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AIRCRAFT NAVIGATION

The ART and SCIENCE of taking an Aircraft


from Place ‘A’ to Place ‘B’, Safely and in Shortest Possible time.
Or
Aircraft navigation is simply a matter of knowing the direction in
which we are flying and our position in relation to the earth's
surface.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
ELEMENTS OF FLIGHT NAVIGATION
• SPEED - Distance/Time

• DIRECTION - Left/Right/Forward/Backward/Up/Down
with reference to a point

• TRACK - Path travelled

• HEADING - Direction that the aircraft's nose is pointing

• BEARING - The direction or orientation of the fore and aft (longitudinal) axis of
the aircraft, expressed as an angle measured clockwise from a
reference.

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JUNE 2017
For your information…

• KNOT (kt) - Standard Unit of speed in aviation and marine transportation,


equivalent to one nautical mile per hour.

✓One knot is equal to one nautical mile per one hour.


✓One knot is equal to 1.1515 mph
✓One nautical mile equals to 1.1515 miles or 1.852 km or 6,080 feet.

• MACH NUMBER - Ratio of true airspeed to the speed of sound.


- Mach 1 is the speed of sound at sea level (approx.760 mph).

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AIRCRAFT NAVIGATIONAL AIDS

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NAVIGATIONAL AIDS

1. Very High Frequency - Omni-Range - VOR. 7. Traffic Alert & Collision Avoidance System – TCAS.

2. Distance Measuring Equipment - DME. 8. Inertial Navigation System - INS.

3. Instrument Landing System - ILS. 9. Radio Magnetic Indicator - RMI.

4. Marker Beacon System MBS. 10. Global Positioning System - GPS.

11. Compass Systems


5. Automatic Direction Finder - ADF.
12. Radio Altimeter System – RADALT.
6. Air Traffic Control - ATC.
13. Weather Radar.

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JUNE 2017
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNI RANGE (VOR)

• VOR enables to determine the bearing to the station, with respect to


magnetic North.

• VOR operates in the frequency band from 108.00 to 117.95 MHz.

• It shares its frequency range with the Localiser facility of the ILS

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JUNE 2017
VOR-PRINCIPLE

• The VOR ground-station transmits a combination of signals in all directions


(omni-directional).

• The VOR ground station modulates two signals of 30 Hz each on the carrier.

• One 30 Hz signal is the reference signal and the other is the variable signal.

• The phase shift between the reference signal and the variable signal depends
on the radial over which the two signals are transmitted.

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JUNE 2017
VOR-PRINCIPLE

• The radial information is transmitted from the ground station to the aircraft.

• When the VOR system in the aircraft detects the phase shift between the
reference and the variable signal it knows on which radial the aircraft flies.

• For the bearing information (opposite direction from aircraft to ground station)
the VOR system adds 180 degrees.

• In this way the bearing to the station depends on the detected radial from the
station.

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JUNE 2017
VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNI RANGE (VOR)

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JUNE 2017
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME)

• The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) system gives distance information from
the aircraft to the DME ground station.

• DME frequency range is 960 to 1215 MHz.

• All DME frequencies are paired with either VOR or ILS system frequencies.

• When these system frequencies are selected, the associated DME facility will be
automatically be selected.

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JUNE 2017
DME-PRINCIPLE

• The system interrogates the ground station and the ground station gives a reply
on every interrogation.

• The system then detects the time-delay between the transmitted interrogation
and the received reply and from the time-delay the distance is calculated.

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JUNE 2017
DME

• In addition to the distance reply, identification tones (1350Hz) are received from
the ground station and may be heard as Morse code by the aircrew through
headsets.

• NOTE:
Since many aircraft are using the DME facility, the aircraft equipment must be
capable of selecting only those pulses that are replies from their own
interrogations. A “Search and Track” circuit within the airborne equipment
achieves the selection.

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JUNE 2017
DME

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JUNE 2017
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)

• The purpose of the ILS is to provide approach information to the pilot when, due
to weather, the runway is obscured from view.

• Aircraft are fitted with ILS in three categories, these are:


– CAT I
– CAT II
– CAT III-A,B,C

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JUNE 2017
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)

• Cat I - Operation down to a minimum of 200ft-decision height and runway


visual range of 800m with a high probability of approach success.

• Cat II - Operation down to a minimum below 200ft decision height and


runway visual range of 800m, and to as low as 100ft decision height and
runway visual range of 400m with a high probability of approach success.

