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eracs lab report

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Electrical power systems are in the process of continual evolution and had undergone many

different changes. Electricity system matured quickly into a scheme of interconnecting

stations known as the National Grid. Various concerns ranging from the need to reduce losses

on transmission lines to greenhouse emissions would continue to push development of power

generation and transmission systems.

In reality, often generation levels and points are at a considerable distance from the

consumption levels and points, and a number of transmission cables, regulation transformers

and interconnecting busbars are required to complete a power network. The fact that loads

can be reactive or resistive. The complexity of interwoven elements therefore means that a

careful modelling of operating and potential fault characteristics is needed before a system

can be commissioned.

OBJECTIVE

To get introduced to the main features of computer aided design and analysis of

power systems and the use of ERACS software package for diagram building and

Load Flow analysis.

To enhance the student learning process, by relating the theory and analytic

procedures to computer aided techniques for system analysis and problem solving.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

ERACS software package

PROCEDURES

1. Before you run ERACS package, create ‘Library’ and ‘Work’ folders in

pendrive. The former will hold all the library files that you create and the latter will

hold the network files. To do this, run the Windows Explorer from the Start, Programs

menu.

2. Run the ERACS package from the START menu and choose User Name as

Supervisor and password as Supervisor.

3. The first time use ERACS, required to create a new database by selecting New

Database from the Database menu. Note that save it in the ‘Work’ folder in drive

F(pendrive).

4. From the File menu select New Network and set Network Name and Data State

Name. You need to assign a project library from Libraries menu. Select a name for

Project Library 1 and save it into the ‘Library’ folder in drive F. You may choose

Project Library 2 as the Reference Library, by selecting Existing Library

(ERA_Reference_Library) from the subdirectory C:\Programme Files\ERACS\

Libraries.

5. Follow the instructions given in the Help menu to construct the network given. Notice

that you need to create each element of the network and save it in Project Library 1

(in drive F) by selecting Library and New for each element. Then, Select the element

from the Library Key list. Also, C.B.1 and C.B.2 are modeled as part of the bus

section. Further, generator G is modelled as a PQ type with assigned active power of

P = 20 MW and reactive power of Q = 10 MVAr.

Note that the resistances of all components in the network are assumed to be zero.

Furthermore, for the generator and transformers, select “Neutral Earthing Data” with

zero neutral earthing resistance and reactance.

6. From Calculate menu choose Load Flow and perform the Load Flow analysis, with

circuit breakers C.B.1 and C.B.2 closed. Accept all the default values for the negative

and zero sequence components during running of the program.

7. From the Results menu choose Select Data / Results and Load flow, then:

(i) Busbar : Voltage (p.u.) , Voltage (kV) , Voltage angle ( o ) , Three Phase

Fault level (MVA) and Three Phase Fault current (kA)

(ii) Line : Real power (MW) and Reactive power (MVAr).

(iii) For Cable, Transformer, Synchronous Machine and Shunt, select the same as in (ii).

From Results menu, choose Show Results to display the selected results and record them

(from File menu choose Print and then Network Diagram).

8. Comment on the results obtained with regard to the main factors that largely

determine the flow of active and reactive power through different parts of the

network. Also, comment on the values of fault level at different busbars in the system.

= 20 MVAr, respectively. Also change the rating of Load 1 to 20 MW at 0.9 p.f.

lagging. Perform the Load Flow Analysis and repeat step (8). Compare these results

with those obtained in step (8) and comment on the difference.

10. Open circuit breakers C.B.1 and C.B.2, perform the Load Flow Analysis and repeat

step (8).Compare the results obtained with those obtained in step (10) and comment

on the difference.

11. Using analytical procedure, calculate the three-phase fault level (in MVA) and the

short circuit current (in kA) for a three-phase fault on busbar 4. Repeat your

calculations for both sections of busbar 4 when C.B.1 and C.B.2 are open. Compare

the results obtained from the analytical calculations with those obtained from the

computer model and comment.

NETWORK ELEMENT ASSUMPTIONS

Bus : Each bus is sized approximately to its voltage level and fault level. The default

fault levels were accepted for all buses.

Tranmission lines : These were sized approximately to their positive, negative and

zero sequence reactances. Resistance is negligible.

Transformers : A transformer rating 60MVA with 0.11p.u. reactance was selected to

be placed at Bus 2, and two transformers rating 30MVA with 0.1p.u. reactance were

selected to be placed at Bus 4a and Bus 4b. Neutral earthing data was selected with

zero neutral earthing resistance and reactance.

Loads : Loads were configured from the MW/p.f selection and sized appropriately.

Circuit breakers : Two circuit breakers were connected. One connecting Bus 3a and

3b, another connecting Bus 4a and 4b. The default values for the negative and zero

sequence components were accepted for both.

Grid : The grid was sized based on the grid fault infeed of 10000MVA.

Generators : Generator was modelled as a PQ type and assigned active power of

20MW and reactive power of 10MVar. For second part of the lab, generator was

assigned to 40MW active power and 20MVar of reactive power. Neutral earthing data

was selected with zero neutral earthing resistance and reactance.

