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Peter Carson

Senior Director, Marketing


Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.

Advancing LTE
Advanced

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Capacity

Evolved New
ways to connect ways to connect

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Higher downlink speeds are seeing rapid adoption with CA
Traction: Cat 6 and Cat 9 are being deployed rapidly
Deployment status (all Cat’s):

4G+ (Cat 6)
73 Commercial networks
commercially

88 launched
CA networks ~225 Mbps: 36 networks
~226-300 Mbps: 37 networks
Additional Cat 6

22 systems in
deployment or trial

Cat 9 systems in 108 OEM designs


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Source: GSA, Jul. ’15
deployment, trial,
or test
up to Cat 4 Cat 6 planned
up to Cat 6 Cat 9 planned 3
Mobile upload traffic is growing rapidly

Global Mobile Upload Traffic


(Petabytes)
60,000

~54%
Compounded annual growth
rate of mobile upload traffic
6,860 between 2014-2019

2014 2019
Source: ABI Research, Jan’15
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Global mobile trends
Apps and use cases contributing to uplink traffic growth

300 hours 70 million


of video uploaded to YouTube photos on average uploaded to
every minute Instagram every day

Sources: YouTube, Apr’14 and Instagram, Apr’14


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China upload traffic growth drivers
Apps and use cases contributing to uplink traffic growth in China

1.1 billion 3 billion 76.4%


registered WeChat accounts Web pages shared daily on of WeChat users check their
(500 million active users) WeChat Moments Moments regularly

Source: WeChat registered accounts from 1/22/15, active users as of 3/20/14. WeChat Moments data as of 1/22/15.
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Increasing uplink traffic at major sports and cultural events
Periodic snapshots of traffic at a major sporting event in US

350

300

250
Data Volume (GB)

200

150
Major sports and
sightseeing venues
100
create significant need for
50 instant sharing of user-
generated content.
0
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

3G 4G LTE
Source: Traffic statistics from a major operator’s network
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Hardware evolution driving need for higher uplink speeds
Cameras and displays are rapidly growing in resolution and quality à larger file sizes

LG Revolution LG Optimus G LG G2 LG G3 LG G4
Model
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Growth
Display 800 x 480 1280 x 768 1920 x 1080 2560 x 1440 2560 x 1440 ~ 960%
Rear Camera 5MP 8MP 13MP 13MP 16MP > 300%
Video Capture 1280 x720 @ 30fps 1920 x 1080 @ 30fps 1920 x 1080 @ 60fps 3840 x 2160 @ 30fps 3840 x 2160 @ 30fps ~ 900%
Front Camera 1.3MP 1.3MP 2MP 2.1MP 8MP > 600%

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Evolution to higher quality user-generated video
Video content is moving to higher resolution

2002 ’05 ’07 ’11 2012


Bandwidth requirements
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Ultra HD 4K

Bandwidth Required (Mbps)


30
25

4K 20

video
15
1080P
10

720P 5
Larger video and file
VGA sizes have increased 0
QVGA network traffic

Source: Jon Peddie Research, Oct’14


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Downlink vs. uplink speed evolution
Gap between download and upload speeds is growing larger
500

450
4.5x
LTE Download
400 WCDMA Download
since 2009
WCDMA Upload
350
Peak Data Rate (Mbps)

LTE Download
300 LTE Upload

250

200

150

100
2.0x
LTE Upload
since 2009
50

0
H1'2007H2'2007H1'2008H2'2008H1'2009H2'2009 H1'2010 H2'2010 H1'2011 H2'2011 H1'2012 H2'2012 H1'2013 H2'2013 H1'2014 H2'2014 H1'2015 H2'2015
Source: Product announcements by Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
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Some apps are undoing camera advancements
Social apps aggressively compress images to reduce size and upload times, but at what cost?

Aggressive
compression by
social app
100% crop 100% crop

Original photo Received photo


20.7 megapixels 1.23 megapixels
11.9 MB in size 159 KB in size

Both the original and received photos above have been scaled to reflect a 2K smartphone display (2560x1440)
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Shared video suffers even more
Progress to HD and 4K is being hampered by social apps designed for 3G era

Aggressive
compression by
Social App
100% crop

100% crop 100% crop

Original video Received video


1920 x 1080 @ 30fps (Full HD) 640 x 368 @ 30 fps (<VGA)
17.65 Mbps Bitrate 958 Kbps Bitrate

Both the original and received videos above have been scaled to reflect a 2K smartphone display (2560x1440)
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Advanced uplink
technologies

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Three ways to boost LTE uplink speeds
Mix of standard and proprietary solutions

Uplink carrier aggregation Higher order modulation Uplink data compression


LTE modem transmits data using LTE modem encodes more bits into LTE modem compresses payload
multiple LTE carriers each transmission data before transmission

Part of LTE Advanced (3GPP Releases 10-12)