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INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)

Cat III - Three options A, B and C.


• A - Operation down to and along the surface of the runway, with external reference
during final phase of the landing down to runway visual range minimum of 200m.

• B - Operation to and along the surface of the runway and taxiways, with external
reference during final phase of the landing down to runway visual range minimum
of 50m.

• C - Operation to and along the surface of the runway and taxiways without external
visual reference.

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JUNE 2017
ILS-OPERATION

• The ILS gives horizontal and vertical


guidance in the approach to a runway.

• The system uses two radio signals:


1. The localizer for lateral guidance.

2. The Glideslope for vertical guidance.

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JUNE 2017
ILS-OPERATION

• The localizer signal comes from a transmitter located at the end of the runway .

• Localizer operates in the frequency range from 108.000 - 111.95 MHz.

• The localizer transmits two beams one on the right side of the runway centerline
and one on the left side of the runway centerline.

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JUNE 2017
ILS-OPERATION

• The beam on the right side has a 150 Hz modulation; the one on the left side has a
90 Hz modulation.

• When the aircraft flies over the extended centerline to the runway it receives
both signals with an equal strength.

• When the aircraft deviates from the centerline there is a difference in signal
strength.

• The system measures the deviation from the center line by comparing the
strength of these 90 Hz and 150 Hz modulation signals

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JUNE 2017
ILS-OPERATION

• The Glideslope signal comes from a transmitter at the beginning of the runway.

• Operates in the frequency range from 329.3 MHz to 335 MHz. T

• The Glideslope transmits two beams to give vertical guidance over the glidepath.

• The glidepath has an angle of approximately 3°.

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JUNE 2017
ILS-OPERATION

• The Glideslope beams are just like the localizer, modulated with 90 Hz and 150 Hz.

• The 90 Hz modulated beam is above and the 150 Hz modulated beam is below
the 3° glidepath.

• The system measures the deviation from the difference in signal strength
between the 90 Hz and 150 Hz modulation signals.

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JUNE 2017
ILS-OPERATION

• The two signals are 180 degree out of phase and so oppose each other.

• The two signals are first summed together, and if the result is more than 250mV,
the LOC/GS flag will be out of view (ILS valid).

• If the result of the summing is less than 250mV, the LOC/GS flags will remain in
view (ILS invalid).

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JUNE 2017
ILS-OPERATION

• If the 90Hz and 150Hz signals have the same amplitude, they cancel each other
out in the difference circuit.

• This produces a 0V output to the deviation bar that is basically a centre reading dc
voltmeter.

• With the output 0V the deviation bar will be central indicating the aircraft is
positioned on the extended runway centerline (LOC) or on the glideslope.

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JUNE 2017
ILS-OPERATION

• If the aircraft is positioned in the 90Hz signal lobe, then the amplitude of the 90Hz signal
will be strongest.

• This will give a fly right signal (LOC) or fly down signal (G/S).

• If the difference is -75mV, the deviation bar will be located on the first dot right.

• If the difference is -150mV or more, then the deviation bar will be located on the second
dot right.

• If the 150Hz is the stronger signal, then the voltage produced will be positive. This will
give either fly left (LOC) or fly up (G/S).

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JUNE 2017
MARKER BEACON SYSTEM (MBS)

• In order to inform the pilot as to the aircraft's progress, during an ILS approach,
along the centerline and Glideslope, there is a marker system.

• The markers are normally annotated as follows:


1. Outer marker.

2. Middle Marker.

3. Inner marker.

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JUNE 2017
MARKER BEACON SYSTEM (MBS)

• The marker beacons transmit at a certain frequency to identify it and in a fan


shaped pattern.

• They will also illuminate certain colour warning lamps within the flightdeck to
inform the pilot of reaching the marker.

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JUNE 2017
MARKER BEACON SYSTEM (MBS)

n
3000 Hz
WHITE
INDICATOR

.••
1300 Hz
AMBER
\I 400 Hz
BLU E
INDICATOR ~\i:.r--·
: ;_ ___
I NDICATOR

M O RSE
.•• M O R SE

I
IJWE

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INNER
M A RKER

M arker Beacon SVStem

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JUNE 2017
MARKER BEACON SYSTEM (MBS)

• The inner markers are identified when the white light comes on and a 3,000Hz tone is heard.