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

(i) Lab 1.1 : Load Flow Analysis of network with generator rating of 20MW and

10MVar (circuit breakers closed).

Active and Reactive Power Flow : The grid supplies 5.0MW and 10.235MVar to the

network. The generator supplies 20.0MW and 10.0MVar to the network. The loads

absorb 25.0MW and 16.093MVar of the power supplied. The transmission lines and

the transformer absorb the balance. The transmission lines have no resistance and thus

consume no real power.

Voltage : The voltage starts from 1.033p.u. at Bus 1 and drops to 1.0p.u. at Bus 2. The

voltage further drops to 0.985p.u. at Bus 3a and 3b. The voltage then decreases to

0.956p.u. at Bus 4a and 4b. The voltage drops due to loads and line resistance.

Fault Levels : The fault level increases from 787.367MVA at Bus 1 to 10186.22MVA

at Bus 2. The fault level then decreases to 1072.031MVA at Bus 3a and 3b. Then, the

fault level further lowers to 385.205MVA at Bus 4a and 4b. This is because the fault

level at high transmission voltage is higher than that at low voltages (Weedy, 1987).

1.04

1.02

1

0.98

0.96 pV (pu)

0.94

0.92

0.9

Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3a-3b Bus 4a-4b

12000

10000

8000

6000

3F (MVA)

4000

2000

0

Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3a-3b Bus 4a-4b

(ii) Lab 1.2 : Load Flow Analysis of network with generator rating of 40MW and

20MVar (circuit breakers closed).

Active and Reactive Power Flow : The grid supplies 5.0MW and -12.183MVar to the

network. The generator supplies 40.0MW and 20.0MVar to the network. The loads

absorb 35.0MW and 20.936MVar of the power supplied. The transmission lines and

the transformer absorb the balance. The transmission lines have no resistance and thus

consume no real power.

Voltage : The voltage starts from 1.06p.u. at Bus 1 and drops to 1.0p.u. at Bus 2. The

voltage further drops to 0.979p.u. at Bus 3a and 3b. The voltage then decreases to

0.940p.u. at Bus 4a and 4b. The voltage drops due to loads and line resistance.

Fault Levels : The fault level increases from 807.658MVA at Bus 1 to 10193.41MVA

at Bus 2. The fault level then decreases to 1072.887MVA at Bus 3a and 3b. Then, the

fault level further lowers to 385.512MVA at Bus 4a and 4b. This is because the fault

level at high transmission voltage is higher than that at low voltages (Weedy, 1987).

1.04

1.02

1

0.98

0.96

pV (pu)

0.94

0.92

0.9

0.88

Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3a-3b Bus 4a-4b

12000

10000

8000

6000

3F (MVA)

4000

2000

0

Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3a-3b Bus 4a-4b

(iii) Lab 1.3 : Load Flow Analysis of network with generator rating of 40MW and

20MVar (circuit breakers opened).

Active and Reactive Power Flow : The grid supplies 5.0MW and -12.277MVar to the

network. The generator supplies 40.0MW and 20.0MVar to the network. The loads

absorb 35.0MW and 20.936MVar of the power supplied. The transmission lines and

the transformer absorb the balance. The transmission lines have no resistance and thus

consume no real power.

Voltage : The voltage starts from 1.06p.u. at Bus 1 and drops to 1.0p.u. at Bus 2. The

voltage further drops to 0.972p.u. at Bus 3a and 3b. The voltage then decreases to

0.931p.u. at Bus 4a and 4b. The voltage drops due to loads and line resistance.

Fault Levels : The fault level increases from 807.658MVA at Bus 1 to 10193.41MVA

at Bus 2. The fault level then decreases to 457.35MVA at Bus 3a and 3b. Then, the

fault level further lowers to 181.325MVA at Bus 4a and 4b. This is because the fault

level at high transmission voltage is higher than that at low voltages (Weedy, 1987).

1.1

1.05

0.95 pV (pu)

0.9

0.85

Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3a-3b Bus 4a-4b

12000

10000

8000

6000

3F (MVA)

4000

2000

0

Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3a-3b Bus 4a-4b

DISCUSSION

XG : Reactance at generator

𝑋𝐺𝑟𝑖𝑑 : Reactance at Grid infeed

𝑋𝑂𝐻 : Reactance at overhead line

𝑋𝑈𝐺 : Reactance at underground cable

𝑋𝑇3 : Reactance at transformer 3

𝑋𝑇2 : Reactance at transformer 2

(i) Calculation of three-phase fault level (in MVA) and the short-circuit current

(in kA) on Busbar 4 when the circuit breakers are closed.

60

𝑋𝐺 = 0.12 ( ) = 0.144𝑝. 𝑢.

50

60

𝑋𝐺𝑟𝑖𝑑 = ( ) = 0.006𝑝. 𝑢.

10000

60

𝑋𝑂𝐻 = 36.45 ( ) = 0.1255𝑝. 𝑢.

(132)2

60

𝑋𝑈𝐺 = 24.3 ( ) = 0.0837𝑝. 𝑢.