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LTE Advanced uplink carrier aggregation (ULCA), illustrated
Multiple LTE carriers combined to boost uplink speeds

LTE without ULCA LTE with 2x ULCA

U UU
U U
Single 20 MHz U Two 20 MHz
U
LTE radio channel U LTE radio channels
U

U U

U
U U

U
Up to
Traditional ULCA
Up to LTE Up to 2x faster
50 Mbps 100 Mbps
upload throughput upload throughput
(FDD) (FDD)

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2x ULCA provides higher capacity/throughput for bursty traffic
Aggregation yields better results than two standalone LTE carriers
30   Up to 1.7X upload speed at
same capacity
Median user data rate (Mbps)   25  

20  
Up to 3X capacity at
same data rate Comparison (same amount of radio spectrum):
15  
2 LTE radio channels (with 2x CA)
10   2 separate LTE radio channels (no CA)

5  

0  
0   2   4   6   8   10   12   14   16   18   20  
Network load (Mbps)  

Source: QTI simulations. 3GPP simulation framework, 1st carrier is 10MHz in 700MHz band, 2nd carriers is 10MHz in 2GHz band, bursty traffic model with 0.5MB file size, 57 macro cells wrap-around, 500m ISD (D1), UL 1x2 antenna config, TU3, NLOS, 10
degree antenna downtilt, bursty user rate is median rate calculated from the downloading time of the file.
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Higher order modulation in the uplink
Increases highest uplink modulation from 16-QAM to 64-QAM

2x20 MHz
4 4 Up to

LTE Carriers
16- bits bits
100
QAM 4
bits
4
bits
Mbps •  Each transmitted symbol represents
more bits
Up to
•  Increases data rate on the same
50% higher amount of total bandwidth
Throughput
•  Requires high SNR at the receiver
–  Suitable for small cell and dense macro
2x20 MHz

6 6 Up to deployments
LTE Carriers

64- bits bits


150
QAM 6
bits
6
bits
Mbps

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64-QAM complements, but does not replace, ULCA
2x ULCA outperforms 2 single carrier 64-QAM for bursty traffic

10 Up to 80% upload speed


gain at same capacity
9 2x ULCA with 16-QAM
8 2 single carriers
2 separate with 64-QAM
carriers with 64-QAM
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Burst Rate (Mbps)

6 >3X capacity at same


data rate
5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Cell Throughput (Mbps)

Source: QTI simulations. Simulation setup: 2x20MHz LTE TDD intraband B41, TDD config 2, macro deployment - path losses estimation imported from Atoll, users location imported from Atoll and generated based on real user density, UL Rx Diversity: 1×2, max UL, Tx Power : 23 dBm, open
Loop power control FPC ON (Po UL PUSCH = -86 dBm, alpha UL PUSCH = 0.8), scheduler: proportional fair (joint scheduling for DC)
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Small cells drive higher peak rates
Signal quality determines modulation rate

Strong Signal / Small Cell Average Signal


Weak Signal

64-QAM UL 16-QAM UL QPSK UL

Best Users Median Users Cell Edge Users

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Uplink data compression (UDC)
Innovative modem-driven solution for additional uplink gains

Compresses all uplink TCP/


UDP headers and data
eNodeB

LTE Modem
Fewer bits transmitted
in uplink channel
Compress Decompress

Increases network Reduces interference, Transparent to both


capacity in the uplink especially at cell edge lower layers and apps

Qualcomm Snapdragon is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.


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UDC compression gains vary by application
Benefits cut across multiple usage scenarios, even downlink-centric ones

Video Streaming Site 1 - Uplink ACK 79%


Video Streaming Site 2 - Uplink ACK 74%
Web Browsing 70%
Microblogging App 65%
Shopping Site 1 59%
Internet Portal 4 58%
Messaging App 1 - Text Chat 55%
Internet Portal 3 52%
Internet Portal 2 48%
Internet Portal 1 46%
Messaging App 1 - In-app browsing 46%
Messaging App 3 - Text Chat 27%
Messaging App 2 - Voice Chat 19%
Messaging App 1 - Voice Chat 9%
Social Network - Picture Upload 4%
Messaging App 1 - Video Chat 3%
Video Streaming Site 1 - Upload 3%

UDC Compression Gain (%)


Source: QTI lab testing.
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Web browsing gains significantly from UDC
UDC compresses numerous text-based HTTP GETs and ACKs, reducing webpage loading time
Webpage Load Time (UL 1 Mbps) Webpage Load Time (UL 500 Kbps)
Lower is better Lower is better

12.2 25
Website 1 Website 1
7.5 13.6
13.5 20.2
Website 2 Website 2
10.5 14.7
19.1 25.4
Website 3 Website 3
13.1 15
12.3 14.7
Website 4 Website 4
11.2 12.7
19 23.1
Website 5 Website 5
11.6 14.2
17.6 30.6
Website 6 Website 6
8.5 19.4
12.1 17.1
Website 7 Website 7
11.7 12.6

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Without UDC With UDC Without UDC With UDC

Source: QTI lab testing.