• The outer marker is usually located directly below the point where an aircraft on a localizer
course should intersect the Glideslope and start descending.

• An outer marker is identified when the blue light comes on and a 400 Hz tone is heard.

• The middle marker is located near the runway, usually under a point on the glidepath where
a descent could be discontinued.

• The middle marker is identified when the amber light comes on and a 1,300 Hz tone is
heard.

• A 75MHz carrier modulates all marker frequencies.

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AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)

• The ADF system detects the direction to a Non Directional Beacon (NDB) and receives
audio identification from the NDB.

• The ADF system operates in the frequency range of 190 to 1750 KHz.

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JUNE 2017
ADF-PRINCIPLE

• The NDB ground station transmits an AM (Amplitude Modulated) signal in circular


pattern in all directions.

• The radio energy induces RF (Radio Frequency) signals in a combined loop and
sense antenna.

• The receiver antenna signals are measured in an ADF receiver and calculated to
give relative station bearing.

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JUNE 2017
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADIO BEACON SYSTEM (ATCRBS)

The ground control has two types of radar with which to control air traffic:
1. Primary Radar.

2. Secondary Radar.

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ATC

TCAS
COMMUNICATION
Transmitting freq: 1090 MHz
Receiving freq:1030 MHz
ATC
COMMUNICATION

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JUNE 2017
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADIO BEACON SYSTEM (ATCRBS)

• The primary radar provides the ground station operator with a symbol on his
surveillance radarscope for every aircraft in his area.

• It is a reflection type of radar system not requiring any response from the aircraft.

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JUNE 2017
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADIO BEACON SYSTEM (ATCRBS)

• The secondary radar system uses what is called an “ATC Transponder” in the
aircraft.

• The transponder is a transmitter/receiver, which transmits in response to an


interrogation from the ground station secondary surveillance radar system.

• The primary and secondary radar antennas are mounted on the same rotating
mounting, and therefore both always look in the same direction at the same time.

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JUNE 2017
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADIO BEACON SYSTEM (ATCRBS)

• The aircraft’s transponder reply can also include a special code, which identifies that
particular aircraft on the scope.

• The transponder can also transmit the aircraft’s altitude, which can be displayed to the
ground controller.

• The ground station transmits its interrogation pulse on 1030 MHz as a three-pulse
signal.

• Once the aircraft’s transponder has received an interrogation, it will reply with either
Mode A or C (1090 MHz).

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JUNE 2017
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADIO BEACON SYSTEM (ATCRBS)

• One of the most important aspects of mode S is the ability to discretely address
one aircraft so that only the specific aircraft being interrogated responds, instead
of all transponder-equipped aircraft within the range of the interrogator.

• Mode S transponder replies with a Mode S format that includes that aircraft's
unique discrete 24-bit Mode S address.

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JUNE 2017
TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM

• TCAS is an airborne traffic alert and collision avoidance advisory system, which
operates without support from ATC, ground stations.

• TCAS detects the presence of nearby intruder aircraft equipped with transponders
that reply to Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon Systems (ATCRBS) Mode C or Mode S
interrogations.

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JUNE 2017
TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM

• TCAS tracks and continuously evaluates the threat potential of intruder aircraft to
its own aircraft

• Provides a display of the nearby transponder-equipped aircraft on a traffic display.

• During threat situations TCAS provides traffic advisory alerts and vertical
maneuvering resolution advisories to assist the flight crew in avoiding mid-air
collisions.

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JUNE 2017
TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM

• TCAS I provides proximity warning only to assist the pilot in the visual acquisition of
intruder aircraft. It is intended for use by smaller commuter and general aviation aircraft.

• TCAS II provides traffic advisories and resolution advisories (recommended escape


maneuvers) in a vertical direction to avoid conflicting traffic. Airline, larger commuter and
business aircraft will use TCAS II equipment.

• TCAS III Still under development, will provide traffic advisories and resolution advisories in
the horizontal as well as the vertical direction to avoid conflicting traffic.

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JUNE 2017
TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM

NOTE:
• The level of protection provided by TCAS equipment depends on the type of
transponder the target aircraft is carrying.

• It should be noted that TCAS provides no protection against aircraft that do not
have an operating transponder.

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JUNE 2017
TCAS II System

• TCAS II provides a traffic display and two types of advisories to the pilot.

• One type of advisory, called a traffic advisory (TA) informs the pilot that there are
aircraft in the area, which are potential threats to his own aircraft.

