bin wall due to change in temp.(M ∆T) e𝑡𝑇𝐸CI/t
Coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete ( et ) 0.000011 /°C/cm
2
Modulus of elasticity of concrete ( Es ) 316228 kg/cm
4
Moment of Inertia of the bin wall section ( I ) 759375 cm

Moment due to temperature stress( M∆T ) 13743.3 kg-cm


permissible stress ( sst ) 2100 kg/cm2
Ast reqd due to temp. stress 2045.13 mm2 /m

spacing required for 20 mm dia bar 153 mm


Spacing provided for 20 mm dia bar 150 mm outerface
Minumum Steel Required 0.25% 562.5 mm2
Spacing provided for 12 mm dia bar 150 mm innerface
CAPACITY OF STRAND
We have selected the 11.1 mm 7 PLY - Class I Uncoated stress relieved strand
Type: 11.7 mm 7 ply class 1
C/S area: 70.3 mm2
Breaking Load: 124540 N
0.2% proof load 102300 N

80% of breaking load 99632 N = 0.8 x124540


(CL. 8.2-IRC 18:1985)
95% of 0.2% proof load 97185 N = 0.95 x102300

Hence, considered 99632 N


Prestressing Force

Friction Loss
Wobble Coefficient(k) 0.003 /m
Curvature Coefficient(μ) 0.2
P0 99.632 kN
α 47 ⁰
0.82 radians
Dia of Silo: 22.8 m

Length of Frictional Curve 17.91 m = 3.14 x22.8/ 4


Pi = (Cl. 19.5.2.6-IS 1343:2012)

= 123.87 kN

Friction Loss Force 24.238 kN = 123.87-99.632

2
Friction Loss Stress 344.78 N/mm 24.238x
= 1000 /70.3

Loss due to slip of anchorage

Slip of Anchorage 6 mm
Length of strands 17.91 m
c/s area 70.3 mm2
Es 195000 N/mm2(Cl. 4.5.3.1-IS 1343:1980)

Loss of stress due to anchorage slip =

= 65.33 N/mm2
Loss due to Creep Loss
By Creep Co-Efficient Method

Fck 40 N/mm2
Creep Coefficient(φ) 1.6
2
Es 195000 N/mm
2
Ec 31622.8 N/mm
Modular Ratio(αe) 6.17
2
Max. Pressure 154.67 kN/mm

Max. Force(P) 1763.24 kN


Eccentricity Considered 50 mm
Dia of Bin 22.8 m
Thickness of Bin wall 450 mm

Stress in concrete(fc) 4.5 N/mm2

Loss of stress in strand =

= 44.42 N/mm2
Loss due to Relaxation Loss

Initial Stress fp 0.6fp N/mm2 IS 1343 Table-4

Loss 35 N/mm2

Loss due to Shrinkage

Initial Stress in Strand 1417.24 N/mm2


Age Of Concrete at 14 days
transfer(t)

Residual Shrinkage =
Strain(εcs)

= 0.00017

Loss of stress due to =


shrinkage
= 32.39 N/mm2
Loss due to Elastic Shortening

Stress in concrete (fc) 4.5 N/mm2

Modular Ratio(αe) 6.17

Loss of stress due to =


elastic shortening
= 27.77 N/mm2

LOSS OF STRESSES 549.69 N/mm2

% Loss of Stress 38.79 %

Average stress after Loss 867.55 N/mm2

Effective Force per Strand 60.99 kN


CONCLUSION

Eff. Force per 
Required(mm
Ht. From Top 

Thcickness(m

Pressure(kg/

Prestressing 
Tension(kN)

tendons(mm)
Strand(kN)
of wall(m)

Thickness 

Diameter
Stress(fc)

Spacing of 
Stress(fs)

Required
Nos. of 
Strand 

Strand 
POINT

Initial 
Min. 
Wall 

m ) 

m)
7T11
1 1 450 951 108.41 7.06 0.28 1417.2 11.1 65.57 2 4234
2 10 450 7391 842.57 54.85 2.15 1417.2 11.1 63.64 13 529
3 20 450 11474 1308 85.16 3.34 1417.2 11.1 62.3 21 333
4 30 450 13729 1565.1 101.9 3.99 1417.2 11.1 61.56 25 275
5 40 450 14975 1707.2 111.14 4.36 1417.2 11.1 61.15 28 251
6 46.5 450 15467 1763.2 114.79 4.5 1417.2 11.1 60.99 29 242