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Uplink Carrier Aggregation
is the Foundation

64-QAM for additional UDC for additional


throughput gains capacity and UX gains
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TDD LTE stands to gain more from uplink improvements
FDD has dedicated radio channels each for UL/DL, while TDD shares one channel

FDD TDD
U
D D
U

D U D
One carrier
shared in time
D U
D

D
U U

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Boosting uplink improves experiences in existing apps
Especially important in the era of cloud-connected mobile computing

Speed up file upload to Speed up photo/video


cloud storage uploads to sharing sites

Speed up sending emails


Uplink Allow use of higher
with large attachments adaptive bitrates in video
chat

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Boosting uplink speeds can spur improvements in social apps
App developers can take the user experience in their apps to the next level

Improve quality of Increase bitrates Use higher Expand sharing


shared photos and for video and voice resolution displays function to more
videos chats to full advantage file types

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Uplink improvements benefit the whole mobile ecosystem
Users Operators
Better camera, social, cloud, Greater uplink capacity and
and web experiences efficiency
•  Fast sharing of high resolution photos •  Keeping pace with increasing uplink traffic
and videos
•  Differentiated service offerings
•  Fast file uploads to cloud storage
•  Enhanced experience on TDD networks
•  Fast web page loading

App developers OEMs


Upgrade from 3G-era Technology leadership &
experiences differentiation
•  Increase resolution and bitrate of •  Differentiate brand with early adoption of
shared photos and videos advanced technologies
•  Support clearer voice and video chats •  Complete the camera experience
•  Expand sharing to more file types •  Expand serviceable opportunities by
addressing operator needs
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Summary: Boosting uplink speeds in LTE networks
Taking user experience to the next level

Uplink mobile traffic is Uplink CA is the foundation


1 growing rapidly, though 3 for boosting UL speeds.
uplink speeds lag
downlink speeds Uplink 64-QAM and UDC provide
additional boost

The mobile ecosystem QTI supports advanced


2 stand to gain from 4 uplink technologies in
improved uplink speeds several Snapdragon LTE
processors and modems

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Exhilarating speeds are just the beginning
Snapdragon LTE modems can do much more than just provide users with fast internet access

​ More modes ​ VoLTE ​ LTE broadcast ​ LTE dual SIM  ​Advanced


Access more fast networks
when traveling the world
Make HD voice and video
calls, and even make
Watch super high quality
HD and even 4K live
Get the convenience of dual
SIMs on one phone without
performance
Enjoy longer battery life,
with Global Mode calls over Wi-Fi video on devices sacrificing LTE speeds stronger coverage, and
superior network choice

Subject to network availability; features in phone based on modem classes.


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Capacity

Evolved New
ways to connect ways to connect

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Introducing the upgraded

X12 LTE Modem


The most advanced LTE, Wi-Fi, and LTE/Wi-Fi
convergence technologies in a mobile SoC

At the heart of the


Snapdragon 820 Processor

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Thank you
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www.qualcomm.com & www.qualcomm.com/blog
Nothing in these materials is an offer to sell any of the components or devices referenced herein.
© 2013-2015 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its affiliated companies. All Rights Reserved.

Qualcomm and Snapdragon are trademarks of Qualcomm Incorporated, registered in the United States and other countries. Zeroth is a trademark of Qualcomm Incorporated.
All trademarks of Qualcomm Incorporated are used with permission. Other products and brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
owners.

References in this presentation to “Qualcomm” may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsidiaries or business units within the
Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable.

Qualcomm Incorporated includes Qualcomm’s licensing business, QTL, and the vast majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary
of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates, along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of Qualcomm’s engineering, research and development functions, and substantially all of its
product and services businesses, including its semiconductor business, QCT. 32
The new Snapdragon modem classes
Chipsets
Modem Class Processors (SoC) Discrete Modems UE Category CA Configuration
Cat 12 DL 600Mbps DL 3x20MHz DL
X12 SD 820
SD X12 LTE Modem
(9x40/45) Cat 13 UL 150Mbps UL 2x20MHz UL
450Mbps DL
X10 SD 810, 808 Cat 9
50 Mbps UL
3x20MHz DL

300 Mbps DL 2x20MHz DL


X8 SD 620, 618, 617 Cat 7
100 Mbps UL 2x20MHz UL
300 Mbps DL
X7 SD X7 LTE Modem
(9x30/35)
Cat 6
50 Mbps UL
2x20MHz DL

Cat 4 DL 150 Mbps DL


X6 SD 430
Cat 5 UL 75 Mbps UL
2x10MHz DL

SD 616, 415, 412, 150 Mbps DL


X5 212, 210
SD X5 LTE Modem
(9x20/25)
Cat 4
50 Mbps UL
2x10MHz DL
(except SD616, 415, and 412)

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