• The other type of advisory is called a resolution advisory (RA), which advises the
pilot that a vertical corrective or preventative action is required to avoid a threat
aircraft.

• TCAS II also provides aural alerts to the pilot.

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TCAS

• When a Mode S or Mode C intruder is acquired, TCAS begins tracking the intruder.

• Tracking is performed by repetitious TCAS interrogations in Mode S and Mode C.

• When interrogated transponders reply after a fixed delay.

• Measurement of the time between interrogation transmission and reply reception


allows TCAS to calculate the range of the intruder.

• If the intruder's transponder is providing altitude in its reply, TCAS is able to determine
the relative altitude of the intruder
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JUNE 2017
TCAS-Aural Annunciation

• Displayed traffic and resolution advisories are supplemented by synthetic voice


advisories generated by the TCAS computer.

• The words "Traffic, Traffic" are annunciated at the time of the traffic advisory,
which directs the pilot to look at the TA display to locate the intruding aircraft.

• If the encounter does not resolve itself, a resolution advisory is annunciated, e.g.,
"Climb, Climb, Climb". At this point the pilot adjusts or maintains the vertical rate
of the aircraft to keep the VSI needle out of the red segments.

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JUNE 2017
TCAS-Aural Annunciation

Resolution A dvisories:
P revent ative:
M O N ITOR VERTICAL SPEED. M O N ITOR VERT ICAL SPEED. Ensu re
th a t the VSI n eedle is Ke t out o f the Ii h ted se m ents.
Corrective:
C LIMB-CLI M B-CLIMB. C limb at the r a t e shown o n th e RA indicator:
n ormally 1 500 fpm .
C LIMB .CROSSIN G CLIMB-CLIMB . CROSSING C LIMB. As above except
that 1t further in d icat es that own fJig htpath wi ll cross th ro u g h that o f the
th reat.
DESCEN D-DESCEN D-DESCEND . Descend a t the rate shown o n th e RA
indicat or: normally 1500 fpm.
DESCEN D . CROSSING DESCEN D-DESCEN D, CROSSING DESCEND.
As above except that it furth er i n d i cates t h at o wn night path w ill cross
through that o f the th r eat.
REDUCE CLIM B - REDUCE C LIMB. R educe verti cal speed t o tha t s h o wn
on the RA indicator.
IN CREASE C LIMB - INCREASE C LIM B . Foll OINS a "Climb" a d v isory. The
v ertical s p eed o f the climb should be inc reased to that shown o n the RA
Indi cat o r nom i n a lly 2500 fpm .
INC R EASE DESCENT- I N C R EASE DESCE N T. Follows a "Descen d"
a d v isory. The v e rti cal speed of th e descent s h o uld be Increased to tha t
s h o wn o n th e R A i n d icato r: n omin a lly 2500 fp m .
C LI M B , C LIMB N O W-CLIMB. C LIMB N OW. Follo w s a " Descen d "
a d v isory w h en It has been determined that a rev e r sal o f v erti cal speed Is
needed to prov id e a d equ ate sep a r ation .
DESCEN D , DESCEN D N OW- DESCEN D . DESCEN D N OW Follows a
"Climb" advisory whe n it h a s bee n dete rmined that a rever sal o f v e rti cal
s ed Is needed t o ro v ide ade u ate se a r atJon.

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JUNE 2017
TCAS : PRINCIPLE OF COLLISION AVOIDANCE

• To evaluate threat potential of other aircraft the system divides the


space around aircraft into 4 volumes.

✓ OTHER TRAFFIC VOLUME


✓ PROXIMATE TRAFFIC VOLUME
✓ TA VOLUME
✓ RA VOLUME

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JUNE 2017
OTHER TRAFFIC VOLUME
• The first volume providing the presence and the progress of an intruder.

• Does not represent a collision threat.

PROXIMATE TRAFFIC VOLUME


• A given volume around the TCAS equipped aircraft.

• The aircraft detected in this zone does not represent a collision threat, but is
declared in vicinity.

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JUNE 2017
TA VOLUME
• Intruder is relatively near but does not represent an immediate threat.

• TCAS provides aural and visual information known as Traffic Advisory (TA).

• TCAS aural messages can be inhibited depending on higher priority aural messages.

RA VOLUME
• Intruder represents a collision threat.

• TCAS triggers an aural and visual alarm known as Resolution Advisory (RA).