(132)2

60

𝑋𝑇3 = 𝑋𝑇2 = 0.1 ( ) = 0.2𝑝. 𝑢.

30

1

𝐼𝑓 = = 6.410𝑝. 𝑢.

0.156

60

𝐼𝐵 = = 1.0497𝑘𝐴

√3(33)

(ii) Calculation of three-phase fault level (in MVA) and the short-circuit current

(in kA) on Busbar 4 when the circuit breakers are opened.

1

𝐼𝑓 = = 3.4535𝑝. 𝑢.

0.28956

60

𝐼𝐵 = = 1.0497𝑘𝐴

√3(33)

1

𝐼𝑓 = = 3.0179𝑝. 𝑢.

0.33136

60

𝐼𝐵 = = 1.0497𝑘𝐴

√3(33)

(iii) Comparing 𝑃𝑖𝑛 and 𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡 for every case (lab 1.1, lab 1.2 and lab 1.3)

Lab 1.1 : The real power, P from G is assigned 20W and Grid infeed is supplying 5 W.

Assuming zero resistance, real power, P of Load 1 is 10W and Load 2 is 15 W. Total real

power, P for Load is 25W.

Lab 1.2 : The real power, P from G is assigned 40W and 5W is returned back to Grid due to

real power. Real power, P of Load 1 is 20W and Load 2 is 15 W. Total real power, P for

Load is 35W.

Lab 1.3 : The real power, P from G is assigned 40W and 5W is returned back to Grid due to

real power. Real power, P of Load 1 is 20W and Load 2 is 15 W. Total real power, P for

Load is 35W.

(iv) Comparing 𝑄𝑖𝑛 and 𝑄𝑜𝑢𝑡 for every case (lab 1.1, lab 1.2 and lab 1.3)

Lab 1.1 : The reactive power, Q from G is 10MVAr. The output reactive power should be

greater than the input reactive power. In this case, Qout is 16.093 MVAr.

Lab 1.2 : The reactive power, Q from G is 10MVAr. The output reactive power should be

greater than the input reactive power. In this case, Qout is 20.936 MVAr.

Lab 1.3 : The reactive power, Q from G is 10MVAr. The output reactive power should be

greater than the input reactive power. In this case, Qout is 20.936 MVAr.

(v) Comparing the results of lab 1.1 and lab 1.2

In lab 1.1 the real power, P from G is 20W and Grid supplies 5 W. The real power, P of Load

1 and Load 2 are 10W and 15 W, hence total real power, P for Load is 25W. While in lab 1.2,

the real power, P from G is 40W and 5W is returned back to Grid due to real power. Real

power, P of Load 1 and Load 2 are 20 W and 15 W, hence total real power, P for Load is

35W.

In lab 1.2 and 1.3, the real power, P from G is 40W and 5W is returned back to Grid due to

real power. Real power, P of Load 1 is 20W and Load 2 is 15W, hence total real power is

35W. For lab 1.2 and 1.3, the value of real power, P and reactive power, Q are the same.

For lab 1.3, the circuit breakers are opened where before in lab 1.2 it were closed. In lab 1.2,

the short-circuit current and three-phase fault level at Busbar 4a and 4b are the same which is

6.729kA and 384.6MVA respectively. In other hand, in lab 1.3, the short-circuit current and

three-phase fault level at Busbar 4a and 4b are different which are 3.625kA and 207.21MVA

respectively for Busbar 4a and 3.1679kA and 181.0741MVA respectively for Busbar 4b.

(vii) Comparing the results obtained from the analytic calculations with those obtained

from the computer model of lab 1.1

For lab 1.1, the three-phase fault level obtained from the computer model was

CONCLUSION

Over the years, the unceasing growth of the transmission system is making the calculation of short-

circuit current highly challenging for the system engineers. It is absolutely imperative for the electric

service companies to provide power in the most reliable manner possible. So, to aid the engineers,

the “impedance method” and the “composition method” have been developed and consistently

modified and upgraded to provide a greater accuracy in the calculation of short-circuit currents.

Implementation of these methods provides an outcome that can be used by the system engineers to

design the transmission system according to the desired standard. In this thesis work the study of

short-circuit current calculation on an overhead transmission line was successfully done. Two

methods were used to calculated the short-circuit current accurately. The calculation of short-circuit

currents also protects the system from damage, fire and other physical hazards. This is achieved by

choosing the proper protective devices based on the calculated result. In the laboratory part of this

thesis the SPAA 120 C Feeder Protection Relay was successfully implemented to prevent short-circuit

current from flowing through the circuit. The growth of the transmission system also made the

calculation process complicated and time consuming to be done by hand. So, it has become essential

to develop computer software that simplifies these complicated calculations. A software

development was also a part of this thesis work and a software was developed to calculate the

short/circuit current on a transmission line.

REFERENCES

1. ERACS “User Guide” and “Technical Manual” available online in ERCAS Help

menu.

Hill), 2002.

4. WEEDY, B.M. and CORY B.J.: ‘Electric Power Systems’ (Wiley) 1998.

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