• Informs crew about avoidance manoeuvres.

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JUNE 2017
RED SELECTOR
FORBIDDEN RESOLUTION ADVISORY TRA FFIC ADVISORY
VERTICAL SPEED ( RED) (AMBER)

OTHER TRAFFIC PROXIMATE TRAFFIC


VOLUME VOLUME (WHITE)
(WHITE EMPT Y)

INDICATING

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JUNE 2017
Independent Position Determining System

Terrain and Traffic Collision Avoidance System (T2CAS)


(optional system)

• The T2CAS is a combination of two functions:

· Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS): TCAS II Change 7.


· Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS).

• The general purpose of the T2CAS is to alert the crew of two kinds of hazards:

· Collision with terrain (Controlled Flight Into Terrain).


· Collision with surrounding traffic.

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JUNE 2017
INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM (INS)

• Inertial navigation is the process of determining an aircraft’s location using internal inertial
sensors(motion sensors/accelerometers & rotation sensors/gyroscopes).

• The modern inertial navigation system is the only self-contained single source for all
navigation data.

• After being supplied with initial position information, it is capable of continuously updating
extremely accurate displays of the aircraft’s:
1. Position.
2. Ground Speed.
3. Attitude.
4. Heading.

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JUNE 2017
INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM (INS)

• The basic measuring instrument of the inertial navigation system is the


accelerometer.

• Two accelerometers are mounted in the system.

• One will measure the aircraft’s accelerations in the north-south direction and the
other will measure the aircraft’s accelerations in the east-west direction.

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JUNE 2017
INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM (INS)

• When the aircraft accelerates, the accelerometer detects the motion and a signal
is produced proportional to the amount of acceleration.

• This signal is amplified, current from the amplifier is sent back to the
accelerometer to a torque motor, which restores the accelerometer to its null
position.

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JUNE 2017
INS

We can derive the foll:


from an accelerometer

1. Ground Speed.

2. Distance Flown.

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JUNE 2017
INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM (INS)

Inertial Reference Unit (IRU)


• The IRU is the main electronic assembly of the IRS.

• The IRU contains an inertial sensor assembly, microprocessors, and power supplies and aircraft
electronic interface.

• Accelerometers and gyros in the inertial sensor assembly measure acceleration and angular rates
of the aircraft.

• The IRU microprocessors performs computations required for:


1. Primary Attitude.
2. Present Position.
3. Inertial Velocity Vectors.
4. Magnetic and True North Reference.
5. Sensor Error Compensation.

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JUNE 2017
RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR (RMI)

• The radio magnetic indicator is a very useful navigation tool due to its ability to display
several different pieces of information simultaneously.

• Primarily, the circular rotating 'card' is a self- correcting compass which is much more
accurate that the older, floating magnet type of compass.

• Secondly, the displays from the ADF or VOR units can be displayed on top of the card, using
two pointers, one single and one double.
-This allows the pilot to see, in one instrument, his heading and the orientation of up
to two ground stations, relative to the aircraft, using two different navigation systems.

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JUNE 2017
Dual Distance Radio Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI)

• The Dual-Distance Radio-Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI) is an instrument that gives


indications for various navigation systems:
1. Magnetic heading from Compass system.

2. Bearings from VORs or ADFs.

3. Distances from the DMEs.

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JUNE 2017
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

• GPS is a space based radio navigation system, which provides worldwide, highly
accurate three-dimensional position, velocity and time information.

• The overall system is divided into three parts.


1. Space Segment.

2. Control Segment.

3. User Segment(Aircraft).

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JUNE 2017
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

Space Segment

• Consists of 24 satellites (21 active + 3 spare), in six orbital planes with 4 satellites in each
orbit.

• They are orbiting the earth every 12 hours at an approximate altitude of between 11,000nm
– 12,500nm.

• The orbits are such that a minimum of 6 satellites are in view from any point on the earth.

• This provides redundancy, as only 4 satellites are required for three-dimensional position.

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JUNE 2017
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

Control Segment

• This is a ground station that controls all satellites and is made up of:
1. Master Control Station.
2. Monitor Stations.

• The Master Control Station is located at Colorado, USA, and is responsible for processing satellite-tracking
information received from the five Monitor Stations.

• The Control Segments monitor the total system performance, corrects satellite position and re-calibrates
the on-board atomic time standards as necessary.

• The Monitor Stations are located to provide continuous "ground" visibility of every satellite.

• Three of the five monitor stations have ground antennas, which are used to upload data to the satellites

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JUNE 2017
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

• GPS operates by measuring


the time it takes a signal to
travel from a satellite to a
receiver on-board the
aircraft.

• This time is multiplied by the


speed of light to obtain the
distance measurement. This
distance results in a Line Of
Position (LOP).

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JUNE 2017
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

GPS Modes of Operation

1. Acquisition Mode.

2. Navigation Mode.

3. Altitude Aided Mode.

4. Aided Mode.

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JUNE 2017
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

Acquisition Mode

• When the sensor is in the acquisition mode, it receives the following data from the Flight
Management system:
• 1. Aircraft’s Present Position.

• 2. Aircraft’s Velocity.

• 3. Time & Date.

• The GPS sensor unit uses this data to calculate which satellites are available at the
current aircraft’s position.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

Navigation Mode

• If during the Navigation mode the GPS accuracy is not within 16NM of the actual
aircraft’s position, the sensor output will go into “None Computed Data” (NCD).

Altitude Aided Mode


• During this phase the GPS sensor will use the aircraft’s altitude from the ADIRU
and the length of the earth’s radius as the fourth range required for GPS altitude
calculations.

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JUNE 2017
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

Aided Mode

• The GPS sensor enters the “Aided Mode” during short periods (Less than 30 seconds) of bad
satellite coverage.

• In the aided mode, the GPS sensor unit receives altitude, heading and groundspeed from the Flight
Management System (FMS).

• The GPS sensor unit uses this data to go back into Navigation mode when there is good satellite
coverage again.

• During the Aided Mode the GPS sensor unit output is once again “Non Computed Data (NCD)

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JUNE 2017
COMPASS SYSTEMS

• Displays the current magnetic heading of the aircraft, i.e., the aircraft's directional
orientation relative to the Earth's geometric field.

– Direct Reading Compass


– Remote Reading Compass (Magnet Gyro)

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JUNE 2017
RADIO ALTIMETER

• Measures the distance from the aircraft to the


ground.

• Determine the height of the aircraft from 0 to


2500 feet above the terrain independently of
the atmospheric pressure.

• The Height and Decision Height data are


displayed on the PFD.
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JUNE 2017
RADIO ALTIMETER
• Transmits radio frequency energy to the ground and receive the
reflected energy at the aircraft.

• Altitude determined by measuring time required for transmitted


pulse to hit ground and return.

• Indicating instrument gives true altitude of aircraft.

• Used during landing to determine decision whether to continue to


land or execute climb-out.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


69
JUNE 2017
AIR DATA INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (ADIRS)

• Air Data systems depend upon Pitot and Static pressure sensing, as well as
temperature sensing.

• Static air pressure is the pressure of the outside air at the location of the aircraft.

• Pitot pressure is the dynamic pressure caused by the forward motion of the
aircraft.

• Temperature sensing is required to calculate the Total/Static Air Temperature


(TAT/SAT)

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
AIR DATAINERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (ADIRS)

• In a parked aircraft, the pitot and static pressures are equal.

• In a moving aircraft, the pitot pressure is greater because additional pressure is


developed at the forward end of the tube by its motion through the air.

• Altitude is calculated on the basis of static air pressure, and airspeeds are calculated on
the basis of the difference between pitot and static pressures.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
AIR DATA INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (ADIRS)

Note:

• Since a pitot/static probe is, under certain conditions, subjected to icing, it is necessary to
have available a heater to melt the ice which would block the ports.

• Total Air temperature (TAT), is the static air temperature plus the rise in temperature
created due to the pitot effect.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


72
JUNE 2017
Airspeed,
Mach number,
Barometric altitude,
AIR DATA Overspeed warnings,
REFERENCE Total Air Temperature,
Static Air Temperature,
Angle Of Attack.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


73
JUNE 2017
Attitude,
Vertical speed,
Flight path vector,
INERTIAL
REFERENCE Heading,
Ground speed,
Aircraft position.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


74
JUNE 2017
WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM

• Measure the elapsed time between the transmission of the wave and the
reception of the echo to determine the target distance.

• The angular position of the target is detected by the angular position of


the antenna in its scanning in azimuth.

• The detection of the turbulence areas is based on the Doppler effect


applied to the movement of precipitation drops detected in clouds.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM

• The disturbances are shown to the crew members on the NDs


with different colors:

• -black, green, yellow, red to quantify the precipitation rates


• -magenta to represent the turbulence areas up to 40 NM.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
WEATHER RADAR SYSTEM
PRECIPITATION RATE COLOR OF ECHOES

• less than 1 mm/h black

• from 1 to 4 mm/h green

• from 4 to 12 mm/h yellow

• from 12 to 50 mm/h red

• Turbulence >50 mm/h magenta

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
PREDICTIVE WINDSHEAR

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78
JUNE 2017
GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM (GPWS)

• Inform the crew if the aircraft is in a dangerous configuration when


approaching the ground in a non-predetermined manner.

• Generates aural and visual warnings.

• The system is normally operative between 30 feet and 2450 feet


radio altitude.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM (GPWS)

• The GPWS generates aural and visual warnings if the aircraft adopts a
potentially hazardous condition with respect to:
Mode 1 - Excessive Descent Rate.
Mode 2 - Excessive Closure Rate (with respect to rising terrain).
Mode 3 - Excessive Altitude Loss (during climb-out after take-off).
Mode 4 - Insufficient Terrain Clearance (when not in landing configuration).
Mode 5 - Excessive Deviation below the Glideslope (ILS Landing).
Mode 6 - Descent Below selected Decision Height.
Mode 7 – Windshear.

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JUNE 2017
Mode 1 - Excessive Descent Rate.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
''TERRAIN''
" TERRAIN"
WHOOP!
" TERRAIN " WHOOP!
" TERRAIN " PULL-U P

-- GPW S Mod e 2

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JUNE 2017
" DON' T S INK"

G PWS Mode 3

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
" TOO LOW
GEAR . . . ... "

B -·

GPW S M ode4

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
-- ---- -- " GLIDESLOPE"
" GLIDESLOPE
---
-- -- -- --
-- --
--
8 - B

-- ---- --
----

GPW S M od e 5

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
.,MINIMUMS"
" MINIM U MS"

a
D E CI S ION H E IGHT

GPW S M ode 6

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JUNE 2017
STRONG DOWNDRAFT

HEADWIND TAI LWIND

>
GPWS Mod e 7

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JUNE 2017
EGPWS

‘ENHANCED’ FUNCTION +
DISPLAY

GPWS VERTICAL
DETECTION

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JUNE 2017
ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM (Enhanced GPWS)

The following Enhanced features have been added to existing basic Ground
Proximity Warning Modes 1 to 5 which are the backbone of the system:

· Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) function


- It creates an increasing terrain clearance envelope
- Generates aural and visual alerts.

· Terrain Awareness alerting and Display (TAD) function


- uses aircraft geographic position, aircraft altitude and a
terrain data base to predict potential conflicts
- provide graphic displays of the conflicting terrain on the NDs.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


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JUNE 2017
COiour Indi cation
SOljd Red Terrain/Obstacle threat wamlna.
SOjid Yellow Terra in/Obstacle threat wamlna.
50% Red Dots Terra in/Obstacle that is more than 2000 f eet
above the a ircraft.
50% Yellow Dots Terra in/Obstacle that Is between 1000 and 2000
feet above the a i rcraft's attitude.
25% Yellow Dots Terrain/Obstacle that IS 500 (250 with gear
down) feet below to 1000 feet above the
a ircraft's a ltitude.
Solid Green Shown only when no red or yellow
(Peaks Only) Terrain/Obstacle areas are within range on the
display. H ighest terrain/obstade not wit h in 500
(250 with gear down) feet of the a1rcran·s
altitude.
50% Green Dots Terrain/Obstacle that IS 500 (250 With gear
down) feet below to 1 OOO below the alrcratt•·
altitude.
50% Green Dots Terra in/O bstac le that IS In the m iddle e levauon
( Peaks Only) band when there is no red or yellow t e rrain
areas with in ranae on the d i~ lav .
16% Green Terra in/Obstacle that IS 1000 to 2000 feet below
the a ircraft's altitude.
16% Green Terra in/Obstacle that is the lower e levation band
(peaks Only) when there is no Red or Yellow terrain areas
within ranae on the d isolav.
B la ck No slanmcant Terral n/Ob s tzicle
16% Cvan wate r at Sea Level Elevation ro f eet M S L)
Magenta Dots Unknown t errain. No terrain data In the
database for the maaenta area s hown.

Terrain/Obstacle Threat Levels

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JUNE 2017
REVIEW

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JUNE 2017
Q1.ILS marker beacon lights are.

#. blue, amber, white.


B. blue, white, green.
C. green, blue, amber.

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JUNE 2017
Q2.A radar altimeter in track mode is effective to.

A. 100 ft.
#. 2500 ft.
C. 2000 ft.

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JUNE 2017
Q3.112.1 MHz is.

A. an ILS frequency.
B. an ADF frequency.
#. a VOR frequency.

HINT: 112 - 118 MHz are VOR frequencies.

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JUNE 2017
Q4.How many aerials are there in a TCAS system?.

A. 1.
B. 3.
#. 2.

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JUNE 2017
Q5.What is the reply frequency of an aircraft transponder?.

A. 1000 MHz.
B. 1030 MHz.
#. 1090 MHz.

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JUNE 2017
Q6.How does an IRS calculate velocity?.

#. Integration of accelerometers.
B. Differentiation of laser gyro.
C. Double integration of accelerometers.

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JUNE 2017
Q7.What is primary radar?.

#. Radar that sends out pulse and receives reflected pulse.


B. Land based.
C. Radar that gives height and position.

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99
JUNE 2017
Q8.What is ILS marker beacon frequency?.

#. 75 MHz.
B. 100 MHz.
C. 50 MHz.

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JUNE 2017
Q9.What is the colour of the middle marker beacon?.

#. Amber.
B. Blue.
C. White.

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JUNE 2017
Q10.A GPS system is formed from.

A. receiver, processing unit, interactive console.


B. satellites, processing unit, display unit.
#. space, control, user.

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JUNE 2017
Q11.What frequency are VOR and ILS?.

A. UHF.
#. VHF.
C. HF.

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103
JUNE 2017
Q12.The components of an ILS are.

A. a localizer and the marker beacons.


#. a localizer, a glide slope and the marker
beacons. C. a localizer and a glide slope.

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104
JUNE 2017
Q13.In ILS, the glideslope provides.

A. distance checks.
#. vertical steering.
C. lateral steering.

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105
JUNE 2017
Q14.If the 90 Hz tone modulation in a localizer receiver
predominates, the deviation indicator will show.

#. fly right.
B. the flag.
C. fly left.

HINT:The beam on the right side has a 150 Hz modulation; the one on the
left side has a 90 Hz modulation.

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106
JUNE 2017
Q15.GPWS will show a fault if the following fails:.

#. Radio altimeter.
B. Air speed indicator.
C. Pressure altimeter.

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JUNE 2017
Q16.What modulation is used for the beams of a localiser in an ILS?.#

#. 150 Hz right of runway centerline, 90 Hz left of runway centreline.


##. 90 Hz above the glide path, 150 Hz below the glide path.
C. 150 Hz left of runway centerline, 90 Hz right of runway centreline.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


108
JUNE 2017
Q17.In what frequency range does the automatic direction finding
(ADF) system operate?.

A. 108.00 - 117.95 MHz.


B. 1025 - 1150 KHz.
#. 190 - 1759 KHz.

MAINTENANCE TRAINING ORGANISATION, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


109
JUNE 2017
Q18.From where is bearing information received for display on the
digital-distance radio-magnetic indicator (DDRMI)?.

#. From VOR and ADF systems.


B. From ADF only.
C. From VOR only.

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110
JUNE 2017
Q19.DME works on the frequency of.

A.# UHF.
B. HF.
C. VHF.

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111
JUNE 2017
Q20.GPS.

A. uses 18 satellites equally spaced around 6 orbits.


B. uses 21 satellites equally spaced around 7 orbits.
C.# uses 24 satellites equally spaced around 6 orbits.

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112
JUNE 2017
Q21.When an aircraft is flying along the extended centre line of the
runway it is in the.

A.# equi-signal sector.


B. 90 Hz modulation sector.
C. 150 Hz modulation sector.

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113
JUNE 2017
Q22.The middle marker modulation is keyed with.

A. dashes.
B.# alternate dots and dashes.
C. Dots. HINT :

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JUNE 2017
Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)

A precision approach path indicator (PAPI) is a visual aid that provides guidance information to help a pilot
acquire and maintain the correct approach (in the vertical plane) to an airport or an aerodrome. It is generally
located beside the runway approximately 300 meters beyond the landing threshold of the runway.

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JUNE 2017